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kamari, Lawrence D.E.; Oucho O-AAOJ; ABC. "Regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations."; 2000.
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& Origa JO, Nzuki PK, Bowa O, Gunga SO. "The Relationship Between Perceived Quality Dimensions and Growth in Distance Education Deta Conference.". In: Deta Conference .; 2013.
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co-authored with(ed) DOLOOADAMSMM. "Regional institutions and the Quest for security in the Horn of Africa.". In: Human Security: Setting the Agenda for the Horn of Africa. NAIROBI: Africa Peace Forum; 2008.
in and(eds.) AMJSR. "The Role of Initiation Ceremonies in a Changing Social Environment”,.". In: Vanishing Cultural Heritage and Ethnography of an African Community: The Gusii of Western Kenya . New York: New York, The Edwin Mellen Press, 2006; 2006.the_role_of_initiation_ceremonies_in_a_changing_social_environment.pdf
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rural Oil Processing in Kenya: An Overview. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Small Scale Oil Processing. AGROTEC. Arusha, Tanzania. September 5-6.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rheological Models for Shelled Maize En-masse. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Engineering and Food. Makuhari, Chiba, Japan, May 23-27.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Africa in Transition Geographical Essays" - Edited by B.W. Hodder and D.R. Hains published in the East African Geographical Review, 1968.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1968. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "R.S. Odingo; Nyakwada and Kagia, J.N. (2002) Factoring Weather and Climate Information and Climate Change Products into Disaster Reduction strategies in Kenya: A contribution to Disaster Management Policies. IGAD/ DMCN, Nairobi.". In: Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Land Reform in the Kikuyu Country" by M.P.K. Sorrenson, 1967, in East Africa Journal, Vol. 4, No. V, November, 1967.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1967. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review article on "Kenya Population Distribution Map", 1962, in East African Geographical Review, No. 2, 1964, pp. 55-56.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1964. Abstract
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.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Review Article: on "Land and Population Movements in Kenya" by Prof. S.H. Ominde in East African Geographical Review, 1969.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1969. Abstract
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1
and 1 S.K Imagiri KPJMGP. "Restrictions on the Powers of Generalized Aluthge Transforms of w-Hyponormal Operators." Far East Jnl of Maths . 2013.
1) Aleri JW, Mutembei HM MCMGJWMSM2012. "A retrospective study of reproductive conditions in bitches in Nairobi." KVA. 2012;34:29-31.
1) Wachira T, Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Relationship between Demographic Characteristics and Leadership Styles on Teachers Job Satisfaction in Primary Schools Kenya: A Case of Nakuru County." , International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2016;6(2319-7064 ).wachira_t.pdf
1. Oyugi J. Judie Alimonti, Francoise Vouriot SWFPJBKFA. "The role of CD4 polymorphism on HIV-1 infection. .". In: Canadian Student Health Research Days, . Canada; 2005.
16. Gichaga FJ, Visweswaraiya TG, Sahu BK. "Residual Red Soils of Kenya as construction materials for earthen Dams and Embankments. .". In: Conference on Materials for Dams. Monte Carlo; 1984.
17. Kimani J, Maclean IW BJJMDOMGMPRWNNJPFABRCKJ. "Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya." J Infect Dis. 1996. Abstract

Abstract
Among 302 female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya, who were followed for 17.6 +/- 11.1 months, 146 had one or more infections with Chlamydia trachomatis; 102 had uncomplicated cervical infection only, 23 had C. trachomatis pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and 21 had combined C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae PID. As determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for C. trachomatis PID included repeated C. trachomatis infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.4; P = .0004), antibody to C. trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.04-14.5; P = .04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.99; P = .048), and number of episodes of nongonococcal nonchlamydial PID (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; P = .02). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women, a CD4 lymphocyte count of <400/mm3 was an additional independent risk factor for C. trachomatis PID (OR, 21.7; 95% CI, 1.2-383; P = .036); among HLA-typed women, HLA-A31 was independently associated with C. trachomatis PID (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-29.4; P = .043). The results suggest an immune-mediated pathogenesis for C. trachomatis PID.

A
A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Rajab JA, Muchina WP, Orinda DA, Scott CS. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7. VDM Verlag; 2005. Abstract
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. DESIGN: A cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Two regional blood banks–Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion Services, Nairobi) and Western Region (National Blood Transfusion Services, Kisumu). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution, mean, median, and 95% percentile ranges of haemoglobin (Hb), red cell parameters (red cell count, haematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC), total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, and platelet counts in the two donor populations. RESULTS: A significant number of donations (16.5% in Kisumu and 3.4% in Nairobi) showed haemoglobin levels below the recommended National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) guideline of 42g/unit. Compared to Kisumu, Nairobi donors had significantly (p < 0.001) higher Hb, MCV and MCH values while the red blood cell counts and MCHC values were similar (p > 0.05). A low MCV (< 78 fl) was observed in 12.4% and 3.4% of Kisumu and Nairobi donors respectively. Both populations showed similar but significant frequencies (Kisumu, 21.3%; Nairobi, 18.7%) of mild neutropenia (< 1.5 x 10(9)/1), while eosinophilia (> 0.5 x 10(9)/1 in the tropics the cut off is > 0.6 x 109) was more prominent in Kisumu donors (18.8% versus 8.5%). Platelet counts were also significantly lower in Kisumu donors, with the prevalence of thrombocytopenia (< 150 x 10(9)/1) being considerably higher (15.9% versus 3.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of Kenyan donors showed abnormal haematology profiles that may indicate underlying pathology. Such abnormalities are not detected by current blood transfusion services screening practices and there may be a need to strengthen donor selection criteria to protect both donors and recipients.
A DROBONDOANNE, M PROFNDETEIDAVID. "Rono R, Onem T, Kilonzo G, Ndetei D.M, Obondo A.A. .". In: In Eds. Ndetei et al (2006). International Psychiatry Vol.6 No. 1; 2006.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Role of TGF-beta in normal human endometrium and endometiosis Human Reproduction 2010; 25(1):101-109.". In: journal.; 2010. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Roberts, TK., Omwandho, CA., Peters, C., Falconer, J. Inhibition of human Natural Killer cell cytoxicity by sheep placental IgG .". In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.; 1995. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

A KJM, CM M, JD M, J W. "A Retrospective Study of Canine Ehrlichiosis in Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(3):122-124.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Renovascular Hypertension at Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: East African Medical Journal. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1984. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. HASHIM. Revelation and Reason: Extending Divine Injunctions to Accommodate Challenging Situations. University of Nairobi: Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Nairobi in collaboration with the Cultural Council of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran; 2011.revelation_and_reason.pdf
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Relevance of Higher Education in Africa in the 21st century".". In: African Regional Consultation, Preparatory to the World Conference on Higher Education in the 21st Century. UNESCO, DAKAR Senegal. 1st to 4th April 1997. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract

 

 

