Publications

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2022
Mwinzi JM. "Identity and Ownership of Education in Africa as Enlightened by African Aboriginal Philosophy." International Dialogues on Education Journal. 2022;9(2):1-23.
Wafula KM, Karanja NN, Karuku GN, Esilaba AO. "In-situ Water harvesting technologies and fertilizer rates increase maize and bean yield in the Semi-Arid Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
M.Mugambi M. "Inculcating Values Among Learners in Schools: An Analysis of Global Practices and Approaches." Journal of Education and Training . 2022;9(2):178-188.
Makato BK, Mugambi MM, M KJ. "Individual and Institutional Determinants of Trainees’ Enrolment in Public Technical Vocational Education and Training Institutions in Nakuru County, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME). 2022;12(5):2320-7388.
Benard, K.M;. &, M MM, Jeremiah MK. "Individual and Institutional Determinants of Trainees’ Enrolment in Public Technical Vocational Education and Training Institutions in Nakuru County, Kenya." International Journal of Current Science Research and Review. 2022;5(9):3486-3501 .
Misango, G.V, Nzuma, M.J., Irungu, L.W., Kassie, M. "Intensity of adoption of integrated pest management practices in Rwanda: A fractional logit approach." Heliyon. 2022;https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08735.
Njuru SN, Njogu PM, Mugo HN, Thoithi GN. "Is tablet splitting a potential pitfall in drug therapy? A case study of amlodipine tablets." Pharmaceut. Jour. Kenya. 2022.
Hoang NT, Manh TD, Nguyen VT, Thy Nga NT, Mwazighe FM, Nhi BD, Hoang HY, Chang S, Chung W, Nguyen DD. "Kinetic study on methylene blue removal from aqueous solution using UV/chlorine process and its combination with other advanced oxidation processes." Chemosphere. 2022;308(3):136457.Website
Matei A, Mwamburi, Kikechi, Musembi, IRIBEMWANGI PI, N. A. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwalimu. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Matei A, Mwamburi J, Kikechi K, Musembi L, IRIBEMWANGI PI, Afandi N. Kurunzi ya Kiswahili: Kitabu cha Mwanafunzi, . Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Upadhyaya R, Wamalwa H. Learning and capabilities development: Case studies of East African social enterprises. https://www.ikeasocialentrepreneurship.org/en/useful-reads/learning-capabilities-development; 2022.
J.G.N. K, J. NI. "Levels of Essential Elements in selected Persea Americana varieties as Potential Minerals." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2022;Accepted on 14th August, 2022.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
Johnson L, Onjala J. "Logic of the Belt and Road Initiatives Early Eastern Africa Node: Economic, Demographic and Political Economy Rationales." Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies,. 2022;accepted January 28 2022.
Mbuge DO, Gumbe LO. "Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Bambusa Vulgaris)." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment . 2022;8-no1.
J.K.M., A.K., M. DN, K JGN, S.O.W, A.G.W. "Microbial Fuel Cell Bio-Remediation of Lambda Cyhalothrin, Malathion and Chlorpyrifos on Loam Soil Inoculated with Bio-Slurry. ." American Journal of Environment and Climate. 2022;1(1):34-41.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Kariuki MI, Mwangi JM, Muturi PG. "Moderating effect of age in the relationship between debt literacy and indebtedness of formal sector employees in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2022;12(7):532-44.
Ongore D, Onyango F. "A Morbidity And Malariometric Survey In A Rural Community In Western Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2022;Vol. 99 (No. 8 ).
R. T, M. K. "Mtazamo wa Kijumla kuhusu Ushairi wa Kiswahili Nchini Kenya: Mifano kutoka Pwani na Bara." Mwanga wa Lugha-Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika. . 2022;7(1):19-28.
Chepkirui C, Bourgard C, Gilissen PJ, Ndakala A, Derese S, Gütlin Y, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "A new β-hydroxydihydrochalcone from Tephrosia uniflora, and the revision of three β-hydroxydihydrochalcones to flavanones." Fitoterapia. 2022;158:105166.
Kimani DE, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi EK. "Nutritional and sensory quality of a sorghum snack supplemented with sesame and baobab fruit powder." African Journal of Food Science. 2022;16(3):81-91.
de Vila-Real CPM, Pimenta-Martins AS, Kunyanga CN, Mbugua SK, Katina K. "Nutritional intake and food sources in an adult urban Kenyan population." Nutrition Bulletin. 2022;2022:1-15.vila_real_et_al._2022.pdf
Obonyo FO, Maingi N, Samuel Maina Githigia, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):1-11.
