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2021
P.M.F. M, Mbau SJ, N.J. Muthama, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development. ." Journal of Sustainable Environment and Peace, . 2021;2:55-70.
G.N. KJ, G.W. N, K.K. E. "How Safe is the Water Consumed in Different Parts of Nairobi, Kenya? International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) ." International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS). 2021;VI(VII):ISSN 2454-6194.abstract.pdf
C. M, F. M, M. M, m O. "Human Resources Management Practices and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." International Journal of Arts and Commerce. 2021;8(9).
C. M, F. M, M. MOM. "Human Resources Management Practices, Employee Competence and Employee Performance at National Police Service of Kenya." European Jounrnal of Business and Management. 2021;13(2).
Kitonyi PM, Segera DR. "Hybrid Gradient Descent Grey Wolf Optimizer for Optimal Feature Selection." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-33.
Mukungu NA, Okalebo FA, Abuga KO, Oyugi JO, Ochola L, Tanabe M, Ohta M, Mwangi JW. "Identification of antimalarial compounds from Leucas calostachys, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2021;24(3):92-102. Abstract

Leucas calostachys is widely used in traditional medicine in Kenya for management of various ailments including malaria. Bio-assay guided fractionation of Leucas calostachys extracts was carried out using in-vitro antiplasmodial and β-hematin inhibition assays with semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The active methanol fraction was subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to identify constituent compounds. A total of twenty compounds consisting of eight flavonoids and 12 phenylethanoids were identified from this fraction. The flavonoids included, isorhamnetin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-4′-O-glucoside, luteolin diglucoside, apigenin-O-glucoside, genistein-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol-7-O-glucoside, and chrysoeriol-7-O-glucuronide. Seven of the phenylethanoids were identified as acteoside, isoactoeside, hydroxyacteoside, forthsoside B, samioside, alyssonoside and leucoseptoside A. The antimalarial activity of Leucas calostachys could be linked to presence of flavonoids and phenylethanoids.

Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
Peter K, John VL, George G, Luke H, Shawn MK, Spencer G. "Impact of calf housing improvement and farmer training on finances, management and animal welfare perceptions of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2021;13(2):119-129.
Kimeli P, Vanleeuwen J, Gitau G, Heider L, McKenna S, Greenwood S. "Impact of calf housing improvement and farmer training on finances, management and animal welfare perceptions of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers ." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2021;13(2):119-129.
Ondicho TG, Irandu E. "Impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic and Implications on Tourism Sector: The Experience in Kenya." Journal of African Interdisciplinary Studies. 2021;5(6):31-44.
Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Makinya KJ, Wagacha JM, Odhiambo JA, Likhayo P, Edoh-Ognakossan K, Tefera T, Abass A, Mutungi C. "The importance of store hygiene for reducing post-harvest losses in smallholder farmers’ stores: Evidence from a maize-based farming system in Kenya." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2021;90(DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101757):101757.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