A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Real Estate Sub-markets" paper presented to a Vision Consult Workshop in Kitwe, Zambia, 27th September, to 1st October, 1993.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A. DROTIENOALFREDT. "Reproductive Preference Implementation Index: An examination of Demographic and Health Surveys Data from 60 Developing Countries.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting 1-3 May, Boston USA. E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract
Demography India 32 (2): 26-32
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER, G PROFGATEIDAVID, O PROFORINDADA. "Retrospective Study of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya.". In: Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1978. Abstract
Retrospective Sturdy of Cancer of the Esophagus in Kenya - Cancer Research, 38: 303 - 305, February 1978. (Second of five authors - D.G. Gatei, A.E.O. Wasunna, D.A. Orinda and J. Muruka).
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease (The Stigmas of Sore Throat) - MEDICOM.". In: The African Medical Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Relevance of Higher Education in Africa in the 21st century".". In: African Regional Consultation, Preparatory to the World Conference on Higher Education in the 21st Century. UNESCO, DAKAR Senegal. 1st to 4th April 1997. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract
   
A. DROTIENOALFREDT. "Reproductive health knowledge and Attitudes of Female adolescents in South Nyanza.". In: African Population studies 21 (1) :37-54. E Afr Med J; 2005. Abstract
African Journal of Reproductive Health   (Accepted)
Abass AM, and Mwaura F. "Remembering the drylands of Kenya integrating the ASAL economy to the Kenya Vision 2030. Mbugua wa Mungai and George Gona (ed).". In: Remembering Kenya: Identity,Culture, Freedom, Vol. 4. Nairobi: Twaweza Communications; 2013.
Abbott CJ, Grünert U, Pianta MJ, McBrien NA. "Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: {Optical} coherence tomography and histological assessment." Vision Research. 2011;51:376-385. AbstractWebsite

This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (−15.9 ± 2.3 D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p = 0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

Abbott CJ, Grünert U, Pianta MJ, McBrien NA. "Retinal thinning in tree shrews with induced high myopia: {Optical} coherence tomography and histological assessment." Vision Research. 2011;51:376-385. AbstractWebsite

This study determined retinal thinning in a mammalian model of high myopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histological sections from the same retinal tissue. High myopia was induced in three tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) by deprivation of form vision via lid suture of one eye, with the other eye a control. Ocular biometry data was obtained by Ascan ultrasonography, keratometry and retinoscopy. The Zeiss StratusOCT was used to obtain Bscans in vivo across the retina. Subsequently, eyes were enucleated and retinas fixed, dehydrated, embedded and sectioned. Treated eyes developed a high degree of axial myopia (−15.9 ± 2.3 D; n = 3). The OCT analysis showed that in myopic eyes the nasal retina thinned more than the temporal retina relative to the disc (p = 0.005). Histology showed that the retinas in the myopic eyes comprise all layers but were thinner than the retinas in normal and control eyes. Detailed thickness measurements in corresponding locations of myopic and control eyes in superior nasal retina using longitudinal reflectivity profiles from OCT and semithin vertical histological sections showed the percentage of retinal thinning in the myopic eyes was similar between methods (OCT 15.34 ± 5.69%; histology 17.61 ± 3.02%; p = 0.10). Analysis of retinal layers revealed that the inner plexiform, inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers thin the most. Cell density measurements showed all neuronal cell types are involved in retinal thinning. The results indicate that in vivo OCT measurements can accurately detect retinal thinning in high myopia.

ABDEL MALEKADELKAMEL. "Regional differences in Aorta of goat (Capra hircus) Folia Morphol 2010; 69: 253-257.". In: Theory and Algorithms in InterStat. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract

)

ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Roche AF, Abdel Malek AK, Mukherjee D. 1985. New approaches to the clinical assessment of adipose tissue. 6th Rose Conf Med Research. Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19.". In: Ross Lab, Columbus, OH, USA. Pp:14-19. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1985. Abstract
A sample of 166 normal adult males and females was taken from different colleges of Assiut representing those living in upper Egypt. Each subject has been studied for measurements of stature (S), hand length (HL) and hand breadth (HB). The data were statistically analysed in order to assess the relationship between stature and hand measurements. The correlation matrix of the study indicates close similarity of the relationship between stature and hand measurements in both sexes and in both sides. A generalized multiple regression equation has been designed to estimate stature from values of hand length and hand breadth regardless of sex or side in the form: S = 34.5 + 5.77 HL + 2.7 HB +/- 5.1. This equation may be helpful to obtain approximate stature when there is difficulty in obtaining a direct measurement or where there is a chance print of a criminal or an amputated hand or arm.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Rocheleau, D., Jama M., Wamalwa, B., (1995) "Gender, Ecology, and Agro forestry: Science and Survival in Kathama". In GENDER, RESOURCES, AND DEVELOPMENT IN KENYA: a Grassroots Perspective, ed. Barabara Thomas-Slayter and Dianne Rocheleau (Lynne Rienner Pu.". In: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Abdihakin M, Khamala W, Hasan S, Maceod J. "A randomized controlled trial of steroid injection in the management of plantar fasciitis." South African Orthopedic Journal. 2012;11(4):33-38.
Abebaw D;, Mburu J;, Holm-Muller K. "Risk Perceptions and Risk Management — A Socioeconomic Analysis of Ethiopian Smallholder Coffee Growers."; 2004. Abstract

In recent years, coffee producers’ risk has become one of the major issues in the current discussions within the International Coffee Organisation (ICO) and its member countries. In Ethiopia, coffee growers deal with many risks while often lacking effective mechanisms to manage them. However, information concerning “which sources of risk to coffee income do the growers consider relevant” and “in what risk management tools they are interested in” is too scanty to gain an adequate understanding of their risk behaviour. Therefore, the main aims of this study were (1) to identify the extent and diversity of coffee growers’ perceived risks and preferred risk management strategies, and (2) investigate the variables influencing their risk perceptions and management responses. The data used in this study were gathered from a random sample of 195 smallholder coffee growers in southwest Ethiopia. Factor analysis and linear regression have been employed to analyse the data. Factor analysis identifies five latent variables that account for 62% of the total observed variations in the growers’ risk perceptions. Additionally, estimated results from linear regressions indicate that resource endowments, demographics, access to information and location attributes were statistically significant in explaining the observed variation in growers’ scores on the underlying risk perceptions (latent variables). In similar manner, factor analysis finds six latent risk management variables and explains about 64% of the observed variation in the growers’ preferences for various risk management strategies. Moreover, estimation results of the linear regression equations revealed that perceived risks, demographics, resource endowments, coffee income volatility, and location were statistically significant in explaining the growers’ scores on risk management preferences. Therefore, these information must be utilised to formulate effective and broadly accepted risk management policy and support to smallholder coffee growers.