Obonyo  FO, Maingi N, Githigia  SM, Kimeli P, Nyaboga EN. "Occurrence of serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in donkeys from central Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2022;54(1):77.
Mwinzi JM. "Ontological and Epistemological Relevance: the Cause for Philosophical Coherence and Excellence in Education." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):103-116.
NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Pathological Lesions Associated with Cordylobia anthropophaga infestations of Dogs in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International.. 2022.
Adhola T, Mwebi O, Wykstra M, Lolmodooni M, Wandera A, Njino L, Oguge N. "People, predators, practices and perceptions: socio-economic implications of livestock predation by African large carnivores in Samburu County, northern Kenya." Journal of East African Natural History. 2022;111(2):49-68.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga. CN. "Performance of a Continuous Solar Water Disinfection System in Isiolo County, Kenya." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2022;8(1):73-85.
N ONURAC, J JAMESG, W MUTHUMBIA, W WANG’ONDUV, A SIGANAD. "Performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae fed on formulated diets containing Spirulina platensis and Eisenia fetida ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;3(2).
OMAYIO DUKEG, Abong’ GO, Okoth MW, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mwangombe AW. "Physicochemical and Processing Qualities of Guava Varieties in Kenya." International Journal of Fruit Science. 2022;22(1):329-345.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Mukavi J, Omosa LK, Kuete. "Phytochemistry and antibacterial potential of the genus Garcinia.". In: . Advances in Botanical Research . https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.abr.2022.08.014: Elsevier; 2022.nchiozem_et_al_2022.pdf
Omulo S, Oluka M, Loice Achieng, Osoro E, Kinuthia R, Guantai A, Opanga S. "Point-prevalence survey of antibiotic use at three public referral hospitals in Kenya." PLoS One. 2022;17(6):0270048.
Mbaveng AT, Omosa LK, Omosa LK, Kuete JR, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Kuete V. "Potential antibacterial pharmaceuticals from the flora of Africa.". In: Advances in Botanical Research . https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.abr.2022.08.021: Elsevier; 2022.armelle_et_al_2022_book_chapter.pdf
Apunda EO, Ndunda BE, Mwazighe FM, Kimilu R, Ochola P. "Potential of processing bagasse and bagasse pellets from Western Kenya into clean sustainable transport fuel." E. Afri. Agri. For. J . 2022;86(3):132-151.Website
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO, Maloba KN, Nderitu JG. "Preclinical efficacy testing of three antivenoms against Naja ashei venom-induced lethality." Toxicon: X 14 (2022) 100124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2022.100124 . 2022.
Barre A, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Gitao CG. "Prevalence of Brucellosis in Camel Slaughter Population in Garissa County, Kenya. ." OSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2022;15(1):39-46.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, Etiology and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Veterinary Medicine International. 2022.
Kamuti NM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Githigia SM, Keya EA. "Prevalence, etiology and risk factors associated with occurrence of canine cutaneous myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;Vol. 2022(ID 5699060):9 pages .
NM K, Mbuthia P G, RM W, M GS, EA K. "Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors Associated with Occurrence of Canine Cutaneous Myiasis in Kitui County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;2022(5699060):9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5699060.
Tangus CJ, Chege JN, Karanja DN, Gachuiri CK. "The prevalence,intensity and spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites in selected sheep farms in Kasarani sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya." to Hindawi Journal of veterinary medicine international. 2022.
Kimani PK´ethe, Mbuge D, Gitau AN. "Properties of Nonwoven Fabrics Containing Immobilized Superabsorbent Polymer Particles for Air Conditioning in Grain Dryers, Applied Engineering in Agriculture." American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2022;38(2)(ISSN 0883-8542).
Kuria1* AN, Gathura1 PB, Kanja LW, Onyuka2 AS, 3 KC, Mugambi1 PG. "QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIAL BATING ENZYMES IN SELECTED KENYAN TANNERIES FOR USE IN DIFFERENT PRETANNING PROCESSES." The evoii journal. 2022;13(3):1-2.iioabj_13.3_1-61.pdf
Omweri LG, Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN. "Quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine-based oral care products in Nairobi, Kenya." F1000Research. 2022;11:343. Abstract