HM M, et al. "Incidence of Contagious bovine Mastitis in Farms in Usain- Gishu County ." East African Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2021;1-4(85):136-141.515-article_text-813-1-10-202205311.pdf
Njoroge A, Augusto O, Page ST, Kigondu C, Oluka M, Puttkammer N, Farquhar C. "Increased risk of prediabetes among virally suppressed adults with HIV in Central Kenya detected using glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose." Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2021;4:00292.njoroge_et_al_2021.pdf
Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Nyandega IA, Gurong T, Okello P, Ongoma V. "Influence of Convective Coupled Equatorial Kelvin Waves on March-May Precipitation over East Africa." Geogrophica Pannonica. 2021;25(1):24-34.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi M, Kalai JM. "INFLUENCE OF ISO 9001 STANDARDS ON QUALITY OF ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES IN UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA: A CASE OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai M M, Inyega JO, M M, JM. K. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of bachelor of education programme of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2(2):34-48.. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of ISO 9001 standards on quality of academic programmes in universities in Kenya: a case of university of Nairobi." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(2):34-48.
Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
T H, W KI, G. MR. "The Influence of Parental Incomes on Internal Efficiency of Public Primary Schools in Western Province-Rwanda." Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) . 2021;26(6):06-16.
Musyoki J, J.A O. "Influence of Principals Inspirational Influence on Students Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2. 2021;26(2279-0837):10.9790/0837-2605094760.
Musyoki, J.M., Kalai JM, Okoth UA, Okumbe JA. "Influence of Principals’ Inspirational motivation on Students‟ Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP) . 2021;2(1):109-132.
Shikokoti H, Okoth UA, Chepkonga S. "Influence of Teacher delocalization policy on teacher job satisfaction in public secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya ." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021;26(5):38-46.
Wangai MM, Inyega J, Mugambi M, Kalai J. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai M M, Inyega J, M M, J. K. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. . 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai, M.M., Inyega, H. N., Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management on Quality of University Academic Programmes: A Literature Review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):1-14.
Wangai MM, Inyega JO, Mugambi MM, Kalai JM. "Influence of total quality management and knowledge management on quality of university academic programmes: a literature review." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice(ISSN: 2708-261X),. 2021;2(1):1-14.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Influences of Community Participation on School Infrastructure Policy Implementation and Performance of Construction Projects. ." Open Journal of Social Sciences. 2021;2021(9):173-187.
Kaua CG, Thenya T, Mutheu JM. "Informal Microfinance and Rural Households’ Climate Variability Resilience: Analysis of their Contribution and Determinants in Tharaka South Sub-county, Kenya. ." Journal of the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO. . 2021;Vol. 1( (1) ):pp 109-144.
Makori EO, Connie B. "Information Profession in Digital Transformation and Development: Future Directions.". In: Handbook of Research on Knowledge and Organization Systems in Library and Information Science. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2021.
Owuor KO, Machani MG, Mukabana WR, Munga SO, Yan G, Ochomo E, Afrane YA. "Insecticide resistance status of indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in a highland and lowland site in Western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;3(16):e0240771.
Amolo AEJ, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM. "Insurance and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI). 2021;8(6):45-52.
Karamshetty V, DeVries H, Wassenhove LVN, Dewilde S, Minnaard W, Ongarora D, Abuga K, Yadav P. "Inventory Management Practices in Private Healthcare Facilities in Nairobi County." Prod. Oper. Manag.. 2021;31(2):828-846. Abstract

Universal health coverage (UHC) is an integral part of the United Nations sustainable development goals. The private sector plays a prominent role in achieving UHC, being the primary source of essential medicines for many people. However, many private healthcare facilities in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs) have insu_cient stocks of essential medicines. At the same time, these same facilities carry excessive quantities of certain drugs, leading to obsolescence. This suggests poor inventory control. To propose potential remedies it is vital to fully understand the underlying causes. In semi‐structured interviews with managers of private healthcare facilities in Nairobi, we asked them about their 1) inventory control systems, 2) inventory control skills, 3) time/human resource constraints, 4) budget constraints, 5) motivations for inventory control, and 6) suppliers. Our results suggest that the problems are driven by resource limitations (budget and time/human resources), managerial issues (relating to skills and systems), and market mechanisms that limit overage and underage costs. Unavailability at the supplier level and motivations for inventory control are relatively minor issues. We posit that the key causes are interlinked and stem from wider issues in the market and regulatory environment. Our results challenge prevalent beliefs about medicine supply chains in LMICs and lead to alternative hypotheses. Testing these hypotheses could improve our understanding of inventory management in private healthcare facilities and aid progress in achieving UHC.

Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "An investigation of the effects of extraction and brushing variables on the properties of hedge sisal fibers using a raspador." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2020.1870641

Natural fibers have emerged as an important component in the development of composite materials because of their mechanical properties. The properties are highly influenced by environmental conditions and processing techniques. This variability makes their usability in reinforcement unpredictable. There are satisfactory attempts to quantify the variation of the properties with environmental conditions. However, the quantification of how the properties vary with processing methods is unsatisfactory. This study, therefore, investigated and quantified the effects of processing variables on the properties of sisal fibers using a raspador. The raspador was designed, fabricated, and utilized in processing sisal fibers. Processing variables such as gap size, number of extraction and brushing elements, and drum speed were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined based on ASTM C1557 standard. High correlation coefficients were found between fiber properties and the processing variables. The brushing process, mostly ignored in many cases, improved the properties of the sisal fibers.