ABONG’ GEORGEOOKO, NDANYI VICTORIACLAIREMAKUNGU, KAAYA ARCHILEO, Shibairo S, Okoth MW, OBIMBO PETER. "A Review of Production, Post-harvest Handling and Marketing of Sweetpotatoes in Kenya and Uganda." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):162-181.abong_2016b_a_review_sweetpotatoes_kenya__uganda.pdf
Abonyo E. "THE ROLE OF PROFESSIONALS AND PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTES, IN SETTLEMENT UPGRADING.". In: ILI SHE TRUST HOUSING CONFERENCE. MOMBASA , Kenya; 2006.
Abraham Kipchumba Cherwon, Margaret Mwihaki Wanyoike, Gachuiri CK. "Rabbit production practices in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Livestock Production. 2020;11(4):114-121.
Abuom TO, Gitonga PN, Kirui GK, Kitaa JMA, Kyallo V, Mande JD, Ndurumo SM, Tsigadi SA. "Radiographic findings of fractures and their outcomes at the small animal clinic of the University of Nairobi.". In: Presented at Annual Scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association. Nairobi, Kenya; 2005.
and Achia, T.N.O; Manene OJAMMM. "The Restricted Dorfman- Sterrett Group-screening procedures without errors in decisions." ICASTORJournal of Mathematical Sciences. 2010;4(2):153-163. AbstractFull text link

This thesis is a study on the Dorfman-Sterrett group-screening designs assuming equal a-prior probabilities of items being defective. Based on a clear theoretical framework, we have studied both restricted and unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without and without errors in decision, deriving expressions for expected number of tests (and cost functions), which are used to compare the performance of this procedures with the Dorfman procedure. \lVehave give an alternative approach to determining the expected number of tests in an unrestricted Dorfman-Sterrett design. The restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure without errors in decision has also be examined, giving conditions under which the restricted procedure converges to the unrestricted procedure. vVe have shown that for most prevalence rates, the two-stage Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs just as well as the unrestricted procedure. We have in this thesis also examined the Restricted Dorfman-Sterrett procedure with error in decision. Expressions for the expected number of runs and cost functions have been derived. The results, based on the expected proportional red uct.ion in testing over individual testing, indicate that the single-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for all the prevalence rates less than 30%. The result.s also indicate the t.here is little. if any, difference in performance between the single-step and the two-step Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. For the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures without errors in decision we have derived the expected number. of runs and compared this results with the expected number of runs for the Dorfman procedure and the multi-step DorfmanSterrett procedure. In. addition, cost functions and expected number of tests for the multi-step Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures with errors in decision have also been derived. The results indicate that the modified procedure perform slightly better than Dorfman procedure fer most prevalence rates but is less efficient than the Dorfman-Sterrett procedure. The expressions for expected number of runs and the expected number of incorrect decisions in screening with errors are derived using vVatsons testing of hypothesis approach. Under the testing of hypothesis approach group factors are tested using orthogonal fractional factorial designs of the type giveil in Plackett and Burman (1946). We have also derived expressions for expected number of runs for both the restricted and the unrestricted Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedures. The results indicate that the Modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure performs better than the Dorfman procedure for prevalence rates less than 30%. There is also a greater saving for larger prevalence rates. There is a saving of 3~2%in using the Modified procedure instead of the Dorfman procedure when p = 0.29 compared with a s~,ving of 0.18% for p = 0.001. The results however indicate that Sterrett's procedure is more efficient than t.he Modified procedures for prevalence rates less than 30%. These figures seem to disprove the a.ssertion by Huang et al (1089) that a modified Dorfman-Sterrett procedure is more efficient than Sterrett's procedure when the a-priori probability of an item being defective, P. is somewha.t higher (though still quite low) .

Achilla RA, Wurapa EK, Bulimo WD. "Respiratory adenovirus Species Circulating In Kenya, 2007-2010.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference at the College of Health Sciences University of Nairobi. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 2011. Abstract

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Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Opot. BH, Wurapa. EK. "Respiratory Adenovirus Species Circulating in Kenya From 2007-2010. .". In: 2nd MEDICAL AND VETERINARY VIROLOGY RESEARCH-2 symposium. Sarova Panafric Hotel Nairobi Kenya.; 2012. Abstract
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ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "R. W. Vaughan, A. M. ADAM, et. al. Major histocompatibility complex class I and II Polymorphism in chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990.". In: Journal of Neuroimmunology. 27: 149-153, 1990. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1990. Abstract
Thirty-one chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) patients have been typed for HLA-A, -B and -C antigens serologically and for HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP class II genes by RFLP analysis. Our results confirm a previously reported slight association with HLA-B8 and identify a stronger association with HLA-Cw7.
Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

ADHIAMBO DRNYIKALROSE. "Risk Preference and Optimal Crop Combinations in Kahuro Division of Murang.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available.
ADUDA JO. "The Relationship between Credit Risk Management and Profitability among the Commercial Banks in Kenya.". In: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing. David Publishing Company; 2011.
Aduda BO. "REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH AND POLICY MAKING IN KENYA.". In: Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development: Questions of Knowledge Brokerage and Risk Governance Workshop. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Aduda J, Kiragu P, Ndwiga JM. "The Relationship between Agency Banking and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2014;2(4):97-117. Abstractthe_relationship_between_agency_banking_and_financial__performance_of_commercial_banks_in_kenya.pdf

Banking agents are usually equipped with a combination of point-of-sale (POS)card reader, mobile phone, barcode scanner to scan bills for bill payment transactions, Personal Identification Number(PIN) pads, and sometimes personal computers (PCs) that connect with the bank’s server using a personal dial-up or other data connection. This research used the descriptive design method using secondary data gathered from the commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking in Kenya. The population of the study was the 10 commercial banks in Kenya that had adopted agency banking by the end of 2012 namely Equity Bank, Co-operative Bank, KCB Bank, Post Bank, Family Bank, Chase Bank ,Consolidated Bank, Diamond Trust Bank, Citibank and NIC Bank. Annual reports on individual banks’ financial performance were used to extract financial performance indicators. CBK’s annual report and supervisory reports were also used to establish the number of agents registered and the total transactional value conducted through the agents. The variable of interests were the cash withdrawal and deposit transactions done through agents, number of active agents, return on assets, cost to income ratio and staff cost to revenue ratio. JEL classification numbers: G24
Keywords: Agency Banking, Financial Performance and Kenya.

Agoya-Wotsuna C. "The Role of Indigenous Languages in Kenya. A Case for Using them as Languages of Instruction throughout Primary School”. ." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics . 2012;Vol. 2: 89-105.
Agullo JO, Marenya MO. "Resistance to airflow of bulk clean parchment Arabica coffee.". In: Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers (KSAE), Annual International Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Agwanda A. Research Methodology and Communication: Participants Course book and Trainers Manual. Kenya Institute for Research and Policy Analysis; 2004.
Agwata JF. "A Review of Some Indices used for Drought Studies." Civil and Environmental Research. 2014;Vol.6, No.2. Abstract10842-13144-1-pb.pdf

Droughts are serious extreme events that have adverse effects on the physical environment and water resource
systems in both developed and developing countries. Consequently, there is need for adequate measures for
responding to and mitigating various impacts arising from drought occurrence. The design and implementation
of drought mitigation and response strategies requires an understanding of the various indices that are used to
examine drought both at single site and in an area. In the case of water resources management during critical
drought periods for instance, a means of objectively identifying drought events in terms time and duration of
occurrence, magnitude and severity is required. This is possible only using various indices to characterize
drought. In this paper, some of the key drought indices are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses
identified.

