Publications

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2021
Too VK, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JPO. "Performance Evaluation of the Popular SWRC Models at Different Soil Bulk Density Ranges." Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;published online (August 2021 ).
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Junga JO, et.al. "Phenotypic traits,reproductive and milk performance of indigenous goats of south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;(Submitted).
Isaiah BM, Onyari JM, Omosa LK. "Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acids Composition and Antioxidant Potential of the Seed Kernel Oil of Oysternut (Telfairia pedata) Found in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2021;32(1):46-56. AbstractEuropean Journal of Medicinal Plants

Abstract

Aim: Certain edible plant sources contain vegetable oils that have been under-exploited both commercially and in research. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, fatty acids composition, and antioxidant potential of the oil from the seed kernels of Telfairiapedata, which are used as food by the local population of Tharaka-Nithi County in Kenya.

Materials and Methods: Telfairia pedata seeds were collected from farmers in the county of Tharaka-Nithi, Kenya. n-Hexane was used to extract the oil via soxhlet extraction. Standard laboratory protocols were used to characterize the oil’s physicochemical properties, while fatty acids composition and antioxidant potential were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, respectively.

Results: The seed kernels of Telfairia pedata yielded more than 66% of oil. The oil’s physicochemical properties were found to be within the Food and Agriculture Organization set limits and were as follows; moisture content (0.0592±0.0140%), peroxide value (0.9641±0.2021 meq O2/Kg), iodine value (23.0058±2.2473 gI2/100g) and acid value (0.6352±0.0330 mg KOH/g). Fatty acids such as myristic acid (14:0; 0.11%), palmitoleic acid (16:1n7; 0.13%), palmitic acid (16:0; 34.97%), margaric acid (17:0; 0.10%), linoleic acid (18:2n6; 48.46%), stearic acid (18:0; 15.33%), 10,13-octadecadienoic acid (18:2n5; 0.09%), 18-methylnonadecanoic acid (20:0; 0.68%), and behenic acid (22:0; 0.14%) were found in the oil. The antioxidant potential of the oil expressed in IC50 was found to be 18.05 mg/mL, in relation to that of ascorbic acid 2.406 mg/mL.

Conclusions: Telfairia pedata seed kernel oil can be economical to exploit commercially due to its relatively high yield. The determined properties of Telfairiapedata seed kernel oil present high nutritive value making the oil fit for edible applications.

Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, I M. "Phytochemical analysis and investigation of the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Croton dichogamus Pax crude root extracts." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;2021:9.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I. "Phytochemical Analysis and Investigation of the Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Croton dichogamus Pax Crude Root Extracts." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2021;2021:9.
Olali T, Thuranira I, Wamitila KW, undefined. "Plot Distortion and the Construction of Suspense in the Kiswahili Detective Fiction." Asian Journal of African Studies (AJAS. 2021;51:39-70.
Chaudhry S. "Political Economy of Forest Degradation and Climate Changes in Kenya: Case Study of the Maasai Mau Forest.". In: Handbook of Climate Change Management. Springer; 2021.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Pollution in Urban and Rural Settings’ Ambient Air in Kenya: An Insight into Concentration Levels, Compositional Profile and Seasonal Variation." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Air samples were collected from three urban and one rural sites in Kenya with the aim of establishing pollution levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Forty-eight air Samples were collected by passive air sampling, Soxhlet extracted and analysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers residue in air ranged from≤ 0.9 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. The predominant congener was 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3 followed by 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-penta-bromodiphenyl ether with mean concentration range of 1.32±0.06 to 66.83±1.19 pgm− 3. Seasonal variations of the pollutants showed a high level of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in hot dry season in range of 1.94±0.03 to 152.72±3.19 pgm− 3. Air samples from Dandora and Industrial area both from urban location recorded high concentrations of the analysed polybrominated diphenyl ethers compared with the air samples from the rural location.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. Polymer-Silica Based Composites in Sustainable Construction: Theory, Preparation and Characterizations. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1201/9781003231936

This book presents the application of Polymer-Silica Based Composites in the Construction Industry providing the fundamental framework and knowledge needed for the sustainable and efficient use of these composites as building and structural materials. It also includes characterization of prepared materials to ascertain mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and analyses results obtained using similar methods. Topics such as life cycle analysis of plastics, application of plastics in construction and elimination of plastic wastes are also discussed. The book also provides information on the outlook and competitiveness of emerging composites materials.

Covers theory, preparation and characterizations of polymer-silica based composites for green construction.

Discusses technology, reliability, manufacturing cost and environmental impact.

Reviews the classification, application, and processing of polymer-silica composites.

Gives a deeper analysis of the various tests carried out on polymer-silica composites.

Highlights role of such composites in the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies

The book is aimed at graduate students and researchers in civil engineering, built environment, construction materials, and materials science.

Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Positive Stable Frailty Approach in the Construction of Dependence Life–Tables." s,Open Journal of Statistics. 2021;11( 1):506-523,.
Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Mwaura MN, Mukoya-Wangia S, Origa JO, Mbatia OLE, Chimoita EL. "Potential for Sustainable Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Practices in Nairobi County." Journal of Agricultural Extension. 2021;25(1):Nairobi Cou https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v25i1.4.potential_for_sustainable_urban_and_peri-urban_agricultural_practices_in_nairobi_county.pdf
Kulimushi SM, Muiru WM, Mutitu EW. "Potential of Trichoderma spp., Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the management of early blight in tomato." . Biocontrol Science and Technology. 2021;31(9):online.
Mutende R, Imonje RK, Akala W;. "Pre-service Science Teachers’ Integration of Constructivist Ideas in the Lecture Method." ; International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2021;20(6):277-298.
M.Cecilia O, Justine NM, Johanna W, Mats S, Piikki K. "Precision Agriculture for Resource Use Efficiency in Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review." Sustainability Journal. 2021;13:1158.
M.Justine N, Cecilia OM, Johanna W, Mats S. "Precision agriculture research in sub‐Saharan Africa countries: a systematic map." Precision Agriculture Journal. 2021.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021;2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Kosgei PK, Bebora LC, Waiboci LW, Waringa N, Kiambi SG, Kitala PN. "Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis in livestock in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2021.abstract3.pdf
Cook EAJ, Gitahi N, de Glanville WA,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Prevalence and risk factors for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya." BMC Infect Dis . 2021;21(944).
Hellen MN, Mwangi WE, Chege JN, Kimeli P, Makau D, Cherotich M, Aboge GO, Kaneene JB. "Prevalence and risk factors of canine Giardia duodenalis in dogs in Nairobi County, Kenya." Hindawi Journal of veterinary medicine international.. 2021.
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. "Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels. Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo County, Kenya." Lap Lambert Academic Publishing a trademark of Omni scriptum S.R.L Publishing group. 2021;(ISBN- 978-620-3-93087-0.).
Muyodi MM, Oyoo GO, KAYIMA JK, Bhatt KM. "PREVALENCE OF AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL." EAOJ. 2021;14(2):72-80. Abstract

Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increase in prevalence especially
in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has a high morbidity and mortality. CKD and osteoarthritis (OA) are related as
they both increase with age and are associated with comorbidities e.g. hypertension, obesity etc. However,
there is limited evidence on the prevalence and associated risk factors of CKD among OA patients.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with CKD in OA patients attending Rheumatology
and Orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study.
Methods: The study was conducted between November 2019 and January 2020 involving patients aged 18
years and above; being followed up in the rheumatology and orthopaedic clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital
with a diagnosis of knee, hip, spine and hand osteoarthritis based on the American College of Rheumatology
criteria. Chronic kidney disease was defined as an eGFR of less than or equal to 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or
proteinuria of 30 mg/dl detected on urinary dipstick for three months or more. Descriptive statistics were
used to describe the participants. Association between participants’ characteristics and CKD prevalence were
assessed using chi-square and factors associated with CKD among OA patients using bivariate and multivariable
logistic regressions.
Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among patients with osteoarthritis was 61.9% (56.4–66.3) as per eGFR
using Cockrauft Gault (CG). Most were in CKD stage 3 at 59.2% with 45.5% in G3a and 13.7% in G3b. One point
one percent were in stage 1, 38.3% in stage 2 and 1.4% were in CKD stage 4 and 5. Only 12.1% of the respondents
had persistent proteinuria and thus most of the patients had low and moderate risk for CKD progression at
38% and 38.2% respectively. Only 12.1% and 11.6% had high and very high risk for CKD progression. The CKD
prevalence increased with age, being highest among older adults (65+ years). The prevalence was higher
among men than women (65.9%, 95% CI: 54.7–75.5 vs. 60.2%, 95% CI: 54.4–65.7). The factors associated with
CKD in OA were old age, hypertension and poor and fair self-rated health which increased the odds of CKD
while moderate physical activity

Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
and Edward N Njoroge1*, Henry M Mutembei1 AK1 PK1 MO2NO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of repeat breeding syndrome in dairy cattle in selected regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Peter SG, Kariuki HW, Aboge GO, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International . 2021:DOI: 10.1155/2021/9501648 .
Shepelo PG, Kariuki HW, Aboge G, Gakuya DW, Maingi N, Mulei CM. "Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Dairy Cattle and the Pathogens They Harbour in Smallholder Farms in Peri-Urban Areas of Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi, Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021.
and Wilson K Kimani, J Nguhiu-Mwangi JMSMDW. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Conditions and Factors Associated with Urolithiasis in Domestic Cats in Nairobi, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2021.
Mande JD, Mbugua SW, Kimani WK, Nguhiu-Mwangi J. "Prevalence of Urinary Tract Conditions and Factors Associated with Urolythiasis in Domestic Cats in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(3):196-201.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Principals promoting professional development on Teacher's Job Satisfaction in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):30-37.
Nankaya, J. GLBNCH. "Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation . 2021;30:761-780.
S A, GO O, E A, J K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):23-27. Abstractprofiles_of_vitamin_d_among_patients_with_ra_at_knh.pdf

Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
is an autoimmune, chronic debilitating
condition of undetermined cause. It
affects numerous extra- articular organ
systems. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone
synthesized in the skin by the action of
ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Active
vitamin D is important in the inhibition
of T cell proliferation and downregulation
of key inflammatory cytokines
responsible for the pathogenesis of RA.
There is growing evidence demonstrating
the association between vitamin D
insufficiency and higher incidence of RA
as well as increased severity of disease
and increased functional disability in RA
patients.
Objective: The purpose of this study
was to determine serum vitamin D levels
among patients with rheumatoid arthritis
at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH)
and its association with disease activity
and functional disability.
Design: This was a descriptive crosssectional
survey.
Methods: The study involved subjects
with RA at the Kenyatta National Hospital.
Consecutive sampling technique to
recruit patients with rheumatoid arthritis,
having met the 2010 American College
of Rheumatology/ European League
Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR)
classification criteria was selected. Ten
mls of peripheral blood was collected
from the recruited subjects to determine
serum vitamin D levels. Every participant
had their demographics, clinical history
and disease duration documented. Clinical
Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used
to assess disease activity and severity. It
comprised of number of tender joint out
of 28 joints (T-28), number of swollen
joints out of 28 (S-28) global health
assessment score by both the physician
and the patient. level of disability was
determined by the standard Modified
Health Assessment Questionnaire
(MHAQ). Data analyzed was correlated
to determine their association with serum
vitamin D levels. SPSS version 21 was
used to analyze the data collected and this
entailed descriptive statistics, chi-square,
ANOVA and students’-test to compare
and correlate vitamin D levels with age,
duration of disease, CDAI score and
modified HAQ score in RA.
Results: Eighty one patients with a mean
age of 48.7 (SD 13.9), median of 48.0
(IQR 40.0-59.0) were evaluated. The
female to male ratio was 4:1. The mean
serum 25-VD concentration was 34.9ng/
ml (SD11.6). Thirty five participants
(43.2%) had insufficient vitamin D levels
(<30ng/ml), whereas 46 study participants
(56.8%) had sufficiency of vitamin D.
Majority of the patients 54 (67.5%) had
low disease activity. Fourteen subjects
17.5% had high disease activity and while
2.5% were on remission. Functional
disability was assessed using the modified
health assessment questionnaire. Thirty
eight participants (46.5%) demonstrated
no disability, 33.8% had mild disability
while 9% had severe disability.
Correlation between vitamin levels with
age, duration of disease, CDAI and HAQ
did not attain statistical significance.
Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is
high among patients with rheumatoid
arthritis with no correlation with age,
duration of disease, functional disability
and disease activity.
Key words: Rheumatoid arthritis,
Vitamin D, Disease activity, Functional
disability, Cytokines
Introduction

S1 A, GO O, E3 A, J4 K. "Profiles of vitamin D among patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Department of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. 2021;1(1):23-27.
Kithome OM, Mulwa A, Wafula CM. "Project Design Approaches, Community Participation and Performance of Water Projects." International Journal of Research and Innovation In Social Science(IJRISS). 2021;5(7).
Wabwoba, C.N, Mugambi M, Okoth UA. "Promoting acquisition of English Language Among Pupils through the Lens of Active learning." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):18-33.
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "Proverb Usage and the Silencing of Women's Voices: An Exploration of Swahili and Arabic Proverb." Kioo cha Lugha-Journal of The Institute of Kiswahili Studies. 2021;19(1):95-108.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Ngwili N, Johnson N, Wahome R, Githigia S, Roesel K, Thomas L. "A qualitative Assessment of the Context and Enabling Environment for the Control of Taenia solium Infections in Endemic Settings." PLOS Negl Trop Diseases. 2021;15(6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009470).
Abuga KO, Kigera ST, Wanyama M, Nandama WM, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Results of Pharmaceuticals Analyzed in the Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS) Laboratory During the Period 2013-2017." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(2):57-66. Abstract

During the 2013-2017 period, the MEDS laboratory received and processed 6853 samples. Samples were sourced from Kenya and other sub-Saharan Africa countries. The samples submitted comprised Kenyan manufactured (31.9%) and internationally manufactured products (67.9%) while nine samples were of unknown origin. Analysis was carried out according to compendial and/or in-house specifications. The non-compliance rate was 5.1% consisting of 1.2 % local and 3.8% imports. The top ten drug classes with high failure rates were antimyasthenics (50.0%), antiseptics/disinfectants (24.7%), anthelminthics (22.0%), thyroid/antithyroid drugs (20.0%), nutrient mixtures (18.5%), uricosurics (12.5%), waters (11.6%), mixed anti-infectives (11.1%), hemostatics (10.0%) and nootropics (10.0%). Full compliance was however, recorded with laxatives, antidiarrheals, antihemorrhoidals, prokinetics, antithrombotics, antithrombocytopenia agents, vasopressors, anti-arrhythmic drugs, anti-anginal drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, antimigraine drugs, vertigolytics, muscle relaxants, bisphosphonates, joint lubricants, hormones, anticholinergics, osmotic diuretics, hypophosphatemics, lubricants, minerals, amino acids/peptides, immunomodulatory agents, choleretics, antidotes, lozenges, ear drops, proteins/glycoproteins, herbal products, X-ray contrast media, vaccines, environmental monitoring, medical devices/equipment and cleaning validation swabs. A total of 23 substandard and falsified medicines devoid of active ingredients were encountered over the five-year period. The results obtained demonstrate the need to strengthen regulatory stringency in order to curb incidences of substandard and falsified medicines.

Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolis." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;24(Vol. 24 No. 1 (2021)):29-37.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi metropolitan area." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(1):29-37. Abstract

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.