Moturi CA, Kosgei AK. "Is Kenya ready to Leverage Blockchain Technology in Horticulture Traceability?" Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(1):59-60.
Omari H. Islamic law. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Omari H. Islamic law. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Mokaya TK, Omosa LK, Ogunah J, Nyamato GS. "Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Cola minor Stem Extracts." Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021;5(4):621-625.
Ongeri BO. "Issues of Public Debt Management in countries-A Kenyan experience." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2021;8(2).
R T. "Jinamizi la Malezi.". In: Utashi wa Dola na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Oxford University Press ; 2021.
M M. K.C.S.E IRE revision Made Easier. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Prof Henry Mutembei, Dr Michael Okoti DKODBKDCL’aho. Kenya Climate Smart Research for Sustainable Agriculture and Livelihoods. Naivasha Resort: Wold Bank and Kenya Government; 2021.
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Mbugua J. K., Kinyua A. P., Kairigo P.K., Onyatta JO. "Kinetic Modelling of Microbial Fuel Cell Voltage Data from Market Fruit Wastes in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Chemistry (IJSRCH) . 2021;6(5):25-37.
W W. Kiswahili hatua kwa hatua. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
G N, Angela. Kuwa Smart. Application ed. UON - IP; 2021.
G N, Angela. Kuwa Smart. Application ed. UON - IP; 2021.
IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Language Attitude and Language Planning: Emerging Trends in Kenya since 2010." Journal of African Studies [Feizhou Yanjiu, 非洲研究], . 2021;1(2021):115-136.
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Four: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form One. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form one: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Three: Teacher's Guide. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
M M. Learn Arabic Language Form Two. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
"Learning to Positively Manage your Relationship with your Spouse." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(2):40-43.
Mavuti SK, Mbaria JM, Maina JG, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM. "Levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in farmed Oriochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(4):230-233.
Moturi C, Karuga E, Orwa D. "Leveraging Big Data Analytics." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021;DOI: 10.1504/IJBDM.2021.10036720. AbstractWebsite

This paper sought to study the extent to which telecoms within Kenya have adopted Big Data analytics to gain richer and deeper insights into their business dynamics in order to facilitate evidence decision making. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected from ten leading telecoms using semi-structured questionnaires. The study found that Big Data could stimulate the economic growth, advance the productivity and competitiveness of the telecoms, as well as generate enormous benefits for customers. The factors with the highest significant effect on the adoption of Big Data analytics were identified. The practical implication of this paper is an increased understanding on what elements can promote Big Data adoption by large telecom companies. The study is beneficial to telecoms companies and any other organisations that would be looking at adopting data driven decision making to sustain competitiveness within the present uncertain setting.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, MBUYA TO. "Lightweight Polymer–Nanoparticle-Based Composites.". In: Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2021. Abstract

The increasing demand for eco-friendly materials in various fields including the construction industry has led to increased efforts toward the development of more materials to suit such fields. In this work, a specific review of polymer–nanoparticle-based composites is presented with an emphasis on the nano-silica reinforcements. A background on applications, processing methods, and state-of-the-art review of the subject is presented. It is noted that there is limited literature focusing on the recycling of polymers using silica nanoparticle-based reinforcements for the construction industry. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the direction for future research focus is presented.

Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Kaoga J, Olago D, Ouma G, Ouma G, Onono J. "Long-term spatial-temporal temperature characteristics of a pastoral ecosystem in Kajiado County, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(6):896-906.
S. R, M. P, V. O. "LP Fracturing: A Review on Waterless Fracturing Technology in Unconventional Reservoir." Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research (JSAER). 2021;8(1):48-54.
Japheth NR, Rukwaro PR, Wachira-Towey IN. "Management of Steel Reinforcement Works Procedures Impact on the Health of Workers in Building Construction Sites Case study of Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project management. 2021;Volume 5(1).
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Ong’ang’a MA, Indangasi H, Kitata M. "Manipulation of Narrative Paradigm in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s Wrestling with the Devil." Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies. . 2021;3(1).
Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Ndambuki VM. Marketing in Developing Economies: Theory, Practice, and Cases with Special Focus on Africa.. Exceller Books Press, India; 2021.
Masjid Organization in the 21st Century. Nairobi: Chance publishers Ltd; 2021.
Chebet ON, Omosa LK, Subramanian S, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mmari JO, Akutse KS. "Mechanism of Action of Endophytic Fungi Hypocrea lixii and Beauveria bassiana in Phaseolus vulgaris as Biopesticides against Pea Leafminer and Fall Armyworm." Molecules. 2021;26(26):htts://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185694.
Amolo AEJ, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM. "Mediating effect of Contract Management on Financial Risk Management Instruments and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI). 2021;8(6).
MD Wanjere, Iraki XN, MO Ogutu, Kinoti M. "Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity on the Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Local Firm’s Performance." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2021;6(5):256-263. Abstractmediating_role_of_absorptive_capacity_on_the_relationship_between_foreign_direct_investment_and_local_firms_performance.pdf

There is little documentation on the role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of firms. This paper investigates the mediating role of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The population of study comprised 100 companies registered with Kenya Association of Manufacturers that had over 10 percent foreign ownership as at the time of data collection in 2019. The respondents were the CEOs of organization or their designated officers. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect primary data. The respondent were required to indicate how the introduction of FDI impacted on organizations capital flow, advanced production technology, marketing expertise and management knowhow. They were also to indicate the extent their Organisation had invested in absorptive capacity and the effect absorptive capacity had on the relationship between FDI and local firm performance. Descriptive and inferential statistics were both used to analyze the data. The results revealed that absorptive capacity has statistically significant mediating effect on the relationship between FDI and firm performance. This imply that an incremental change in the absorptive capacity would generate growth in company’s performance. As such Kenyan and other sub-Sahara African countries government need to come up with polices geared to supporting improvement of firms absorptive capacities so as to spur the growth of their key sectors of the economy.

Mwangi AN, Njogu PM, Maru SM, Njuguna NM, Njaria PM, Mathenge AW. "Meloxicam emulgels for topical management of rheumatic diseases: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo characterization." Saudi Pharmaceut. Jour. 2021;29(4):351-360.
Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Kerubo JO, Muthumbi AWN, Onyari JM, Robertson-Andersson D, Kimani E. "Microplastics pollution in the sediments of creeks and estuaries of Kenya, western Indian Ocean." African Journal of Marine Science. 2021;43(3):337-352. AbstractAfrican Journal of Marine Science

Description
Microplastic pollution has been recognised as a global threat in marine environments and a danger to prey, predators and humans. Yet, there have been few studies in the western Indian Ocean, specifically along the Kenyan coast, which makes it difficult to estimate the extent of such pollution in the region. This is the first study on microplastics (MPs) in the sediments within creeks and estuaries (Tudor, Port Reitz and Mida creeks) on the Kenyan coast. In January/February and September 2018 sediment samples were collected for MPs analysis. The concentration of MPs differed between the sampling seasons and was distinctively higher in the second sampling season across particle sizes, suggesting that there were more MPs from larger terrestrial discharges due to increased runoff. The concentrations of total MPs, and the occurrence of different sizes, shapes and colours, were established under a microscope …

Maranga-Musonye M. "Migrancy as Trama: Yvonne Owuor’s Weight of Whispers." Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies Journal. 2021;8(1-2):33-48.
Weboko FI, Nyongesa BS, Makhanu MN, Luna KDG, Dey GES, Viloria IL. "A Minimally Invasive Treatment Option For Restoring Esthetics." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):952-957.
Irene Wakio Mwakesi, Wahome RG, Ichang’i DW. "Mining Impacts on Society: A Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021;11(11):986-997.
P.K N. "Mitigating Engineering Profession Regulatory Gaps." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2021;2(2):73-74.
Purity MJ, Opere AO, Mutemi JN, Mutua FM. "Modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the upper tana catchment of Kenya." J. Meteorol. Relat. Sci. . 2021;in press.
Amolo AEJ, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM. "Moderating Effect of Communication Strategy on Financial Risk Management Instruments and Performance of Hydroelectric Energy Projects in Kenya." International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI). 2021;8(6):24-31.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Moderating Influence of Contextual Determinants on Relationship between Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. Public Administration Research journal Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021).". 2021. Abstract