Agwata, J. F. WWN, Ondieki CM. "Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya using Stream flow Records.". Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol 4, No 2 (www.ajol.info/journals/jcerp); 2007. Abstract
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Ahmad J, Thomson S, Taylor M, Scoffield J. "A reminder of the classical biochemical sequelae of adult gastric outlet obstruction." BMJ Case Reports. 2011;2011. AbstractWebsite

The commonest cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is pyloric stenosis secondary to peptic ulcer disease or gastric carcinoma. Patients with GOO have unique metabolic sequelae, namely hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with paradoxical aciduria and hypocalcaemia. A case of a patient presenting as GOO is discussed. The aim of this report is to highlight the metabolic abnormalities and management in patients with GOO.

AJ RODRIGUES, GP P, CA MOTURI. Reviews of Logistic Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology. University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1994.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Rural Planning in Regional Development: The Kenyan Experience Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 Nos 3/4 Dec. 2001.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2001.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Renewable Energy Technology and Appropriate Technology Development" in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex II pp 49.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Researching for Improved and Affordable Housing", Construction Review Journal of the Construction Industry Vol. 13 No. 10 pp. 6-8 October 2002.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 2002.
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Akundabweni LSM. "Research on indigenous Food Plants.". 1993.
Akuon P, Afullo TTJO. Rain cell size statistics from rain gauge data for site diversity planning and attenuation prediction. SATNAC 2011,East London, South Africa: SATNAC 2011; 2011.
Akuon P, Xu H. Rate and reliability implementation scheme for Polar Codes,SATNAC2012,EastLondon,SA. George, Western Cape, South Africa; 2012. Abstract

 Communications channel coding that achieves capacity is implemented and solution suggested for selection of the optimal design parameter to achieve capacity:Rate or reliability of channels.

Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Rain cell sizing for the design of high capacity radio link systems in South Africa,PIERJournalB,2011." PIERS. 2011;35:263-285, . AbstractWebsite

Full report on the derivation of rain characteristics and consequential application to microwave linkk designs.

Aleri JW, Mutembei HM, Mulei CM, Gakombe JW;, MBUGUA SM. "A Retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

A twenty year retrospective study was carried out in the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya and in a private Small Animal Clinic in Nairobi between the years 1988 to 2008. A total of 6548 bitches had been presented with reproductive problems. The cases were categorically grouped according to the type of infertility diagnosed. Non-infectious infertilities were sixty nine percent and infectious types were thirty one percent. Only two percent of the latter were confirmed in one clinic. 23.20 % of non-infectious infertility were managerial, 29.1% anatomical and 7.80% physiological types while 39.80 % were unclassified miscellaneous cases. The cases classified under infectious infertility consisted of; vaginitis/endometritis/metritis (36.3%), pyometra (25.3%), abortions (21.5%), vaginal discharges (11.7%) and miscarriages (5.1%). The incidence of infertilities was highly common in breeds of German shepherd (39%), Doberman (6%), Rottweiler (12%) and their crosses (43%). The percentage of the reproductive cases presented in both clinics had no statistical difference at (p<0.05). It was evident from the results of this study that infectious infertility exists among the bitches in Kenya and it would be beneficial to do further studies to establish the causative agents to avert any possible outbreaks of zoonotic diseases.

Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Rabies and Population Control of Stray Dogs and Cats in Nairobi Slums. WVS-CSD Initiative (2011). Muraya, J., Aleri, J.W. Mutembei, H.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: Rabies Workshop 26th September,2011 held in Machokas. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective study on Reproductive conditions in Bitches in Nairobi (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., C.M. Mulei., Gakombe, J.W. and Mbugua, S.M.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 34: 29-31. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/68400. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective Study on Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., Mulei, C.M., Mbugua, S.M. and Gakombe, J.W.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

AM K. "Raising the awareness of infant oral mutilation - the myths and the facts." Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;2015; 6:S137-8(2015; 6:S137-8):2015; 6:S137-8.
AM K. "Renaissance or dimming hope – the dilemma of managing multi-surface dental carious lesions in primary dentition using atraumatic restorative treatment (ART)." Brazilian Res Paediatr Dent Integrated Clin. 2014;2014; 14(1): 65-69(2014; 14(1): 65-69):2014; 14(1): 65-69.
Amayio DG, Abong GO, Okoth MW. "A Review of Occurrence of Glycoalkaloids in Potato and Potato Products." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2016;4(3):196-202.omayio_2016a_a_review_glycoalkaloids_potato_prducts.pdf
Ambuko J, Zanol GC, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Gemma H. "Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in hot air preconditioning mediated alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruits." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2013;5:319. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Onsongo NK, Hutchinson MJ, Owino WO. "Response of'Apple'mango fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene as affected by agro-ecological zone and maturity stage.". In: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): IV 1111.; 2014:. Abstract
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Amimo JO, Raev SA, Chepngeno J, Mainga AO, Guo Y, Saif L, Vlasova AN. "Rotavirus Interactions With Host Intestinal Epithelial Cells." . Frontiers in immunology. 2021;12.
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso sub-counties, Western Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2016:DOI 10.1007/s11250-016-1164-9.
Amimo JO, Otieno TF, Okoth E, Onono JO, Bett B. "Risk factors for rotavirus infection in pigs in Busia and Teso subcounties, Western Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2017;49(1):105-112 . Abstract

We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In this analysis, RV infection status was used as outcome variable, while the metadata collected at the time of sampling were used as predictors. A Bayesian hierarchical model which used integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method was then fitted to the data. The model accounted for the spatial effect by using stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). Of the 239 samples screened, 206 were available for the analysis. Descriptive analyses showed that 27.7 % (57/206) of the samples were positive for rotaviruses groups A and C, 18.5 % were positive for group A rotaviruses, 5.3 % were positive for group C rotaviruses, while 3.9 % had co-infections from both groups of rotaviruses. The spatial effect was insignificant, and a simple (non-spatial) model showed that piglets (≤4 months) and those pigs kept in free range systems had higher risk of exposure to rotavirus infection as compared to older pigs (>4 months) and those tethered or housed, respectively. Intervention measures that will target these high-risk groups of pigs will be beneficial to farmers.

