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Aduda BO. "REVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH AND POLICY MAKING IN KENYA.". In: Nanotechnologies for Kenya’s Development: Questions of Knowledge Brokerage and Risk Governance Workshop. Silversprings Hotel, Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

The study, manipulation and design of materials and devices at level approaching atomic sizes has given rise to nanoscience and nanotechnology, with the former being concerned more with the new properties whereas the latter - nanotechnology focuses on new devices. The nanoscale science and technology involves and cuts across different disciplines. It is now recognized that science founded on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale is the new basis for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration, and therefore receiving heightened attention world over.

Arising from the current and potential impacts of nanoscience and nanotechnology in all facets of humanity – way of life, health and the environment, it is imperative that any country takes stock of the status of the two intertwined disciplines. For example, it is known that nanotechnology can improve efficiency in manufacturing, energy resources and utilization, reduce environmental impacts of industry and transportation, enhance healthcare, produce better pharmaceuticals, improve agriculture and food production, and expand the capabilities of information technologies. The level of preparedness of a country to create new knowledge, exploit it or absorb such, it will be seen depends on the synergistic relationships amongst all the stakeholders right from the beginning of the research, product development processes, and policy and legislative frameworks that protect the workers producing and consumers of such products.

A study of the Kenya’s situation reveals that so far there minimal understanding or appreciation of what nanoscience and nanotechnology are amongst the key stakeholders, and what their potential benefits are or would be. The teaching of and research in these areas and the accompanying infrastructure are weak and uncoordinated. The regulatory frameworks and policies governing, particularly the manufacturing processes of or nanoscale products are either nonexistent or very weak/inadequate.

Munjuri MG. "Review of the factors affecting career advancement." DBA Africa Management Review. 2011;Vol. 1(No. 1).
Nyamai CM, Mathu EM, Ngecu WM. A review of the geology of the Mozambique Belt in Kenya. In: Peters, J.W., Kesse, G.O. and Acquah, P.C., (Eds.). Accra, Ghana: Geological Society of Africa; 1993.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Bedi A, Mwabu G. "A Review of the Health Sector in Kenya, KIPPRA Working Paper No. 11.". 2004.
M PROFMUTUAFRANCIS. "A Review of the Hydro-meteorological Research in Eastern Africa.Proc. 1st Technical Conference on Meteorological Research in Eastern and Southern Africa.". In: Dagoretti, Nairobi 6th-9th January, 1987. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Irandu EM. "A review of the impact of the Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) on Kenya’s national development." World Transport Policy and Practice. 2017;23(2):22-37.
H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A review of the medical aspects of adolescent fertility in Kenya.". EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "A review of the medical aspects of adolescent fertility in Kenya.". Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mungai DN. "Review of the Poverty-Environment Partnership (PE) Programmes in Kenya, KEN/2004/041." Department for International Development (DFID), 17 pp; 2005. Abstract
n/a
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
and Emily A. Rogena, Giulia De Falco KSLL. "A review of the trends of lymphomas in the equatorial belt of Africa." Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). 2010;(10.1002):977.
KUNYANGA MSCATHERINENKIROTE. "Review on Health Benefits of Nut Consumption with Special Reference to Body Weight Control.". In: Nutrition Journal.; 2012. Abstract
                                    Abstract
Kituku B, Muchemi L, Nganga W. "A Review on Machine Translation Approaches." Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 2016;1(1). Abstractfull website link

There is need to fill the gap between two entities which use different languages to communicate which can be done either via human translation or machine translation means. The world has over 7000 living natural languages, thus making it costly if human translation route is taken hence need for machine translation. There is need to know the available machine translation approaches and their requirement in order to decide which one suits for particular languages or not, hence the motivation for this survey. The survey provide overview and architectures of the three major techniques available namely: rule based translation, corpus based translation and hybrid based translation plus their subcategories available in each approach.