Effective monitoring and evaluation practices is widely known to help improve performance, the quality and effectiveness of planning and decision making and achievement of results. This is because monitoring focuses on the implementation process and progress towards the achievement of project objectives. Despite the Kenya Government’s effort to promote County Maternal Health programmes through legal frameworks such as the county integrated monitoring and evaluation practices tool, and while there is empirical evidence that monitoring and evaluation practices contributes to enhanced performance, actual performance of county health sector across Kenya remains poor. The purpose of the study was to establish moderating influence of contextual determinants on the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The paradigm that is suitable for this study is pragmatism. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 8 regional blocks in Kenya (Central,, Western Coast, Eastern, Rift Valley, North Eastern, Nyanza, Nairobi) where one county from each block was selected. From these counties the target population was 1165 respondents including Medical officers, Clinical Officers, Trained Community health workers, Nurses, County Health Management Team and County Delivery Unit officers from level 4 and 5 hospitals. Sampling procedure for this study was guided by the research design which is descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain 282 respondents from which information was obtained for this study. The research instruments that were used for data collection are: a self-administered structured questionnaire and interview guides. Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were used in this study. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypothesis. The research established that there was a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and contextual determinants (r=0.638, p=0.000<0.05). The study found that after introduction of contextual determinants into the relationship, and the interaction term in model 2 increased the R square by 0.08. This implies that the interaction between contextual determinants and monitoring and evaluation practices explains 8.0% variations in performance of county maternal health programmes. The study concluded that contextual determinants significantly moderate the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study recommends investing in robust and dynamic technical coordination platforms that can sustain the agenda for change. and at all levels is necessary to ensure the sustainability of M&E reforms in the health sector.

Makau CM, Towett PK, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Modulation of nociception by amitriptyline hydrochloride in the Speke’s hinge‐back tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)." Veterinary Medicine and Science. 2021;early view. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are limited studies on the utilization of analgesics in testudines.
Management of pain in reptiles is by use of analgesics generally used in other vertebrate species. Evidently, some analgesics considered to be generally effective in
reptiles are not effective in certain reptile species.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociceptive behaviour in Speke's hinge-back tortoise.
Methods: Twenty-four adult Speke-hinged tortoises weighing 500–700 g were used.
The effects of amitriptyline hydrochloride on nociception were evaluated using the
formalin, capsaicin and hot plate nociceptive tests. Amitriptyline was administered
intracoelomically at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg.
Results: The higher doses of amitriptyline hydrochloride caused an increase in nociceptive behaviour (time spent in hindlimb withdrawal) on the formalin and capsaicin
nociceptive tests, suggesting a potentiating effect. However, the doses used had no
significant change in nociceptive behaviour on withdrawal response in the hot plate
test.
Conclusions: The study showed that amitriptyline hydrochloride which is widely used
in management of neuropathic pain potentiates nociceptive effects in the formalin
and capsaicin nociceptive tests in the Speke's hinge-back tortoise. The hot plate test,
which previously has not been reported in these animals, gave results not in line
with the other tests and therefore more testing and validation of the test is required.
Amitriptyline modulates chemical and thermal pain differently

Masika SJ, Muchemi GM, Okumu TA, Mutura S, Zimmerman D, Kamau J. "Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in olive baboons and vervet monkeys in Kenya." BMC Vet Res. 2021;17(1):385.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes October 2021European Scientific Journal 17(37):39 DOI:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n37p39.". 2021. Abstract