AMOLO DROGADAPENINA. "Rural African Women and Technology Literacy: Case Study in Uganda and Kenya. Paper Presented at Panel Discussion, AWID conference in Guadalajara, Mexico.". In: Paper Submitted for review, Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2002. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
Amuti TM, Butt F, Otieno BO, Ogeng'o JA. "The relation of the extracranial spinal accessory nerve to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein. Cranial Maxillofac Trauma Reconstruction." Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction. 2018;12(2):108-111. Abstract

The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) exhibits variant anatomy in its relation to the internal jugular vein (IJV) as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). These variations are important in locating the nerve during surgical neck procedures to avoid its inadvertent injury. These variations, however, are not conserved among different populations and data from the Kenyan setting are partly elucidated. This study, therefore, aims to determine the variant anatomical relationship of the SAN to the SCM and IJV in a select Kenyan population. Forty cadaveric necks were studied bilaterally during routine dissection and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Means and modes were calculated for the point of entry of the SAN into the posterior triangle of the neck as well as for its relation to the SCM. Side variations for both of these were analyzed using Student's t -test. Data relating the SAN to the IJV were represented in percentages and side variations were analyzed using the chi-square test. The SAN point of entry into the posterior triangle of the neck was 5.38 cm (3.501-8.008 cm) on the left side and 5.637 cm (3.504-9.173 cm) on the right side ( p  = 0.785) from the mastoid process. The nerve perforated the SCM in four cases (10%) on the left side and in eight cases (20%) on the right ( p  = 0.253). The SAN lay predominantly medial to the IJV on both sides of the neck, 87.5% on the left side of the neck versus 82.5% on the right ( p  = 0.831). In conclusion, the variant relation of the SAN to the IJV and SCM as observed in this setting is an important consideration during radical neck procedures and node biopsies.

and FJK, Anne.A. A. "The role of information communication and technology (ICT) on poverty reduction amongst the businesswomen in Marakwet west district, Kenya." Hekima biannual Journal of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi. 2011.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Chitedze I. "The role of diversity, reserve margin and system structure on retail electricity tariffs in Kenya." Heliyon. 2020;6(8):1-11.
Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).". 2018;(Published Online: 03 June 2019). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Angima C, Wakobwa AM. "Risk management practices and marine premium growth of insurance firms in Kenya." nternational Journal of Creative Research And Studies. 2018;2(11):51-61.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "Recurrent Costs of Public Investment and Budget Rationalization in Kenya, Proceedings of a Workshop organized by the Kenyan Economic Association. ( Co-edited with LewisOdhiambo of Kenya School of Journalism, University of Nairobi).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1988. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
ANTIPA MROKELOJASPER. "The Role of Credit: IDS Occasional Paper No. 6.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1972. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Antonini A, Stryker M. "Rapid remodeling of axonal arbors in the visual cortex." Science (New York, N.Y.). 1993;260:1819-21. Abstract
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Anzala AO, Simonsen JN, Kimani J, Ball TB, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Kakai NJD, Plummer FA. "Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Accelerated HIV-1 Disease Progression.". 2000.
AOSA E. ""Rationale and Business Implications of the Renewed East African Co-operation'.". In: Marketing Review. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract

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ARAP MRKENDUIWOJOHNK. "Realizing competitiveness through Operations Management (currently under preparation).". In: E.A.J.P.Sc. 1 (1998) 1-27. Folio Morphol; 1998. Abstract
Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella asiatica. In the present study, the mechanism of anticancer effect of AA on skin cancer was investigated. AA decreased viability and induced apoptosis in human melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. AA also markedly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced the expression of Bax but not Bcl-2 protein in the cells. In addition, AA-induced activation of caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with Trolox, an antioxidant, significantly blocked the induction of Bax and activation of caspase-3 in AA-treated cells. Furthermore, Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific caspase-3 inhibitor, and Trolox prevented the AA-induced apoptosis. AA did not elevate p53 nuclear protein levels that are present in a mutant form in SK-MEL-2 cells. These results suggest that AA-induced apoptosis may be mediated through generation of ROS, alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and activation of caspase-3, but p53-independent. These results further suggest that AA may be a good candidate for the therapeutic intervention of human skin cancer.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

ARIMI PROFMUTWIRIS, NYARONGI PROFOMBUIJ. "Raw milk as a source of Staphylococcal enterotoxins in consumer milk.". In: journal. University of Nairobi Press; 1992. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
Arimi SM, Koroti E, Kangethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ. "Risk of infection with Brucella abortus and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 associated with marketing of unpasteurized milk in Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in central Kenya and screened for antibodies to Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) OI57:H7. The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterisation, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTl) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (Pf.R) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins. The prevalence of antibodies to B. abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTl. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus greatly reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.

Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. "Risk of infection from E. coli O157: H7 through informally marketed raw milk in Kenya."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common.

Arráez-Aybar L-A, Sánchez-Montesinos I, Mirapeix R-Mª, Mompeo-Corredera B, Sañudo-Tejero J-R. "Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice." Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2010;192:341-348. AbstractWebsite

Aim The aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). Materials and methods A total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. Results The response rate was 42.9% (n = 536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. Conclusion Our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of computer Applications. 2016;144(1). AbstractFull Text Link

Analogous to the motorists’ roadmap that shows roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region, A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period, industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted. This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya about the adoption of e-payments. A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from these analyses have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asiligwa BI, Omwenga EI. "A Roadmap for the Adoption of Government E-payments in Kenya." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2016;144(1):8-18. Abstractasiligwa-2016-ijca-910062.pdfJournal Website

Analogous to the Motorists roadmap that shows the roads, directions and distances to a destination of a given region [1]. A roadmap in this context is a detailed guideline that answers the “why-what-how" questions and lay out the required actions, the "to-do's." towards adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya. For Over a decade, the government of Kenya grappled with the idea of implementing a national payment gateway through which all payments for government services, levies, duties, and fines were to be electronically made. For a long period industry players and policy makers in government had unsuccessfully developed varied strategies of achieving a cashless government payment system. These efforts have failed to yield due to lack of a comprehensive roadmap that addressed pertinent issues that had to be dealt with for e-payments in government to be fully adopted.
This research was done by conducting a survey study on the government of Kenya on the adoption of e-payments.
A random sample of the research population was drawn from ICT and Finance employees of 262 state corporations, 19 Ministries, and 47 counties to which a questionnaire was administered to gain an understanding and information on why there had been low uptake of e-payments in the government of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using descriptive statistical techniques. The results from this analysis have been used to propose a roadmap for the adoption of e-payments in the government of Kenya and any other similar setting.

Asingo PO. "Relative Deprivation, Protests and Voting in Kenya." Commonwealth and Comparative Politics . 2018;56(1):65-83.Relative Deprivation
Ateka EM, Mwang'ombe AW, Kimenju JW. "Reaction of potato c~lt!vars ,to ralston!~ solana cearumin Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

A survey of bactenal wilt (BW) incidence was carried out in three potato producing districts of Kenya, namely, Nyeri, Nyandarua, and Meru in 1997. The survey was carried out in 30 randomly selected farms in each district. Incidence of BW was highest (18.8%) in Nyeri district, intermediate (16.7%) in Meru and lowest (10.4%) in . Nyandarua. A significant and negative correlation (p=O.05; r = -0.34) between bacterial wilt incidence and altitude was observed. Fifteen potato cultivars, Nyayo, Desiree CIP-800048, Roslin Tana, Kerrs pinkLB-5, Golof (Dutch Robjin), B53, Tigoni CIP-381381.13, Rutuku CIP-720097, AsanteCIP-381381.20, Kenya DhamanaCIP- 800228, Mauritius Clone (89•016), .: KP93739.26, KP92633.26, and Cruza148 CIP-72011 were subsequently evaluated for their reaction to Ralstonia solanacearum in artificial and natural infections in the greenhouse and in the field. Although none of the cultivars appeared resistant, there were significant (p=0.05) differencesir bacterial wilt incidence and severity among the cultivars. Cultivars Kenya Dhamana, Mauritius and Cruza(Cllt- 720118) had low bacterial wilt severity and incidence and were rated tolerant, whereas the other cultivars were rated moderately susceptible or very susceptible.