Odoyo AO, Abuga KO, Mugo HN, Mang’oi JS. "Quality of metronidazole benzoate suspension products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(3):131-135. Abstract

Metronidazole benzoate is an ester derivative of metronidazole utilized in the formulation of oral suspensions owing to its palatability. The drug is liable to hydrolytic degradation during shelf life which could lower assay values and increase free metronidazole content. A medicine quality survey study was carried out in Nairobi County whereby 32 metronidazole benzoate samples representing 13 brands were collected from retail pharmacies. The samples were subjected to British Pharmacopoeia specifications for pH, free metronidazole content and assay. From the results obtained, only nine samples (28.1%) passed all the quality tests performed while five (15.6%), seven (21.9%) and 18 (56.3%) did not comply with pH, metronidazole content and assay specifications respectively. The results obtained demonstrate the existence of substandard metronidazole benzoate products in the market. This underscores the need for regular post market surveillance surveys and execution of appropriate regulatory actions.

Omari HK. Qur'an and hadith.; 2021.
Vanleeuwen J, Muraya J, Gitau GK, Makau DN, Crane BM, McKenna SLB, Wichtel JJ. "Randomised controlled trial on estrus and conception impacts of reproductive and nutrition interventions on Kenyan smallholder dairy farms." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
Harmsen H, Wang’ondu VW, Mbau JS, Muthama NJ. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological Conservation. 2021;253.
Harmsen H, Wangondu V, Mbau JS, J M, J M. "Randomized hotspot strategy is effective in countering bushmeat poaching by snaring." Biological conservation. 2021;253(108909).
Kitata M. "Re-narrating the Eastern Africa Coast through music on YouTube: Vitali Maembe’s Little Town Bagamoyo." African Identities. 2021:1-16. Abstract

The Eastern Africa coast has been a complex contact theatre between overseas peoples and the local population. These interconnections have over time produced mixed identities and cultural adaptation processes, expression, and transmission which are foundations of present-day Eastern Africa histories. The musician – historian’s account reflects the coastal identities as not simply painful and isolated historical creations upon a place, but also a part of global processes of cultural productions and affirmation. Through YouTube video, the coastal musician retells the coast’s history thereby preserving memory and lessons leant. The creative artist unveils the history – in an effort to gain inspiration from a cultural and commercial identity formation process. This paper, through Vitali Maembe’s YouTube music video, Little Town Bagamoyo, seeks to highlight the narrative that music exposes in retelling East African coast

Polline M, Mutua JM, MBUYA TO, Kyekyere E. "Recipe Development and Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Recycled Polypropylene 3D Printing Filament." Open Journal of Composite Materials. 2021;11(3):47-61. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.4236/ojcm.2021.113005

Recycled polypropylene filaments for fused filament fabrication were investigated with and without 14 wt% short fibre carbon reinforcements. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the filaments and 3D printed specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and standard tensile testing. It was observed that recycled polypropylene filaments with 14 wt% short carbon fibre reinforcement contained pores that were dispersed throughout the microstructure of the filament. A two-stage filament extrusion process was observed to improve the spatial distribution of carbon fibre reinforcement but did not reduce the pores. Recycled polypropylene filaments without reinforcement extruded at high screw speeds above 20 rpm contained a centreline cavity but no spatially distributed pores. However, this cavity is eliminated when extrusion is carried out at screw speeds below 20 rpm. For 3D printed specimens, interlayer cavities were observed larger for specimens printed from 14 wt% carbon fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene than those printed from unreinforced filaments. The values of tensile strength for the filaments were 21.82 MPa and 24.22 MPa, which reduced to 19.72 MPa and 22.70 MPa, respectively, for 3D printed samples using the filaments. Likewise, the young’s modulus of the filaments was 1208.6 MPa and 1412.7 MPa, which reduced to 961.5 MPa and 1352.3 MPa, respectively, for the 3D printed samples. The percentage elongation at failure for the recycled polypropylene filament was 9.83% but reduced to 3.84% for the samples printed with 14 wt% carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene filaments whose elongation to failure was 6.58%. The SEM observations on the fractured tensile test samples showed interlayer gaps between the printed and the adjacent raster layers. These gaps accounted for the reduction in the mechanical properties of the printed parts.

FMA B, SW G. "Reconstruction of midface defect with temporalis myofascial pedicle flap: a review and case series." MedCrave Online Journal of Surgery (MOJ Surg.). 2021;2021; 9(1)(2021; 9(1)):15-19.
Inyega H, Inyega J. "Reflections on potential of collaboration between kenyan universities and ministry of education to implement basic education reforms." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(1):69-89.
S W, A K, S K, Irene MG. "Reflective abilities of nursing students: A thematic analysis of reflection journals." Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 2021;12(5).
Ebrahim YH. Regional micro-bioclimatic architecture 1.0: Tropical scientific design and planning guidance. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "The Relationship Between Bond Strength and Critical Penetration Depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Structures." Journal of Materials Science Research. 2021;Vol 10(2).
Kariuki MI. "Relationship between financial literacy and indebtedness: A case of University of Nairobi students." Scholarly Research Journal For Interdisciplinary Studies.. 2021;8(65):14993-15007.
Too, R., Kidombo, H., Gakuu C. "Relationship between Participatory Decision-Making and Environmental Sustainability in Oil and Gas Projects." Journal of International Business, Innovation and Strategic Management, . 2021;5(3):181-196.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
Mbindyo SN, KITAA JAFREDMA, O AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A Review of Campylobacter Infections in Dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(4):259-266.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "A Review of Natural Plants as Sources of Substances for Cleaner Leather Tanning Technologies. ." Textile & Leather Review. 2021;4(3):137-148.
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
Olufemi Adelowo, Girish M. Mody, Mohammed Tikly, Omondi Oyoo, Samy Slimani. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Nature reviews. 2021;s41584(021):00603-4. Abstract