The study sought to establish the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The combined monitoring and evaluation practices included planning for M&E, stakeholder engagement, capacity building for M&E, and M&E data use. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. To obtain 282 respondents, stratified random sampling was used. A self-administered structured questionnaire was the study's research instrument. Using descriptive narratives, qualitative data was analyzed within specific themes. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypotheses. Data was presented using frequency tables. The study found that stakeholders’ engagement in M&E and capacity building for M&E influenced the performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study also found that the respondents agreed that planning for M&E and the data management for M&E. This implied that the combined monitoring and evaluation practices influence performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya.The study found a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and combined monitoring and evaluation practices. The study concluded that combined planning for M&E monitoring and evaluation practices influenced the performance of county maternal health programmes. The study suggests that management develop an effective methodology as well as raise awareness of M&E activities for the success of the project. The study also suggests that human resources issues such as workers charged with monitoring and evaluation ought to have technical capabilities, and roles and duties of monitoring and evaluation personnel should be outlined at the start of projects. To ensure M&E sustainability health sector reforms, investments in strong and vibrant technical harmonization platforms that can sustain the change agenda at all times and every required level.

"Mr Hassler: The Hassle and Pain of being a Male Bachelor." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):36-41.
FW N, K O, A A, J O, GW A. "Multiple Cytokines Elevated in Patients with Keloids: Is It an Indication of Auto-Inflammatory Disease?" J. Inflam Res. 2021;14(7):2465-2470. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Inflammation seems to play a major role in the pathophysiology of keloids. However, the role of cytokines in keloid pathophysiology has not been fully evaluated with only a few cytokines studied. We undertook this study to compare various cytokines in patients with keloids and a control group of patients without keloids nor family history of keloids so as to determine which cytokines are elevated and could thus be critical in keloid formation.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with keloids and a control group of those without. Patients in both groups were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Their plasma was analyzed for both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines using the Bio-flex ElisaTM method. Comparisons of cytokines means in both groups were done using Student's t-test.

Results: A total of 84 participants with 42 participants in each group were followed during the study. Male to female ratio was 1:2. Age ranges were similar with a mean of 29.6 years. A total of 28 cytokines were assayed. Statistically significant differences were noted in 15 of the 28 cytokines assayed with 11 being elevated more in keloid patients with only four in the non-keloid forming group. Among elevated cytokines in keloid patients were granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte-monocyte-colony-stimulating factors, interleukins 4, 6 and 13.

Conclusion: Patients with keloids have significantly higher cytokines compared with non-keloid forming patients. This finding suggests that keloid formation could be influenced by multiple inflammatory cytokines, an indication that the patient's immune system could play a role in keloid formation akin to auto-inflammatory disease.

Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
Murungi MK, M.Muloi D, Muinde P, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akoko J, Fevre EM, Rushton J, Alarcon P. "The Nairobi Pork Value Chain, Mapping and Assessment of Governance, Challenges and Food Safety Issues." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.581376).
Obino VK. "Natural Gas Hydrates: Technical Review and Prospects in Asia." International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2021;10(01):290-299.
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Dufitumukiza, A., Wanjala, G., Khatete I. "Nine year basic education policy interventions and students’ enrolments rates at lower secondary level: A lesson from Rwanda." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies, . 2021;2(1):94-112.
Walter Onchere, Weke P, Ottieno J, Ogutu: C. "Non Central Gamma Frailty with Application to Life Term Assurance Data." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2021;67( 2):237-253.
Mugambi MM, Miriti GM. "Nurturing the Industrial Economy through Enterprise Education:The Case of Kenyan Universities.". In: Handbook of Research on Nurturing Industrial Economy for Africa’s Development. Hershey: IGI-global; 2021.
AM K, Waudo J, Were G. "Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya.". In: Nutrition status of adolescents in Kenya. Nairobi: Williams Publishers ltd; 2021.
Eddy PO, Olweny CO, Mukabana WR. "Nutritive value of common housefly (Musca domestica) prepupae reared on broiler by-products as source of animal feed." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(10):1330-1335.
Osoro EM, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Abong’o DA. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Sediments from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2021;8(1):274-286. Print ISSN: 2395-1990 | Online ISSN : 2394-4099. doi : https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRSET218148.
Osoro EM, Wandiga S, Madadi V, Abongo D. "Occurrence and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water from Nairobi River Basin, Kenya, East Africa." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences ISSN: 2313-3317. 2021;6. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Description
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers are linked to adverse health effects that includethyroid hormone disruption, neuro-developmental deficit, abnormal pregnancy, and potential carcinogens. This study was aimed at assessing the concentrationsof selected Polybrominated diphenyl ether compounds in water of Nairobi River. Water samples were collected by grab method from nine sites along the river andanalysed for brominated diphenyl ethers using gas chromatography coupled withmass spectrometer. The mean concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethersresidue in water ranged from< 0.0009 to 72.89±6.15 ng/L. The dominantcongeners were 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-penta-bromodiphenyl ether, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexabromodiphenylether and 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 6′-hexa-bromodiphenyl. The highest meanconcentration of 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether was 72.89±6.15 ng/L, 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′-penta-bromodiphenyl ether was 14.08±0.68 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 6-pentabromodiphenylether was 43.67±1.47 ng/L, 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5, 5′-hexa-bromodiphenylether was 24.78±2.49 ng/L, and 2, 2′, 3, 4, 4′, 5′, 6-hepta-bromodiphenyl ether was11. 75±0.97 ng/L. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bioaccumulatein fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk toanimals and humans due to contamination across the food chain.