Atoh F. "Reading Dholuo: Spelling Patterns, Orthography and Word Patterns.". In: National Conference on Early Grade Learning. Nakuru; 2009.
Awange D, A. WK, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, W. GS. "Reactive Localised Inflamatory Hyperplasia of the Oral Mucosa." East African Medical journal. 2009.
Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EA, W GS. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.". 2009. Abstract

To document the histopathological pattern and distribution of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplastic lesions of the oral mucosa diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over a 14 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, histopathology laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 oral biopsies were accessioned in the oral diagnostic histopathological Laboratory registry over a period of 14 years from March 1991 to December 2005. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty three cases were histopathologically diagnosed as reactive inflammatory hyperplasias of the oral mucosa. This constituted 10.6% of the total oral biopsy specimens analysed during this period. Fibrous epulis was the most common histological sub-type with 129 cases (38.7%) followed by pyogenic granuloma with 94 (28.3%) cases. Six (1.8%) cases were peripheral giant cell granuloma and three cases (0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age distribution ranged from 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years) with a peak at 20-29 years. Gender distribution showed that 107 (32%) cases occurred in males and 226 (68%) cases females. Similar trends were observed in most of the histological sub-types. Fibrous epulis occurred in 41 male (31.8%) cases and in 88 (68.2%) females with an age range of 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years). As for the pyogenic granuloma, 26 (27.7%) lesions occurred in males and 68 (72.3%) in females with an age range of 2 to 75 years (mean = 30.1 years). Among all the histopathological sub-types it was shown that 223 (67.0%) cases were fibrous, 104 (31.2%) vascular and six (1.8%) peripheral giant cell granuloma. Gingival lesions were the most common with 257 (77.2%) cases followed by 28 (8.4%) in the tongue, 16 (4.8%) lips, 15 (4.5%) cheek, six (1.8%) palate and the rest on the floor of the mouth and other mucosal sites. The duration of these lesions was recorded in 182 (54.7%) cases and ranged from 1 week to 16 years (mean = 1.8 years). Only 15 (4.5%) cases were reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia (RLIHs) of the oral mucosa was 10.6% with fibrous epulis and pyogenic granuloma having been the most common histopathological sub-types predominantly affecting females. Although RLIHs are distinguished on clinical or histopatholocal grounds, it is important to appreciate that they are variations of the same basic process

Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EO, Guthua SW. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa." East African medical journal. 2009;86. Abstract
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Awange DO, Wakoli KA, Onyango JF, Chindia ML, Dimba EA, W GS. "Reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.". 2009. Abstract

To document the histopathological pattern and distribution of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplastic lesions of the oral mucosa diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over a 14 year period. DESIGN: A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Division of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, histopathology laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: A total of 3135 oral biopsies were accessioned in the oral diagnostic histopathological Laboratory registry over a period of 14 years from March 1991 to December 2005. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty three cases were histopathologically diagnosed as reactive inflammatory hyperplasias of the oral mucosa. This constituted 10.6% of the total oral biopsy specimens analysed during this period. Fibrous epulis was the most common histological sub-type with 129 cases (38.7%) followed by pyogenic granuloma with 94 (28.3%) cases. Six (1.8%) cases were peripheral giant cell granuloma and three cases (0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age distribution ranged from 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years) with a peak at 20-29 years. Gender distribution showed that 107 (32%) cases occurred in males and 226 (68%) cases females. Similar trends were observed in most of the histological sub-types. Fibrous epulis occurred in 41 male (31.8%) cases and in 88 (68.2%) females with an age range of 2 to 78 years (mean = 30.5 years). As for the pyogenic granuloma, 26 (27.7%) lesions occurred in males and 68 (72.3%) in females with an age range of 2 to 75 years (mean = 30.1 years). Among all the histopathological sub-types it was shown that 223 (67.0%) cases were fibrous, 104 (31.2%) vascular and six (1.8%) peripheral giant cell granuloma. Gingival lesions were the most common with 257 (77.2%) cases followed by 28 (8.4%) in the tongue, 16 (4.8%) lips, 15 (4.5%) cheek, six (1.8%) palate and the rest on the floor of the mouth and other mucosal sites. The duration of these lesions was recorded in 182 (54.7%) cases and ranged from 1 week to 16 years (mean = 1.8 years). Only 15 (4.5%) cases were reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia (RLIHs) of the oral mucosa was 10.6% with fibrous epulis and pyogenic granuloma having been the most common histopathological sub-types predominantly affecting females. Although RLIHs are distinguished on clinical or histopatholocal grounds, it is important to appreciate that they are variations of the same basic process

Awiti UO, Ekström AM, Ilako F. "Reasoning and deciding PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

This study explores type identities among rural and urban slum women on antiretroviral therapies who become pregnant. Narrative structuring was chosen to develop type narratives that illustrate how rural and urban women handle their HIV-infection and how they reason and decide about PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy and childbirth. Women in rural areas described their lives as 'secure and family controlled'. This gave the women security and predictability in life, but also meant that it was difficult to keep secrets about HIV infection. For women in the urban slum area the narratives were a tale of the uncertain and hard to predict reality in the slum, but also about self-reliance and decisiveness. They portrayed themselves as 'vulnerable and striving to survive' thus managing a tough situation without long-term solutions. We conclude that pregnancy poses different social challenges in rural and urban areas affecting how women choose to manage their adherence to PMTCT, which is also affected by HIV stigma and lack of disclosure

Awori MN. "Reply to Yurekli et al." European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2013;Advanced access published 24th May 2013(Advanced access published 24th May 2013):1.reply_yurekli_et_al_awori_m_eur_j_cardiothor_2013.pdf
Ayiemba, E.H.O. and Oucho JO. The Refugee crisis in Africa: What are the Policy Options?.; 1995.
Ayonga DSODJ&. "Rural-Urban Dualism and Ineffective Land Use Control Instruments at the Rural- Urban Interface.". In: Africa Habitat. Nairobi: Africa Habitat Review Journal; 2009. Abstract

Abstract

Hitherto, land use planning in Kenya was practiced in the colonial urban areas and the scheduled highlands but not in the African markets and rural reserves. This then created favorable land use patterns in the European settlements and unfavorable land use patterns in the African settlements. In the recent times, efforts have been made to introduce land use planning in the former African settlements in order to harmonize land use patterns in the country. However, effective land use planning within the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface has proved futile. Hence, the favorable spatial patterns in the former African settlements can still be observed during the era of post-colonial Kenya. This paper seek answers to the following question: why would land use control instruments which are fairly effective in the former European settlements become ineffective in the former African settlements especially at the rural-urban interface? Arising from the review of literature, it is concluded that overtime, the colonial settlements and the African settlements land use economies evolved to what can be considered as two composite land use systems. The two land use systems have variations in land use objectives, legal provisions, institutional frameworks and land delivery models. The variations in components between the former African rural land use systems and those of the colonial urban and scheduled areas system were not harmonized. Therefore, the European settlement area specific land use control instruments could not be effective in the former African land use system where the rural-urban interface is located.