Background: The oral cavity harbors many microbes that may cause diseases, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. Progressive inflammation from periodontal diseases may lead to gum detachment from the teeth. Povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses and gargles are broad-spectrum antimicrobial products that effectively manage dental caries and periodontal diseases and eliminate plaques. This study was conducted in Nairobi County, Kenya to establish the quality of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine oral care products by determining the content of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and compliance with labeling requirements.
Methods: A total of 34 samples (from 15 brands) of povidone-iodine and 15 samples (from nine brands) of chlorhexidine were collected from retail pharmacies using convenience sampling. All samples were subjected to labeling analysis, identity, and assay tests. Potentiometric titration was used to assay povidone-iodine in the samples, while chlorhexidine was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to British Pharmacopeia 2017 specifications.
Results: All samples complied with identification tests. Moreover, 47.1% of povidone-iodine and 66.7% of chlorhexidine products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. Five povidone-iodine (14.7%) and four chlorhexidine (26.7%) samples had missing label information on the storage conditions and the address of the manufacturer.
Conclusions: Strict adherence to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) by manufacturers of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouthwashes/gargles is necessary to guarantee quality assured products in the market. Regular post-market surveillance and regulatory enforcement of standards are instrumental in minimizing the circulation of poor-quality products.

D O, J.N O, A.S O. "Quantification and Characterization of Tannins in Plectranthus barbatus Andrews Water Extracts in Nyamira County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. . 2022;Articles in Press.
Mwinzi JM. "A Radical Shift in Education Practice and the Question of Ethical Reflection in Pandemic Era. ." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(3):98-108.
M. MM, I RK. "Redesigning university Education in Kenya: The what, Why and How?" IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 2022;27(8):40-56 .redesigning_university__education.pdf
Wango GM. "Rejection: What Happens and Why Rejection Hurts so Deeply - and What to do About it." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):25-30.
Mwinzi JM. "Religion, Rationality and Justice – A Cause for Critical Reflection in the Contemporary Society." Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies. 2022;2(4):85-102.
Murphy M, Kinanda J, O'Sullivan D, Blasi ZD, Tatay MCM. "A Report on the Translation into Kiswahili and Subsequent Validation, of Three Positive Psychology Scales." East African Scholars Journal of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences. 2022;4(5):124-133.a_report_on_the_translation_into_kiswahili_and_subsequent_validation_of_three_positive_psychology_scales.pdf
Watene G-A, Aboge G, Gitau G, Nthiwa D, Bett B. "Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Coxiella Burnetii Infecting Cattle Raised In Pastoral Areas Of Narok, Kenya." Research square. 2022.
Okello, J.J., Otieno, R.O, Nzuma, M.J., Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Smallholder Farmers Willingness to Pay for Commercial Insect Based Chicken Feed in Kenya. Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." International Food and Agribusiness Management Association Review. 2022:DOI: 10.22434/IFAMR2022.0047.
Wangechi S MHM. "Socio-economic Factors Affecting Water Usage in the Lower Thiba sub-catchment." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2022;(3):4.
Mbayaki CW, Karuku GN. "Soil hydraulic properties of a chromic Luvisol in Katumani, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems . 2022;25(3).
Ochieng’ P, Nyandega IA, Wambua B. "Spatial-temporal analysis of historical and projected drought events over Isiolo County. Kenya." Journal of Theor Appl Climatol, Austria, part of Springer Nature . 2022.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Wahome RG, Githigia S, Johnson N, Roesel K. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
Ngwili N, Thomas L, Githigia S, Johnson N, Raphael Wahome KR. "Stakeholders' Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions on the Control of Taenia solium in Kamuli and Hoima Districts, Uganda." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022:363.
K G, T M, J N, MO O. "Studies on the ethnopharmacology, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity of Catha edulis (Vahl.) Endl., in Sprague Dawley rats.". 2022;([version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. F1000 Research 2022, 11:286):https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.109243.1.
Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Synthesis and characterisation of ionomer-type cements from alkaline activated kaolinite." Non-crystalline solids: X. 2022;doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nocx.2021.100079.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D. "Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cellulose-based polymer hydrogel.". In: Nanotechnology in Paper and Wood Engineering Fundamentals, Challenges and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom 50 Hampshire Street, 5th Floor, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights res; 2022.
Osiro OO, Kariuki DK, Joyce K G. "Synthesis and Characterization of Ionomer-type Cements from Alkalin-Activated Kaolinite." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids-X. 2022;13(100079):2-10.
Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2022;36(9):2321-2328.
Godman B, Egwuenu A, Wesangula E, Schellack N, Kalungia AC, Tiroyakgosi C, Kgatlwane J. "Tackling antimicrobial resistance across sub-Saharan Africa: current challenges and implications for the future." Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 2022;21(8):1089-1111.
Owang S, Ngatia L. "Token, Taken or Toxin: Stop the ride, Taking a Break from Social Media." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(2):22-24 .
Ondicho TG. Tourism, Power and Politics among the Maasai. Chisinau: Scholars Press; 2022.
Mambo SR, Moturi CA. "Towards Better Detection of Fraud in Health Insurance Claims in Kenya: Use of Naïve Bayes Classification Algorithm." East African Journal of Information Technology. 2022;5(1):244-255. AbstractWebsite

The extent, possibility, and complexity of the healthcare industry have attracted widespread fraud that has contributed to rising healthcare costs hence affecting patients’ health and negatively impacting the economy of many countries. Despite putting up various technologies and strategies to fight fraud such as planned, targeted audits, random audits, whistle-blowing, and biometric systems, fraud in claims has continued to be a challenge in most of the health insurance providers in Kenya. This paper explored the application of data mining in detecting fraud in health insurance claims in Kenya. Classification algorithms (Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree and K-Nearest Neighbour) were used to build predictive models for the knowledge discovery process. After conducting several experiments, the resulting models showed that the Naïve Bayes works well in detecting fraud in claims with 91.790% classification accuracy and 74.12% testing hit rate. A prototype was developed based on the rules extracted from the Naïve Bayes model, which, if adopted, will save costs by detecting fraud as it is committed. Fraud detection in health insurance claims is much needed in many countries so as to help reduce loss of money and in return improve service delivery to patients.