Abstract | Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Amimo JO, Raev SA, Chepngeno J, Mainga AO, Guo Y, Saif L, Vlasova AN. "Rotavirus Interactions With Host Intestinal Epithelial Cells." . Frontiers in immunology. 2021;12.
Kibet S, M N, L MO, D K. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock-wildlife landscape." Journal of Ecological Solutions and Evidence.. 2021;2(3):1-13.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
S.I.Akaranga, T.K.Musili, J.M.Karicha. "Secularization of Marriage Ritual Among the Ameru in Kenya." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(2):52-59.
Musiga LA. "Sensitivity Analysis of Cisco 12000 GSR." Kenya Journal of Sciences. 2021;17(1):1-9.
S K, M KP, M MG, MK N, M N. "Sero-prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Marsabit County, Kenya (2014)." PAMJ - One Health. 2021;4(9).
Vanleeuwen J, Muraya J, Gitau G, Makau D, Crane B, McKenna S, Wichtel J. "Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora caninum and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in smallholder dairy cattle in Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;3(1).
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu C. "Shared Frailty Model with Application in Joint–Life Annuity Assurance." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;68( 1):23-42.
M M, S A, M A. Simplified Arabic Language - Proficiency. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Murunga J, Muriithi MK, Wawire NW. "Size of the Informal Sector and Tax Revenue in Kenya. Journal of Economics and Public Finance." Journal of Economics and Public Finance. 2021;7(5).
Makanya AN, Kavoi BM, Kihurani DO. "Slight volume changes in the duck lung do not imply a fundamental change in the structure of the parenchyma." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia. 2021;50(1):169-174.
Aura C, Okronipa H, Olela P, Mojica L, Forella K, Otuo P, Bageant E, Obuya J, Onyango H, Ochieng J. "Small-scale fishing households facing COVID-19: The case of Lake Victoria, Kenya.". 2021.
H.M K, Z. O, R. T, K. M. "The Societal Construction of Femininity as Depicted in the Metaphor of Chicken in Swahili Proverbs." Mwanga wa Lugha -Jarida la Idara ya Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrica. 2021;6/1(April 2021):19-26.
Wairire G, Okemwa P, Akinyi M. "Society and Successful Transition: Female Genital Mutilation." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):19-24.
Kasyoka LA, Mutavi T, Muhingi WN, Ondicho T, Gitau C. "Socio-Cultural Factors Associated with Gender-Based Violence Survivors Accessing Legal Services in Makueni County, Kenya." Journal of Research Innovation and Implications in Education. 2021;5(1):30-41.
Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi FO, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi AM, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas ON, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh M-AW, Bernard Bett KNM. "Spatial clustering of livestock Anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957–2017." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2021;21(191).
Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
.B K, Chaudhry S. "Sports in Advancing Diplomacy in Kenya." Journal of Global Peace and Conflict. 2021;9(2).
2 Joyce Eunice, Douglas Miano MEMIMWM &. "Status of maize lethal necrosis disease in seed production system in Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(11918406):Online. Abstract

n/a

Ochukut SA, Oboko RO. "Strategies for Managing Cognitive Load and Enhancing Motivation in E-Learning." igi-global.com. 2021:17. Abstract

Cognitive load and motivation are two factors that have been established as mediators of learning. It has been established that learners who experience low cognitive loads and are highly motivated to succeed in learning. Since e-learning is becoming a very popular means of delivering learning, there needs to be established strategies to ensure that learners learn. This study sought to look at the various means that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load and enhance motivation through the analysis of literature. Use of metaphorical interfaces, hypertext, sequencing, and fading of learning content, use of transient information, and adaptation of the problem-solving support were the strategies that have been used in e-learning studies to manage cognitive load. Motivation has been enhanced through the use of motivational messages and adaptive navigational support and pedagogical agents.

Bota D, Bunyasi A, Amayo A, Wachira JW, Okello JO. "Strengthening Medical Laboratory Systems in Kenya: An Innovative Biosafety Training Model." Applied Biosafety. 2021;00(00):1-11.
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Maina, Kemboi, D.C., munyaga, mounde. "STRUCTURE OF DESIGN FIRMS WITHIN NAIROBI: CASE STUDY OF A+ PLUS INTERIORS, AVOCADO CREATIVE STUDIOS AND DALBERG DESIGN." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):12-40.
Ondicho TG. "Students’ Perspectives on Online Learning at the University of Nairobi during COVID-19.". In: Youth in Struggles: Unemployment, Politics, and Cultures in Contemporary Africa. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages & Cultures of Asia and Africa; 2021.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

K SARNA, M K, SW G. "Surgical Management of A Massive Congenital Haemangioma of the Tongue in an Infant: A rare Case Report." International Journal of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2021;9:e04909(9:e04909):9:e04909.
Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Mpario J, Mugo M, Nungari L, Ngugi B, Gathura P, Sankale B. "A survey of intestinal helminths in domestic dogs in a human–animal–environmental interface: the Oloisukut Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2021;95.
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