Key words: rural-urban dualism ineffective control instruments, rural-urban interface

Aywak AA. The Radiological Manifestations Of Burkitt's Lymphoma At The Kenyatta National Hospital.; 1992. Abstract

The radiological features of Burkitt's Lymphoma were
assessed in 49 children with a histological diagnosis of
Burkitt's lymphoma admitted to the Kenyatta National Hospital
Paediatric wards. The commonest radiological findings were
associated with abdominal lymphomas seen in 65.2% of the
cases. The least findings were associated with cervical
adenopathy seen in 3.3% and a similar number had pleural
effusion. Disease extent on radiological evaluation was
greater than as assessed clinically alone. For instance,
while 20 cases were clinically found to have disease confined
to the facial bones, on radiological evaluation 5 of the 20
cases were found to have Burkitt's Lymphoma deposits in the
abdominal viscera besides the facial lesions. The age
range was 2-14 years with the incidence falling rapidly after
10 years. The male female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Peak
incidence was at 5 - 7 years. The highest incidence was found
among tribes residing in endemic malarial areas. The Luo had
the highest incidence with 19 cases (38.8%) followed by the
Luhya with 11 cases (22.4%).

B
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Resistance to chloroquine therapy in pregnant women with malaria parasitemia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41.". In: Int J Gynaecol Obstet.1996 Jun;53(3):235-41. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia at therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg body weight divided over 3 days. <br>METHODS: Three-hundred pregnant women in Kilifi Hospital at the coast of Kenya were screened for malaria parasitemia using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. In vivo and in vitro parasite sensitivity to chloroquine was determined. <br>RESULTS: P. falciparum infections were present in 65 (22%) of 300 pregnant women. The in vivo tests showed that 46% of all the P. falciparum infections were resistant to chloroquine predominantly at RI and RII levels. The in vitro tests showed a resistance rate of 35%. <br>CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women with malaria do not respond to chloroquine therapy and alternative drugs are required.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Omany J, Onyango JN, Ojwang SBO.Carcinoma of the cervix in African setting. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Ojwang SBO, Stendal Second look laparatomy. Its role in management of ovarian carcinoma.E. Afr. Med. J. 1990: 66,844.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
b. "Review of ocular trauma in Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana." Journal of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa. 2015;19(2):75-82. Abstractvol19_no_2.pdf

Abstract

Objective: To establish the epidemiologic characteristics, referral pattern, interventions, visual outcomes and complications resulting in visual impairment/blindness among ocular trauma patients in Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) Eye Clinic, Tamale, Ghana.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective hospital-based case series in which all new patients of all ages with various eye conditions from 1st January to 31st December 2010 were reviewed from the outpatient/inpatient record books and the sex and age recorded. The files/ folders of patients with ocular trauma were selected and retrieved. The epidemiological characteristics, referral pattern, interventions, visual outcomes and complications resulting in visual impairment/blindness among ocular trauma patients were analysed.
Results: A total of 2,027 records of new patients with various eye conditions were retrieved. Three hundred and sixty one (377 eyes) new ocular trauma patients’ files/ folders were analyzed. The Male: Female ratio was 1:1.1 (p=0.09) for all new patients with various eye conditions whilst it was 1.8:1 (p<0.01) for new ocular trauma patients. Ocular trauma patients were younger than general patients with 20 – 29 years age group having most new patients (27.4%) compared with the over 49 years age group for other new cases (23.4%). Approximately 68.4% of the ocular trauma patients were seen at TTH without a referral. Conjunctival lesions were the commonest finding affecting 124(32.9%) of the ocular trauma patients. The majority of patients 88.1% sustained closed globe trauma, 8.3% had adnexal trauma whilst 3.6% had open globe trauma. The commonest intervention rendered was medical treatment alone to 64.4% of the patients. By the WHO classification, majority 67.4% of traumatized eyes had normal vision, 13.9% were visually impaired and 18.7% were blind. Thus, 110 (32.6%) were visually impaired/ blind in the traumatized eye. The commonest complications resulting in visual impairment/ blindness were corneal opacities/ scars in 33(30.0%) cases.
Conclusion: Majority of ocular trauma patients presented with minor injuries which healed without complications. However, ocular trauma was a major cause of monocular blindness and visual impairment. Ocular trauma also tended to affect a younger age group and especially males compared to other eye diseases.
Key words: Ocular trauma, Epidemiology, Referral pattern, Intervention, Visual outcome, Complication

B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Ojwang SBO, Stendal Second look laparatomy. Its role in management of ovarian carcinoma.E. Afr. Med. J. 1990: 66,844.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.
B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Rego, A.B., 1975 "Chapter 15, The Weather Station", in A Guide to Fieldwork in Kenya, KIE, Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1975. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
B M, L O. Rapid assessment of milk sheds in 16 Districts in Kenya. Nairobi: Land O Lakes; 2008.
B DRESHUNFRANCIS. "Redundancy Rules in Kiswahili.". In: Occasional Papers in Language and Linguistics, Volume 2, 2004. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK. "Role of intracavitary 137caesium in the management of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1977 Sep;54(9):472-5. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1977. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
B R, I B, S D, B S, Gladys M, M R, L L, YC Z, W D. "Radiology Education in Africa: Analysis of results from 13 countries." Journal of the American College of Radiology. 2016.
B MISSREGOASSUMPTA. "Rego, A.B., 1972 (Editorial Committee) Australia and New Zealand, Geography for Kenya Schools, KIE, Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Nairobi.". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1972. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
B K, Kaluli J.W, Peter N, G T’o. "Removal of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution using Natural Materials: A Kinetic and Equilibrium Study." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2016;3(3):53-62.
B PROFOJWANGSHADRACK, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Rogo KO, Omany J, Onyango JN, Ojwang SBO.Carcinoma of the cervix in the African setting. Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-.". In: Int. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 1990: 33, 249-. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract

Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest female malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa today. A brief description of its prevalence and distribution is given. Kenyan data is then used to illustrate the predominance of advanced disease in mostly premenopausal women (70%) of high parity. Follow up is characteristically poor and treatment results, although difficult to calculate with accuracy, are also poor. These are compared to FIGO statistics. Against this background aspects peculiar to the tumor, patient and treatment facilities in Africa are cited and discussed with reference to current relevant literature.