Degu A, Mekonnen A, Njogu P. "Treatment outcome among prostate cancer patients in Africa: A systematic review." Cancer Investigation. 2022.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Mwinzi JM. "Universality and Particularity: the Cause for Inconsistency in Acquisition of Knowledge." Social Sciences, Humanities and Education Journal (SHE Journal). 2022;3(2):294-305.
Muasya JN. "University Students Perceptions and Experiences of Quid Pro Quo Transactions in Kenya." Journal of Studies in Education . 2022;12(2):49-64.
J O’o, BN B, V M, I C. "The Unusual High Origin Radial Artery in a Black Kenyan Population; a Cadaveric Study." Ethiop J Health SCI. 2022;32(2):445-452. Abstract223352-article_text-545874-1-10-20220328.pdfWebsite

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The anatomy of the radial artery draws great interests among anatomists for its frequent involvement in variations. Equally, these variations have gained significant attention from clinicians because of the preference to use the radial artery for catheterization. The commonest of radial artery variations involve its site of origin. In published literature, data on this variations exist, but the prevalence of such variations in a Kenyan population has hitherto been unknown.
METHODS: Sixty-two upper limbs from 50 formalin-fixed cadavers were studied during dissection in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi.
RESULTS: Fifty-four (87.1%) radial arteries arose within the cubital fossa, while eight (12.9%) had a high origin. Out of the eight high arteries, two (3.2%) branched off from the axillary artery, another two (3.2%) were branches of the proximal third of the brachial artery and four (6.5%) arose from the middle third of the brachial artery. The high origin radial arteries were more common on the right upper limbs (5 out of the 8 cases). Both axillary and brachial origins were seen bilaterally.
CONCLUSION: The present study details important variations in the anatomy of the radial artery in a Kenyan population. With the radial artery being utilized during clinical, surgical and radiological interventions so frequently, an increased understanding and anticipation of such topographic variances is paramount.

Elkanah O, Jonathan Y, Shanthi M, Campbell Z€A, Thumbi SM, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Vaccination of household chickens results in a shift in young children’s diet and improves child growth in rural Kenya." PNAS. Economic Sciences Agricultural Sciences. 2022;Volume 119(No. 24).
Acsa I, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Village-Indigenous Chicken Bacterial Carriage after the Heavy Rains of 2018, Kenya: Indicator on Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic/Zoonotic Bacteria." Veterinary Medicine International. 2022;vol. 2022(Article ID 5437171):8 pages.
A. K, Mbugua J. K., Mbui D.N., J. K, I. M, S.O. W. "Voltage Recovery from Pesticides Doped Tomatoes, Cabbages and Loam Soil Inoculated with Rumen Waste: Microbial Fuel Cells. ." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology (IJSRSET).. 2022;9(2):172-180.
P S. "Women’s economic empowerment: From deprivation to sustenance." Kardan Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities . 2022;5(1):1-14.
Odhiambo T, J K. "The ‘Perplexing African in China’: A Reading of Black Ghosts by Ken Kamoche." Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa . 2022;13(1):63-74.
Mbuthia E, Matei A. "“Thamani ya Ukoo”.". In: In: Sauti ya Matarajio na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Spotlight Publishers; 2022.
"ONLINE LEARNING AMONGST UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AMID COVID-19 PANDEMIC, KENYA.". In: ICTEL 2021 International Conference, Education and Teaching . The Tomlinson Centre, Queensbridge Road, London, UK; 2022.
Githaka NW, Kanduma EG, Wieland B, Darghouth MA, Bishop RP. "Acaricide resistance in livestock ticks infesting cattle in Africa: Current status and potential mitigation strategies." Curr Res Parasitol Vector Borne Dis. 2022;2:100090. Abstract

In many African countries, tick control has recently been the responsibility of resource-poor farmers rather than central government veterinary departments. This has led to an increase in acaricide resistance, threatening the welfare of livestock farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance has evolved to the three classes of acaricides used most extensively in the continent, namely fourth-generation synthetic pyrethroids (SP), organophosphates (OP) and amidines (AM), in virtually all countries in which they have been deployed across the globe. Most current data are derived from research in Australia and Latin America, with the majority of studies on acaricide resistance in Africa performed in South Africa. There is also limited recent research from West Africa and Uganda. These studies confirm that acaricide resistance in cattle ticks is a major problem in Africa. Resistance is most frequently directly assayed in ticks using the larval packet test (LPT) that is endorsed by FAO, but such tests require a specialist tick-rearing laboratory and are relatively time consuming. To date they have only been used on a limited scale in Africa and resistance is often still inferred from tick numbers on animals. Rapid tests for resistance in ticks, would be better than the LPT and are theoretically possible to develop. However, these are not yet available. Resistance can be mitigated through integrated control strategies, comprising a combination of methods, including acaricide class rotation or co-formulations, ethnoveterinary practices, vaccination against ticks and modified land management use by cattle, with the goal of minimising the number of acaricide applications required per year. There are data suggesting that small-scale farmers in Africa are often unaware of the chemical differences between different acaricide brands and use these products at concentrations other than those recommended by the manufacturers, or in incorrect rotations or combinations of the different classes of chemicals on the market. There is an urgent need for a more evidence-based approach to acaricide usage in small-scale livestock systems in Africa, including direct measurements of resistance levels, combined with better education of farmers regarding acaricide products and how they should be deployed for control of livestock ticks.