RUFINO MC, Gachene CKK, DIOGO RVC, HAWKINS J, ONYANGO AA, SANOGO OM, WANYAMA I, YESUF G, PELSTER DE. "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF CROP-LIVESTOCK FARMS IN AFRICA.". 2021.
Makori EO. "Sustainable Information Development Practices and Societal Transformation in Kenya." International Journal of Library and Information Services. 2021;10(2):1-19.
Dede, J. A, M.F. O. "A Synopsis of Training, Employee retention and Performance." Global Journal of Human Resource Management. 2021;9(2):73-85.
H Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Mwema FM, Michael H, Akinlabi ET. "Taguchi Optimization of Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate in CNC Milling of Polypropylene + 5wt.% Quarry Dust Composites." IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2021;1107(1):012040. Abstractdoi:10.1088/1757-899X/1107/1/012040

The Taguchi optimization technique was utilized to determine the optimal milling parameters that can be used in end face CNC milling operation of polypropylene+5wt.% quarry dust using high-speed steel (HSS) tool. Three milling input parameters i.e. the feed rate (f), the cutting speed of the spindle (N) and the depth of cut (dc) were optimized while considering the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined composite material and the material removal rate (MRR) during machining as the responses of the experimental design. From the results, the cutting speed (100 rpm) and the feed rate (120 mm/min) were the most important control parameters which greatly influence the surface roughness at 41.4% and 28.8% contribution respectively. In the case of the material removal rate, the depth of cut (0.8 mm) was the dominating factor at 98% contribution.

Murunga J, Wawire NW, Muriithi MK. "Tax Revenue Productivity of Tax Reforms in Kenya. International Journal of Economics and Finance." Canadian Center of Science and Education. 2021;13(12).
Muasya JN. "Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies." Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies. 2021;6(3):101-108.
Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
"Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basin." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(1).
Akintayo RO, Akpabio AA, Kalla AA, Dey D, Migowa AN, Olaosebikan H, Bahiri R, Miedany YE, Hadef D, Oyoo O. "TheimpactofCOVID-19onrheumatologypractice acrossAfrica." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;9(1):1-6. Abstractthe_impact_of_covid-19_on_rheumatology_practice.pdf

Objectives. To identify the changes in rheumatology service delivery across the five regions of Africa from the
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods. The COVID-19 African Rheumatology Study Group created an online survey consisting of 40 questions
relating to the current practices and experiences of rheumatologists across Africa. The CHERRIES checklist for
reporting results of internet e-surveys was adhered to.
Results. A total of 554 completed responses were received from 20 countries, which include six in Northern
Africa, six in West Africa, four in Southern Africa, three in East Africa and one in Central Africa. Consultant grade
rheumatologists constituted 436 (78.7%) of respondents with a mean of 14.56 10.3 years of experience. A total of
77 (13.9%) rheumatologists avoided starting a new biologic. Face-to-face clinics with the use of some personal
protective equipment continued to be held in only 293 (52.9%) rheumatologists’ practices. Teleconsultation modalities
found usage as follows: telephone in 335 (60.5%), WhatsApp in 241 (43.5%), emails in 90 (16.3%) and video
calls in 53 (9.6%). Physical examinations were mostly reduced in 295 (53.3%) or done with personal protective
equipment in 128 (23.1%) practices. Only 316 (57.0%) reported that the national rheumatology society in their
country had produced any recommendation around COVID-19 while only 73 (13.2%) confirmed the availability of a
national rheumatology COVID-19 registry in their country.
Conclusion. COVID-19 has shifted daily rheumatology practices across Africa to more virtual consultations and
regional disparities are more apparent in the availability of local protocols and registries.
Key words: COVID-19, Africa, rheumatology, DMARD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, telem

Ebrahim YH. Theoretical architecture (Aleamarat alnazania): Regional bioclimatic architecture. Chisinau, Moldova: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Inyega HN, Inyega JO. "Theoretical probabilities and practical possibilities of nurturing teachers' and primary school learners' social and emotional skills: Examples from Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(3):42-56.
Olale P. Thika Technical Training Institute Master Plan. Institute TTT, ed. Nairobi: Thika Technical Training Institute; 2021.
Siriba DN. "Towards a GNSS Data Accuracy Standard for Georeferencing." Kenya Surveyors' Journal. 2021;2021:5.
Moturi C, Abdulrahim N, Orwa D. "Towards adequate cybersecurity risk management in SMEs." International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are core to the growth of the African economy. Their continued dependency on technology is driving them deeper into risks. SMEs that are developing technology-based solutions need an effective way to manage cyber risks. This study sought to determine the key cybersecurity risks faced by SMEs in Kenya that develop technology-based solutions. Using a case study approach and based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity framework, an in-depth evaluation of the cybersecurity risk management practices within a selected SME was undertaken. The paper reports on the components identified as critical in the management of cyber risks within SMEs. An implementation strategy has been developed to provide a roadmap to assist in the management of cyber risks as part of their business risks. Insights provided will assist the Government and regulatory bodies assess the adequacy of current cybersecurity legislations and guidelines. This study has practical implications for SME managers in fostering a cybersecurity culture in this growing sector.

Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
Aymara Llanque, Johanna Jacobi TTSMCSATLFF. "Transformations towards food sustainability using the participatory Food Sustainability Assessment Framework ." Social Innovation. 2021;695(5):2021-03-04.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Maina. "TRANSITIONAL ITINERARY OF VERNACULAR BASKETRY IN EAST AFRICA." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):41-74.
Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
W G, M O, GO O. "Treatment Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: A Review." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2021;3(1):29-34. Abstract

Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a
haematological cancer characterized by complications
of end-organ damage and subsequently high mortality.
Previously, there were few therapies available with
minimal survival benefit for most patients. Survival
was less than a year in many countries. The survival of
MM patients can range from 6 months to over 10 years,
with a median of 6 years, depending on stage of the
disease at diagnosis and prognostic factors. However,
with the advent of newer immune modulating agents
and novel therapies, there exists an opportunity to
improve the management of MM.
Objective: The purpose of this review is to discuss
the current chemotherapy and novel agents available
for treatment of Multiple Myeloma and highlight
emerging therapies in treatment of Multiple Myeloma,
some of which are now locally available in Kenya.
Data Sources: International Guidelines on Treatment
of Multiple Myeloma; Published articles from peerreviewed
journals; ESMO, NCCN guidelines on
Multiple Myeloma
Conclusion: New MM therapies have been shown to
improve progression-free survival and overall survival
of to upto 82% at four years. Some of these therapies
are now accessible locally through government
funding. In combination with a wholesome approach
which includes appropriate supportive care, there
exists an opportunity to improve the quality and
standard of care of MM patients in Kenya to replicate
the success of that in developed countries.
Key words: Multiple myeloma, Cancer

IRIBEMWANGI PI. "A Tribute to Euphrase Kezilahabi (1944–2020)." Tydskrif Vir Letterkunde. 2021;58(1):160-161.
Simon PB, Joseph JO, Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka EM, Kabange D, Musale K, Ciza AM, Kizungu RV, Pelle R. "Typology, management and smallholder farmer-preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats (Capra hisrcus) in three agro-ecological zones in the Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2021;49(1):423-430.
Ochieng JW, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Machuka E, Kabange D, et.al. "Typology,management and smallholders farmer preferred traits for selection of indigenous goats(Capra hircus) in three agro-ecological zones in the D.R Congo." Journal of Applied animal research. 2021;(Submitted).
Kenfack D, Arellano G, Kibet S, Kimuyu D, Musili D. "Understanding the monodominance of Acacia drepanolobium in East African savannas: insights from demographic data." Trees. 2021;35:1439-1450.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
P C, G L, Sangula A, J O, DP K, B H. "Understanding what shapes disease control: An historical analysis of foot-and-mouth disease in Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2021;(PMID: 33735817).
K SARNA, I MURITHI, F OPONDO, S G. "A unique presentation of bilateral Kissing Molars and three-rooted Maxillary Premolars: A case report and review of literature." Clinical Case Reports Journal. 2021;2021; 9:e04679(2021; 9:e04679):2021; 9:e04679.
Eric A, Elizaphan M, Rhoda G, Robert O, John K. "University Students' Perception on the Usefulness of Learning Management System Features in Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Online Learning." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2021;v17 (n1 ):45-64 . Abstract

Online learning has increasingly been adopted by most institutions of higher learning to facilitate teaching and learning as a continuum to the traditional face-to-face approach. Most of these institutions utilize Learning Management Systems which contain features that are intended to make students active participants not only by delivering learning resources to learners but also providing the environment for effective interaction in the learning process. Our examination of the literature reveals that there is limited empirical evidence that addresses how these features are being utilized by students in promoting Self-Regulated learning. To realize the usefulness of the features of Learning Management Systems in promoting Self-Regulated Learning, a structured survey was carried out among University students in Kenya. The findings reveal that the features of Learning Management Systems are underutilized by students. The qualitative results of the study illustrate that students face several challenges that obstruct them from being actively involved in online learning. There is lack of individualized feedback on students' learning habits, lack of instructor guidance, lack of interaction with course instructors, lack of peer interaction and lack of automation tools. This study provides insights for educators and researchers on the areas of focus that can be prioritized towards offering support to students in improving their Self-Regulated learning in online learning environments.

Makhanu MN, Alsadig MAM, Nyongesa BS, Weboko FI, Alcorta PP. "Unsuccessful Closed Surgical Exposure of an Impacted Maxillary Canine Managed by Open Surgical Exposure." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):946-953.2021_kda_journal_volume_12_no_2.pdf
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Habimana RS, Maingi N, Gecchi G, Paone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the Distribution of Glossina (tsetse flies) at the Wild;life-Human-Livestock interface at Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(PARAV- D- 21 0016).
Gashururu RS, Githigia SM, Gasane MN, Habiman R, Maingi N, Cecchi G, Pacone M, Zhao W, Masiga DK, Gashumba J. "An update on the distribution of Glossina(tsetse flies) at the wildlife-human-livestock interface of Akagera National Park, Rwanda." Parasites and Vectors. 2021;14(1):294.
TO A, O G, TOM A. "Uptake and outcomes of early infant male circumcision services in four counties in Western Kenya." African Health Sciences. 2021;21(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) is part of sustainable HIV prevention strategies in Kenya. The goals of the national EIMC program are to circumcise at least 40% of all newborn male infants delivered at hospitals offering the service and keep the rate of moderate and adverse events below 2%.