BAARO DRGATHURAPETER. "River water fluoride in Kenya Vol. 35 No. 3 193 -196.". In: journal. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
Baeten J, Richardson B, Martin H, Nyange P, Lavreys L, Ngugi EN, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss J, Mandaliya K. "Rapid Decline in Risk of HIV-l Acquisition After Enrollment in a Vaccine Preparedness Cohort of Kenyan Prostitutes: Implications for the Design of HIV -1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.". 2002. Abstract

In designing HIY-l vaccine efficacy trials, it will be important to accounrfor changes in HIY -1 incidence, especially changes over time and while participating in riskreduction programs. Methods: Data from an open cohort of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya were analyzed. Individuals were censored after 3 years of follow-up or at HIY -J seroconversion. Models of HIY -J and sexually transmitted disease incidence and sexual risk behaviors over time were constructed using generalized estimating equations. Annual HIV -1 incidence for the entire cohort was calculated. Results: The risk of HIY -J infection declined I O-fold during 3 years of follow-up (from 17.4 to 1.7 cases per 100 person-years for the first and last six months of follow-up, respectively, p

Baeten J, Cates W, Celum C, Chipato T, Combes S, Donnell D, Gichangi P, Hofmeyr J, Morrison C, Mugo N, Nanda K, Phillips S, Rees H, Taylor D, Temmerman M. "Research on hormonal contraception and HIV." Lancet . 2014;383:303-304.
Barasa L, Kimuyu P, Kinyanjui B, Vermeulen P, Knoben J. "R&D, Foreign technology and technical efficiency in developing countries.". In: Working paper STRAT14-02. Nijmegen University.; 2014.
Berson DM. "Retinal {Ganglion} {Cell} {Types} and {Their} {Central} {Projections}." In: Masland RH, Albright TD, Dallos P, Oertel D, Firestein S, Beauchamp GK, Bushnell CM, Basbaum AI, Kaas JH, Gardner EP, eds. The {Senses}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Reference}. New York: Academic Press; 2008:. Abstract

Ganglion cells are the only retinal neurons communicating directly with the brain. It is well known that mammalian ganglion cells comprise more than a dozen types, clearly distinguishable from one another in structure and function. Each type also appears to send axons to a distinctive subset of the many central visual nuclei receiving direct retinal input. The implication is that each ganglion cell type forms a specialized channel sculpted by evolutionary pressures to fulfill specific visual functions. Though the outlines of this perspective have been clear for decades, many essential details are lacking. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of knowledge about where retinal axons are distributed in the brain and which types of ganglion cells contribute to these pathways. The primary focus is on ganglion cell types that appear to be conserved across mammalian phylogeny.

Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics. Hangzhou, China; Submitted.
Bhatt KM, Bhatt SM. "Recurrent polyneuropathy in pregnancy: a case report.". 1994. Abstract

A 33-year old female patient presented with recurrent polyneuropathy during two consecutive pregnancies and recovered completely after spontaneous abortion the first time and after a normal delivery the second time. The patient has had a tubal ligation since then and has remained well up to date.

Bhatt B, Angeyo KH, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics." Energy Procedia. 2017;127:76-86.
Bigirimana J, Njoroge K, Muthomi JW, Walyaro DJ, Phiri NA, Gichuru EK, Gahakwa D. "Resistance of Arabica coffee genotypes (Coffea arabica L.) to coffee berry disease and coffee leaf rust in Rwanda." International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences (IJFAS). 2013;Accepted.
Bilakhia N.A., Tirop L.J. MKTBKAM. "A Retrospective Stuy of Oral Medications Compounded for Pediatric Patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;17:64-69.17_c_bilakhia_tirop_menge_and_kuria.pdf
Birech Z, Otange BO, Rop R, Oyug JO. Rapid detection of HIV1-p24 antigen in human blood plasma using Raman spectroscopy. Rochester Convention Center, New York, USA; 2016.
Birithia RK, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Resistance to Iris yellow spot virus and onion thrips among onion varieties grown in Kenya." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science . 2014;34(2):73-79.
Birkin F, Ramos M, Makunda C, Margerison J, Polesie T, Balanzo A. "Revising the ontological status of traditional modes of living: The concepts and their practical consequences in sustainability issues in China, Kenya, Colombia and Sweden.". In: The 23rd International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) Conference. Bogota, Colombia; 2017.
Bisetegne D, Ogallo L, Ininda J. "Rainfall Characteristics in Ethiopia." Technical Conference on Meteorological Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. 1986.
Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB. "Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial." Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 1976;124(3):263-7. Abstract

We conducted a controlled, prospective trial to evaluate the effectiveness of rapidly infusing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and salt-poor albumin into high-risk, premature infants in the first 2 hours of life. Fifty-three infants, randomized into one of four treatment groups, received 8 ml. per kilogram of a solution containing either (A) glucose in water, (B) salt-poor albumin, (C) NaHCO3, or (D) a combination of albumin and NaHCO3. After the initial infusion, the babies received no colloid or alkali solutions until 4 hours of age. We managed them supportively with warmth, appropriate oxygen administration, isotonic fluid infusion, and close monitoring. Among the infants who received alkali, 14 of 26 acquired the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 11 died, and four had intracranial hemorrhage. Among babies who received no alkali, RDS occurred in 11 of 27, 5 died, and none had intracranial hemorrhage. These results do not support the common practice of rapidly infusing NaHCO3 into high-risk, premature infants, and they suggest that the early management of such infants needs renewed critical evaluation.

Bok D. "The retinal pigment epithelium: a versatile partner in vision." Journal of cell science. Supplement. 1993;17:189-195. Abstract

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cuboidal cells that lies in close association with the rod and cone photoreceptors. This epithelium has diverse features, three of which are discussed in some detail in this review, namely the daily phagocytosis of rod and cone outer segment fragments that are shed from their distal ends; the uptake, processing, transport and release of vitamin A (retinol) and some of its visual cycle intermediates (retinoids); and some of the aspects of its apical and basolateral membrane polarity that are the reverse of most other epithelia. Phagocytosis takes place at the apical surface via membrane receptor-mediated processes that are not yet well defined. Retinol uptake occurs at both the basolateral and apical surfaces by what appear to be separate receptor-mediated processes. The release of a crucial retinoid, 11-cis retinaldehyde (11-cis retinal), occurs solely across the apical membrane. Delivery of retinol across the basolateral membrane is mediated by a retinol binding protein (RBP) that is secreted by the liver as a complex with retinol (vitamin A). Within the cell, retinol and its derivatives are solubilized by intracellular retinoid binding proteins that are selective for retinol (cellular retinol binding protein, CRBP) and 11-cis retinoids (cellular retinal binding protein, CRALBP). Release of 11-cis retinal across the apical membrane and re-uptake of retinol from the photoreceptors during the visual cycle is promoted by an intercellular retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Na,K-ATPase, the membrane-integrated enzyme required to set up the ion gradients that drive other ion transporters, is largely localized to the apical membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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