Verwey C, Gray DM, Dangor Z, Ferrand RA, Ayuk AC, Marangu D, Kwarteng Owusu S, Mapani MK, Goga A, Masekela R. "Bronchiectasis in African children: Challenges and barriers to care." Front Pediatr. 2022;10:954608. Abstract

Bronchiectasis (BE) is a chronic condition affecting the bronchial tree. It is characterized by the dilatation of large and medium-sized airways, secondary to damage of the underlying bronchial wall structural elements and accompanied by the clinical picture of recurrent or persistent cough. Despite an increased awareness of childhood BE, there is still a paucity of data on the epidemiology, pathophysiological phenotypes, diagnosis, management, and outcomes in Africa where the prevalence is mostly unmeasured, and likely to be higher than high-income countries. Diagnostic pathways and management principles have largely been extrapolated from approaches in adults and children in high-income countries or from data in children with cystic fibrosis. Here we provide an overview of pediatric BE in Africa, highlighting risk factors, diagnostic and management challenges, need for a global approach to addressing key research gaps, and recommendations for practitioners working in Africa.

Syvitski J, Ángel JR, Saito Y, Overeem I, Vörösmarty CJ, Wang H, Olago D. "Earth’s sediment cycle during the Anthropocene.". 2022;3(3):179-196. AbstractWebsite

The global sediment cycle is a fundamental feature of the Earth system, balancing competing factors such as orogeny, physical–chemical erosion and human action. In this Review, values of the magnitudes of several sources and sinks within the cycle are suggested, although the record remains fragmented with uncertainties. Between 1950 and 2010, humans have transformed the mobilization, transport and sequestration of sediment, to the point where human action now dominates these fluxes at the global scale. Human activities have increased fluvial sediment delivery by 215% while simultaneously decreasing the amount of fluvial sediment that reaches the ocean by 49%, and societal consumption of sediment over the same period has increased by more than 2,500%. Global warming is also substantially affecting the global sediment cycle through temperature impacts (sediment production and transport, sea ice cover, glacial ice ablation and loss of permafrost), precipitation changes, desertification and wind intensities, forest fire extent and intensity, and acceleration of sea-level rise. With progressive improvements in global digital datasets and modelling, we should be able to obtain a comprehensive picture of the impacts of human activities and climate warming.

Githiora-Murimi YW, Owuor MA, Abila R, Olago D, Oriaso S. "Integrating stakeholder preferences into ecosystem services mapping in Yala wetland, Kenya." Ecosystems and PeopleEcosystems and People. 2022;18(1):146-163. AbstractWebsite
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Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Beydon N, Ferkol T, Harris AL, Colas M, Davis SD, Haarman E, Hogg C, Kilbride E, Kouis P, Kuehni CE, Latzin P, Marangu D, Marthin J, Nielsen KG, Robinson P, Rumman N, Rutter M, Walker W, Lucas JS. "An international survey on nasal nitric oxide measurement practices for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia." ERJ Open Res. 2022;8(2). Abstract

Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements are used in the assessment of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but recommendations for performing such measurements have not focused on children and do not include all current practices. To guide the development of a European Respiratory Society-supported technical standard for nNO measurement in children, an international online survey was conducted to better understand current measurement practices among providers involved in PCD diagnostics. 78 professionals responded, representing 65 centres across 18 countries, mainly in Europe and North America. Nearly all centres measured nNO in children and more than half performed measurements before 5 years of age. The test was often postponed in children with signs of acute airway infection. In Europe, the electrochemical technique was more frequently used than chemiluminescence. A similar proportion of centres performed measurements during exhalation against a resistance (49 out of 65) or during tidal breathing (50 out of 65); 15 centres used only exhalation against a resistance and 15 used only tidal breathing. The cut-off values used to discriminate PCD were consistent across centres using chemiluminescence analysers; these centres reported results as an output (nL·min). Cut-off values were highly variable across centres using electrochemical devices, and nNO concentrations were typically reported as ppb. This survey is the first to determine real-world use of nNO measurements globally and revealed remarkable variability in methodology, equipment and interpretation. These findings will help standardise methods and training.

Allen LN, Mackinnon S, Gordon I, Blane D, Marques AP, Gichuhi S, Mwangi A, Burton MJ, Bolster N, Macleod D, Kim M, Ramke J, Bastawrous A. "Performance and resource requirements of in-person versus voice call versus automated telephone-based socioeconomic data collection modalities for community-based health programmes: a systematic review protocol." BMJ Open. 2022;12(4):e057410. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Gathering data on socioeconomic status (SES) is a prerequisite for any health programme that aims to assess and improve the equitable distribution of its outcomes. Many different modalities can be used to collect SES data, ranging from (1) face-to-face elicitation, to (2) telephone-administered questionnaires, to (3) automated text message-based systems. The relative costs and perceived benefits to patients and providers of these different data collection approaches is unknown. This protocol is for a systematic review that aims to compare the resource requirements, performance characteristics, and acceptability to participants and service providers of these three approaches to collect SES data from those enrolled in health programmes.

Methods and analysis: An information specialist will conduct searches on the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO ICTRP and OpenGrey. All databases will be searched from 1999 to present with no language limits used. We will also search Google Scholar and check the reference lists of relevant articles for further potentially eligible studies. Any empirical study design will be eligible if it compares two or more modalities to elicit SES data from the following three; in-person, voice call, or automated phone-based systems. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles; and complete data extraction. For each study, we will extract data on the modality characteristics, primary outcomes (response rate and equivalence) and secondary outcomes (time, costs and acceptability to patients and providers). We will synthesise findings thematically without meta-analysis.

Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval is not required, as our review will include published and publicly accessible data. This review is part of a project to improve equitable access to eye care services in low-ioncome and middle-income countries. However, the findings will be useful to policy-makers and programme managers in a range of health settings and non-health settings. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed journal and develop an accessible summary of results for website posting and stakeholder meetings.

Prospero registration number: CRD42021251959.

Ramke J, Evans JR, Habtamu E, Mwangi N, Silva JC, Swenor BK, Congdon N, Faal HB, Foster A, Friedman DS, Gichuhi S, Jonas JB, Khaw PT, Kyari F, Murthy GVS, Wang N, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yusufu M, Taylor H, Resnikoff S, West SK, Burton MJ. "Grand Challenges in global eye health: a global prioritisation process using Delphi method." Lancet Healthy Longev. 2022;3(1):e31-e41. AbstractWebsite

Background: We undertook a Grand Challenges in Global Eye Health prioritisation exercise to identify the key issues that must be addressed to improve eye health in the context of an ageing population, to eliminate persistent inequities in health-care access, and to mitigate widespread resource limitations.

Methods: Drawing on methods used in previous Grand Challenges studies, we used a multi-step recruitment strategy to assemble a diverse panel of individuals from a range of disciplines relevant to global eye health from all regions globally to participate in a three-round, online, Delphi-like, prioritisation process to nominate and rank challenges in global eye health. Through this process, we developed both global and regional priority lists.

Findings: Between Sept 1 and Dec 12, 2019, 470 individuals complete round 1 of the process, of whom 336 completed all three rounds (round 2 between Feb 26 and March 18, 2020, and round 3 between April 2 and April 25, 2020) 156 (46%) of 336 were women, 180 (54%) were men. The proportion of participants who worked in each region ranged from 104 (31%) in sub-Saharan Africa to 21 (6%) in central Europe, eastern Europe, and in central Asia. Of 85 unique challenges identified after round 1, 16 challenges were prioritised at the global level; six focused on detection and treatment of conditions (cataract, refractive error, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, services for children and screening for early detection), two focused on addressing shortages in human resource capacity, five on other health service and policy factors (including strengthening policies, integration, health information systems, and budget allocation), and three on improving access to care and promoting equity.

Interpretation: This list of Grand Challenges serves as a starting point for immediate action by funders to guide investment in research and innovation in eye health. It challenges researchers, clinicians, and policy makers to build collaborations to address specific challenges.

QURESHI ZAHIDA, Jamner A, Filippi V, Gwako G, Osoti A, Mehrtash H, Baguiya A, Bello FA, Compaoré R, Gadama L, Kim CR, Msusa AT, Tunçalp Ӧ, Calvert C. "Level and determinants of contraceptive uptake among women attending facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa." Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2022;156 Suppl 1:27-35. Abstract

To investigate the level and determinants of nonreceipt of contraception among women admitted to facilities with abortion-related complications in East and Southern Africa.

Vannevel V, Vogel JP, Pattinson RC, Adanu R, Charantimath U, Goudar SS, Gwako G, Kavi A, Maya E, Osoti A, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Rulisa S, Botha T, Oladapo OT. "Antenatal Doppler screening for fetuses at risk of adverse outcomes: a multicountry cohort study of the prevalence of abnormal resistance index in low-risk pregnant women." BMJ Open. 2022;12(3):e053622. Abstract

Few interventions exist to address the high burden of stillbirths in apparently healthy pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To establish whether a trial on the impact of routine Doppler screening in a low-risk obstetric population is warranted, we determined the prevalence of abnormal fetal umbilical artery resistance indices among low-risk pregnant women using a low-cost Doppler device in five LMICs.

Mwangi N, Bascaran C, Gichuhi S, Kipturgo M, Manyara L, Macleod D, Moorman C, Foster A. "Rationale for integration of services for diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Kenya." Eye (Lond). 2022;36(Suppl 1):4-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Good diabetes mellitus (diabetes) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) management depends on the strength of the health system, prompting us to conduct a health system assessment for diabetes and DR in Kenya. We used diabetes and DR as tracer conditions to assess the strengths and weaknesses in the health system, and potential interventions to strengthen the health system. In this paper, we report on the need and relevance of integration to strengthen diabetes and DR care. This theme emerged from the health system assessment.

Methods: Using a mixed methods study design, we collected data from service providers in diabetes clinics and eye clinics in three counties, from key informants at national and county level, and from documents review.

Results: There is interest in integration of diabetes and DR services to address discontinuity of care. We report the findings describing the context of integration, why integration is a goal and how these services can be integrated. We use the results to develop a conceptual framework for implementation.

Conclusions: The principal rationale for integrated service provision is to address service gaps and to prevent complications of diabetes and DR. The stakeholder interest and the existing infrastructure can be leveraged to improve these health outcomes.