Objectives: To determine the proportion of early male infants (age less than 60 days) born at hospitals in four counties of western Kenya who got circumcised and document the prevalence of adverse events (AEs) among those circumcised.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive study involving all records for EIMC from 1st March 2014 through 31st March 2018 in four counties of western Kenya. Data analysis was done using EXEL to document proportion of facilities offering EIMC and compare EIMC uptake and outcomes in the four counties against the national goals for the program.

Results: A mean of 4.3% of total health facilities offer EIMC in the region. Siaya had the highest proportion of facilities offering EIMC while Migori had the lowest proportion. Uptake of EIMC was low at 17.4% for all male infants born, far less than the anticipated target of 40%. Average adverse event rates were 0.3%.

Conclusion: EIMC uptake remains low in this region of Kenya due to small number of health facilities offering the service. The proportion of circumcised early male infants born at the target health facilities is below the national target of 40% even though the rate of adverse events among those circumcised is acceptable.

Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
Simiyu MT, F Nyongesa, Aduda B, Birech Z, Mwebaze G, A., Sunnerhagen, Maitha G. "Use of Organic Binders to Enhance Defluoridation and Pathogen Removal Efficiency of Diatomaceous Earth-Based Ceramic Filters. ." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences . 2021;6:2313-3317.
"Valuation for Compensation Practices in Kenya: An Evaluation." Property Management. 2021;39(4):479-492.
Mwangi IK, Muketha SM. "Value Chain Framework for Ascertaining Planning Sectors and Competencies." Africa Habitat Review. 2021;15 (No. 1):2157-2173.
Mwangi IK, Muketha SM. "Value Chain Framework for ascertaining planning sectors: Africa HABITAT Review." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2021;15(1):1-17. Abstract

Studies that address the deeply rooted uncertainty in identifying planning sectors and profiling required
competencies in preparing plans, especially in the urbanization sector (US), are scanty. This is due in part to
the lack of concerns for the effectiveness of the plans and competencies of the planners. The value chain (VC)
model was appraised to provide a framework for ascertaining relevance and accuracy of planning sectors and
concurrence with required competencies. Data on planning sectors and required competencies was collected at
five stakeholder consultative fora, 23 key informant (KI) institutions and seven working sessions. The framework
of the model facilitated analyzing the data through disaggregation. The urbanization sector (US), which is the
main primary activity (MPA) in the model, was assigned the role of the main planning sector (MPS) and expressed
as “MPS:US” in the urbanization value chain. MPS:US was disaggregated into four planning sectors in the value
chain, and each sector ascertained through disaggregation from level 1 to 3. It was found that the structure of
the model and its function provide appropriate framework for ascertaining relevance and accuracy of planning
sectors, and also concur with competencies that are similarly ascertained. Second, the two expressions for
disaggregation to ascertain planning sectors and required competencies each respectively combine into one
expression for simultaneous disaggregation. The paper concludes that the structure and function of VC model and
the expression for simultaneous disaggregation provides a framework of methodology for systematic ascertaining
of planning sectors and competencies, and allows variation of number of planning sectors any one value chain
represents. The paper recommends adopting the structure and functions of the VC model, and the expression for
simultaneous disaggregation as a framework for ascertaining planning sectors and competencies, starting with
the conduct of planning studios in the training of planners

Omwando KJ, Moturi CA. "Virtual banking adoption by SACCOs in the face of Covid-19 pandemic - a case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 2021;8(4):1-13. AbstractWebsite

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic saw overwhelming effects on consumers’ buying behavior globally, with economic productive activities shifting from offline to online. As a result, many business leaders were left with no option other than adopt the use of Information Technology to ensure business operations continuity, enhance efficiency as well as sustainability. In Kenya, unlike most commercial banks, Saccos have largely been left behind in embracing new banking technologies such as agency banking, internet banking, or mobile banking. Therefore, the use of paperwork, physical and in-person meetings to conduct business has remained widespread amongst many Saccos in the country, before COVID 19 that forced Saccos to shift to virtual banking as an effective alternative, toward addressing their customers’ needs while ensuring safety. This study examined the adoption of Mobile Banking models and Virtual Banking technologies and innovations to establish the factors influencing their adoption by potential users. The study also explored the adoption of Virtual banking amongst Saccos in Kenya, investigating the electronic delivery channels used, and their suitability. The study objectives were accomplished through an exploratory and descriptive approach based on ways of improving access to credit through relationships between Sacco and their clientele in Kenya through the adoption of Virtual Banking. The data used was collected from SACCO-based respondents who included Sacco ICT officers, managers, and members using questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study established that there was wide adoption of various Mobile Banking models and technologies to realize virtual banking adoption by Saccos. Most Saccos were found to favor the Joint venture model and the non-bank-driven model. The extent of adoption of virtual banking amongst bank clientele was found to be influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. The study recommended that Saccos should consider sharing information and technologies across various networks as this is likely to lead to much more gains in adopting technologies that would improve their sustainability as while fostering better customer experience.

Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Missiame A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P. "What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis." Heliyon . 2021;7(5). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

MK N, J D, M N, et al. "Why is There Low Morbidity and Mortality of COVID-19 in Africa." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;10.4269/ajtmh.20-0474.
Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.

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