Gashururu SR, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Gasana MN, Odhiambo PO, Getange DO, Habimana R, Cecchi G, Zhao W, Gashumba, J, Bargul JL, Masiga DK. "Occurrence, diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma infections in cattle around the Akagera National Park, Rwanda." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2021;15(12).
L C, M W, O L, M N, KM MI, Kaba M, et al. "One hundred years of zoonoses research in the Horn of Africa: A scoping review." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(7).
Shagwira H, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET, Mwema FM, Tanya B. "Optimization of material removal rate in the CNC milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composites using the Taguchi technique." Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44(1):1130-1132. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.229

This research paper focuses on the optimization of the input parameters used in the computer numerical controlled (CNC) milling of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite. The efficiency and profitability of the cutting operation was assessed using the material removal rate (MRR). Finding the optimal and suitable parameters to use in the cutting of polypropylene + 60 wt% quarry dust composite is crucial when it comes to increasing productivity without increasing the cost of production and machining time. Therefore, the Taguchi technique was utilized to optimize the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut used while focusing on their effects on the material removal rate. The analysis of the input parameters was carried out using the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The finding showed that the optimal milling parameters for efficient productivity were; the cutting speed of 600 rpm, a feed rate of 200 mm/min and depth of cut of 0.8 mm. Additionally, the feed rate is the most contributing factor in affecting the material removal rate, followed by the depth of cut and lastly the cutting speed at 53%, 17 and 10% respectively.

Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

Shagwira H, Mwema FM, Obiko JO, MBUYA TO, Akinlabi ET. "The Optimization of the Surface Roughness of Milled Polypropylene + 60wt.% Quarry Dust Composite Using the Taguchi Technique." Advances in Material Science and Engineering. 2021;Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering:169-174. Abstracthttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-3641-7_20

This study is based on the optimization of the parameters that influence the computer numerical control (CNC) milling operation during the machining of polypropylene+60wt.% quarry dust composite. The input parameters studied are the cutting speed, the feed rate and the depth of cut. These input parameters were optimized using the Taguchi optimization technique with the output response taken into consideration was the surface roughness. An L9 orthogonal array (OA) was selected and formulated in a commercial software Minitab 19 based on three factors and three levels combination. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was analysed to give a combination of values of the input parameters that produced optimum results for surface roughness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then conducted to determine the significance and percentage contribution of each parameter. From the results, the optimum values obtained were cutting speed of 1000 rpm, feeding rate of 120 mm/min and depth of cut of either 0.5 mm or 0.8 mm. The cutting speed had the highest contribution towards the surface roughness at 81.98%, followed by the depth of cut at 7.43% and the feed rate having the least contribution at 3.69%.