L K, G. N. "Factors influencing provision of learner support to students with visual impairment in distance learning programs in Kenya.". In: Open, Digital and Distance Learning. Nairobi, Kenya/ Virtual; 2022.
G. N, N A. "Impact of Practicum Experiences on Career Progression Readiness in Adult Education and Community Development.". In: Open, Digital and Distance Learning. Nairobi/virtual; 2022.
G N, Aseey A. "Transforming Learning Environment for Youth, Adult and Continuing Education: Challenges and Opportunities.". In: Open, Digital and Distance Learning. Nairobi/virtual; 2022.
Wangui J, Nokes JD, Mobegi VA, Otieno JR, Agoti CN, Ngeranwa JJN, Bulimo WD. "Spatial-temporal distribution and sequence diversity of group a human respiratory syncytial viruses in Kenya preceding the emergence of {ON1} genotype." Influenza Other Respi. Viruses. 2022;16:501-510. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of severe viral acute respiratory illness and contributes significantly to severe pneumonia cases in Africa. Little is known about its spatial-temporal distribution as defined by its genetic diversity. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted utilizing archived nasopharyngeal specimens from patients attending outpatient clinics in hospitals located in five demographically and climatically distinct regions of Kenya; Coast, Western, Highlands, Eastern and Nairobi. The viral total RNA was extracted and tested using multiplex real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). A segment of the G-gene was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and sequenced by Sanger di-deoxy method. Bayesian analysis of phylogeny was utilized and subsequently median joining methods for haplotype network reconstruction. RESULTS: Three genotypes of HRSVA were detected; GA5 (14.0%), GA2 (33.1%), and NA1 (52.9%). HRSVA prevalence varied by location from 33% to 13.2% in the Highlands and the Eastern regions respectively. The mean nucleotide diversity (Pi[$π$]) varied by genotype: highest of 0.018 for GA5 and lowest of 0.005 for NA1. A total of 58 haplotypes were identified (GA5 10; GA2 20; NA1 28). These haplotypes were introduced into the population locally by single haplotypes and additional subsidiary seeds amongst the GA2 and the NA1 haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: HRSVA was found across all the regions throughout the study period and comprised three genotypes; GA5, GA2, and NA1 genotypes. The genotypes were disproportionately distributed across the regions with GA5 gradually increasing toward the Western zones and decreasing toward the Eastern zones of the country.

2023
Kunyanga CN, Byskov MF, Hyams K, Mburu S, Werikhe G, Bett R. "Influence of COVID‑19 Pandemic on Food Market Prices and Food Supply in Urban Markets in Nairobi, Kenya." Sustainability. 2023;(13):1304.
Ondicho TG. "Traditional Families and Social Networks in Kenya.". In: The Palgrave Handbook of Kenyan History, eds. Wanjala, SN., Amutabi, MN., & Falola, T. Cham : Palgrave Macmillan, 69-83; 2023.
Annoh R, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti-Sengeri J, Kim M, Macleod D, Burton MJ, Dean WH. "The Impact of Simulation-Based Trabeculectomy Training on Resident Core Surgical Skill Competency." J Glaucoma. 2023;32(1):57-64. AbstractWebsite

Precis: Simulation-based surgical education shows a positive, immediate, and sustained impact on core surgical skill competency in trabeculectomy among resident ophthalmologists in training.

Purpose: To measure the impact of trabeculectomy, surgical simulation training on core surgical skill competency in resident ophthalmologists.

Materials and methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery trial, which is a multicenter, multinational randomized controlled trial. Resident ophthalmologists from 6 training centers in sub-Saharan Africa (in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and South Africa) were recruited according to the inclusion criteria of having performed zero surgical trabeculectomies and assisted in <5. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control arms using allocation concealment. The intervention was a 1-week intensive trabeculectomy surgical simulation course. Outcome measures were mean surgical competency scores in 8 key trabeculectomy surgical skills (scleral incision, scleral flap, releasable suturing, conjunctival suturing, sclerostomy, tissue handling, fluidity, and speed), using a validated scoring tool.

Results: Forty-nine residents were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Baseline characteristics were balanced between arms. Median baseline surgical competency scores were 2.88/16 [interquartile range (IQR): 1.75-4.17] and 3.25/16 (IQR: 1.83-4.75) in the intervention and control arms, respectively. At primary intervention, median scores increased to 11.67/16 (IQR: 9.58-12.63) and this effect was maintained at 3 months and 1 year ( P =0.0001). Maximum competency scores at primary intervention were achieved in the core trabeculectomy skills of releasable suturing (n=17, 74%), scleral flap formation (n=16, 70%), and scleral incision (n=15, 65%) compared with scores at baseline.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the positive impact of intensive simulation-based surgical education on core trabeculectomy skill development. The rapid and sustained effect of resident skill acquisition pose strong arguments for its formal integration into ophthalmic surgical education.