Odote C, Hassan R, Mbarak H. "Over promising while Under Delivering: Implementation of Kenya’s Community Land Act." AJLP &GS. 2021;Vol 4 (2):292-307.
O M, Ayah R, Muriuki R, Nyangaya J. Oxygen Access and Affordability in Health Facilities in Kenya.; 2021.
FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

FZ Chagpar, Pokhariyal GP, Moindi SK. "P1-Curvature tensor in the space time of general relativity." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;6(1):148-152. AbstractWebsite

The P1 - curvature tensor defined from W3 - curvature tensor has been studied in the spacetime of general
relativity. The Bianchi like differential identity is satisfied by P1 - tensor if and only if the Ricci tensor is
of Codazzi type. It is shown that Einstein like field equations can be expressed with the help of the
contracted part of P1 - tensor, which is conserved if the energy momentum tensor is Codazzi type.
Considering P1 -flat space time satisfying Einstein’s field equations with cosmological term, the
existence of Killing vector field ξ is shown if and only if the Lie derivative of the energy-momentum
tensor vanishes with respect to ξ, as well as admitting a conformal Killing vector field is established if
and only if the energy-momentum tensor has the symmetry inheritance property. Finally for a P1 - flat
perfect fluid spacetime satisfying Einstein’s equations with cosmological term, some results are obtained

"The Pacesetter in a Relationship." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(3):44-46.the_pacesetter_in_a_relationship.pdf
"Participatory Project Planning and Performance of Mango Farming Projects in Makueni County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2021;10(9).
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Pattern and Clinical Presentation of Endometriosis Among the Indigenous Africans." J Gynecol Obstet . 2021;9(9):92-99. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the existence of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% in reproductive age women and its clinical manifestation of infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Despite of years of research, the causative factor and understanding of ambidextrous endometriosis pathology remains elusive, perplex and disconnected. Worldwide, there is clear documentation of prevalence of endometriosis in the development countries, however, the prevalence of endometriosis in most of black Africa is unknown. The current perspective is that indigenous African are rarely affected by endometriosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of endometriosis in indigenous African women with the primary outcome measure being the prevalence of laparoscopic visually diagnosed, histologically confirmed endometriosis and clinical presentation. Methodology: This was a prospective analytical cross-selection study in 2 hospitals in Nairobi city, Kenya. The sample size was 443 women and the duration of the study was from March 2018 to March 2021. The inclusion criteria was women aged at least 18 years up to 49 years undergoing laparoscopic surgery and willing to take part in the study. The patient’s history, clinical and laparoscopic findings and histological diagnosis were recorded and analysed using Social SPSS version 22.0. Results: The mean age of the 443 patients recruited was 33 years. The prevalence of histological confirmed endometriosis in indigenous Africans was 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a positive predictive value of 39%. Dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significant symptoms of endometriosis P<0.001. Nulliparous patients significantly had a risk of having endometriosis p<0.001. The patients with menarche at 13 years and below had a significant risk of having endometriosis p=0.001. Physical findings on clinical examination of adnexal tenderness and findings of nodules in the pouch of Douglas were significant in relation to endometriosis p<0.001. The most common site of the histological endometriosis implants were on the Pouch of Douglas (30%) and the most common form of endometriosis was superficial (43%). Conclusion: The prevalence of endometriosis in Indigenous Africa is 6.8%. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had low a positive predictive value of 39%. Nulliparity, menarche at the age of 13 and below, dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain scale 8-10 and dyspareunia were significantly associated with endometriosis. The most common site for endometriosis is the of Pouch of Douglas whilst the most common form of endometriosis was superficial.

Karuma AN, JW N, PT G. "Pedology, A disappearing skill in Eastern Africa? A Review." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2021;24(2):65.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
Bessy Eva Kathambi * MHM’I. "PERCEPTIONS ON ACCELERATED TRANSITION TO RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NAIROBI, KENYA." International journal of Social Science. 2021;2(1):66-77.165-491-1-pb.pdf
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
Too V, Omuto CT, Biamah EK, Obiero JP. "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE POPULAR SWRC MODELS AT DIFFERENT SOIL BULK DENSITY RANGES." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment (JEAE) . 2021;Vol 7(No. 2):40-48.

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