In Press
S. Z, G. C, I. V, G. B, D.M. H, K.M. M, J.R. B. "Adaptive radiation of the endemic Alcolapia cichlids of the East African soda lakes: genetic and morphological perspectives." Journal of Evolutionary Biology. In Press.
Oloo CM, Onyari JM, Wanyonyi WC, Wabomba JN, Muinde VM. "Adsorptive removal of hazardous crystal violet dye form aqueous solution using Rhizophora mucronata stem-barks: Equilibrium and kinetics studies." Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. In Press. AbstractEnvironmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Description
Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution using dried bark powder of mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata was studied. Characterization of adsorbent was done using FTIR and SEM. Batch experiment was carried out to examine the viability of using mangrove bark for adsorption of CV dye from aqueous solutions under different process conditions. The result revealed that removal of CV increased with contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and decreased with increased particle size and ionic strength. pH 7 was the optimum pH for CV dye removal. The adsorption equilibrium for CV dye by Rhizophora mucronata stem-bark was attained within 60 min with removal efficacy of up to 99.8%. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was best used to describe sorption kinetics while Freundlich isotherm model was appropriate for describing adsorption isotherm. The results demonstrated …

Atoh F. "Boniface Mganga.". In: Kenyan Musicians - A Biography Volume 2. Nairobi: Permanent Presidential Music Commission; In Press.
Etenyi JO, Okalebo FA, S.A. Opanga, K. A. Sinei, Osanjo GO, Kurdi A, Goodman B. Comparison of zidovudine and tenofovir based regimens with regard to quality of life and prevalence of syptoms in HIV patients in Kenya. Prague; In Press.
Kyule MD, Oyamo M. "Cultural resource management in Kenya: a case for legislation review.". In: Kenya from Independence to early 21st century. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; In Press. Abstract

This paper builds a case for a reconsideration of Kenya’s legislation that relates to cultural and societal heritage resources management by briefly revisiting the circumstances that informed the enactment of the related laws. We present the view that existing legislation has tended to serve corporate, multinational and foreign interests at the expense of local and national interests, and that although these Acts may have somewhat served the country in the past, the legislations have turned the cultural heritage management in Kenya into a lame duck framework of abstractions of policy matters, that are irrelevant and unresponsive to changing local and international circumstances. We highlight contradictions between and within varied Acts, and offer suggestions for remedy that are geared toward the development of a cultural management policy with local ownership and universal compatibility.

JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
Obiero JPO, Gumbe LO, Omuto CT, Hassan MA, Agullo JO. "Development of Pedotransfer functions for saturated hydraulic conductivity." Open Journal of Modern Hydrology. In Press.
Kemoli AM. "Dilemma of managing multi-surface dental caries in the primary dentition using the atraumatic restorative treatment: renaissance or dimming hope." East Afr Med J . In Press. Abstract

Background: Alot of research work has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the management of dental caries, but there are still unresolved issues surrounding the use of the technique particularly in very large carious lesions.
Objective: To determine the current survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations placed in the primary dentition and any consequences to the restored tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Study selection: Using a set of specific key words, a Pubmed/Medline search was carried out to retrieve all publications on ARTrestorations placed in primary teeth in the period January 2000 to December 2011. Only publications whose studies had multi-surface ARTrestorations as an item of study were retrieved and relevant data extracted.
Data synthesis: Twelve studies contained in 12 publications fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The selected publications were analysed by the author to establish the study follow-up period and the survival rate of the multi-surface ARTrestorations for the different follow-up periods. Further information was adduced on any other effects of restoration on the tooth after premature loss of the restoration.
Results: The search findings indicated that the survival rate for most of the multi-surface restorations were generally very low. Further, there were indications that even after the premature loss of the ARTrestorations, most of the affected teeth survived for the period of the study with a number of them having shown no signs of secondary caries or associated dental abscessees.
Conclusion: While the survival rates of multi-surface ARTrestorations in the studies documenetd in the review were low, the ART restorations appeared to provide some beneficial effects to the retention-longevity of the restored tooth even after their premature loss.

Onjala J. "Economic Performance across Monetary Unions in Africa.". In: Aloysius Amin (ed) Monetary and Financial Institutions, Integration and Economic Performance in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan; In Press.
D.O. O, Mavuti KM, Aloo-Obudho P, Ojuok JE, Britton JR. "Fish habitat suitability and community structure in an equatorial Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ." Hydrobiologia . In Press.
Sinei KA, Mwang JW. "An in vitro study on the oxytocic action action of Adenia Globosa Engl." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. In Press.
Mueni J. Kenyan women in music videos. Nairobi: Nairobi Academic Press; In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Mwenda E. "On almost-similarity and metric equivalence of operators." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS)-accepted June 14, 2016. In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Kiratu BN, Sitati IN, Kipkemoi ST. "Remarks on the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of projections." International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(IJPMAS)-accepted June 6, 2016. In Press.
"Revamping early childhood teacher education and professional development: Nuts and bolts for effective literacy and numeracy instruction." University of Dar es Salaam School of Education Journal of Education and Development. In Press.
"Six Ts for Effective and Efficient Early Grade Literacy Instruction.". In: Developing Languages in Africa: Social and Educational Perspectives. London: Cambridge University Press; In Press.
Mutono NR, Mutembei HM TM. "Spatial Accessibility of Healthcare services in Nairobi City; an ecological study." Frontiers in Health Services- Cost and Resource Allocation. In Press.
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). In Press. Abstract

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