Otianga-Owiti'G.E, Onyango DW, Ouma JO, Njogu A, Mungania SK. "A review on methods employed in studying embryogenesis.". 2000. Abstract

In an endeavour to comprehend the mechanisms of vertebrate embryonic development including how the embryo attains its form and structures, biologist have over the years devised a number of methods. In all the techniques employed, the choice of the method is largely determined by the question to be answered amongst other factors. This review looks at the various methods that have been developed, ranging from the use of simple lenses through histological sectioning and direct manipulation to the use of biochemical probes and extracts

Nderitu JH. "A review on pests of grain legumes."; 1992.
Waweru MM;, Ojwang SB;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

Ojwang SB;, Waweru MM;, Kingondu CS;, Karanja JG;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

Karanja JG;, Waweru MM;, Ojwang SB;, Kingondu CS;, Kamau RK;, Waweru W. A Review Paper of the Cervical Cytology Diagnosis Services at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Laboratories.; 2007. Abstract

Invasive cancer of the cervix is considered a preventable disease because cancers develop slowly through per-cancerous changes to invasive cancer in about 10 - 15 years. Pap smear screening for the early detection of cancer of the cervix contributes to early successful treatment

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Review, Poems of Nature and Faith, by J.S. Mbiti and The Abandoned Hut by Joseph Buruga in Busara II, 3, 43-45.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1969. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Review, R.N. Gecau, Kikuyu Folktales, in East Africa Journal VIII, 8, 40.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1971. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "Reviewed a paper entitled ." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
The pathology of calves that died from experimental water intoxication was investigated. Oedema of the brain and urinary bladder, and renal damage were significant pathological findings in these calves. The findings were attributed to positive water balance in calves suffering from water intoxication
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed H. Glenn Hubert and Obrien, Principles of Economics.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
NZUVE SNM. Reviewed Organization Theory, Study manual for Bachelor of Commerce distance learning. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 2008.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewed two Papers for the Journal of Business and Management.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2006.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Reviewer for Decision Sciences Institute Conference Papers.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2004.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Reviewer, Marcel Rutten et al eds 1997 Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya' (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2001) 652pp (forthcoming).". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Reviewer, Thomas Spear, Mountain Farmers: Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), X, 262pp. Cloth $48, paper $17.95, 1998. Journal of Asian and African Studies ISSN 0021-909.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Gitao, C.G. Reviewer, Transboundary and Emerging diseases. Trsansboundary and Emerging Diseases; 2020.tbed_reviewer_certificate_1_1.pdf
Mwange C, Mulaku GC, Siriba DN. "Reviewing the status of national spatial data infrastructures in Africa." Survey Review. 2018;50(360):191-200.
AJ RODRIGUES, GP P, CA MOTURI. Reviews of Logistic Type Models in Plant Pathogen Epidemiology. University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 1994.
KONGERE TO. "Revising my book "Fundamentals of Operations Research".". In: Nairobi, University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance and Planning. WFL Publisher; 2006. Abstract

This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  

"Revising Nabongo Mumia’s Place in the Making of Kenya’s History: Historical and Literary Dimensions.” J-STEM, , , . ." Journal of Science, Technology and Education. 2010;Vol. 3 Nos. 1&2(ISSN. 1991-2889): Pp.179-194.
Birkin F, Ramos M, Makunda C, Margerison J, Polesie T, Balanzo A. "Revising the ontological status of traditional modes of living: The concepts and their practical consequences in sustainability issues in China, Kenya, Colombia and Sweden.". In: The 23rd International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS) Conference. Bogota, Colombia; 2017.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Revision Commerce.". In: Oxford University Press, Nairobi.; 1991.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Revision English. Top Mark Series, With Elegwa Mukulu, Phyllis Mwangi, Charles Gecaga, Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Volume 6, PP 117-145. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2006. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Conlong D, Pallangyo B, den Berg JOHNNIEV, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "A revision of the genus Conicofrontia Hampson (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with description of a new species: new insights from morphological, ecological and molecular data." Zootaxa. 2015;3925(1):056-074.
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
Gichaga FJ. "Revitalizing professionalism in engineers.". In: Engineers Conference. Nairobi; 2000.
Gichaga FJ. "The Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex.". In: Consultative Workshop on the Revival of the Numerical Machining Complex. Naivasha; 2007.
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "A Reviwe of the Current and prososed legal and institution frameworks for the Development and Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment of Sub Sahara Africa A Keynote Paper prepared for conference on C0-Operative for the development and protection ."; 1998. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

OMBOGA DRZAJAJAMES. ""Rewriting History in an Artistic Form: A look at the novel in Swahili with Specific Reference to the works of Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed". Departmental staff seminar paper presented at the Department of Swahili and African languages, Kenyatta University.". In: Energy and Environment in East Africa, ERS-3-80, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, . Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 19838712. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Biometry has the potential to improve refractive outcomes of cataract surgery in developing countries. However, the procedure is difficult to carry out in remote areas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The feasibility of automated biometry using portable devices was assessed in an eye camp in a remote Kenyan community and reasons for failure were documented. PC-IOLs in the range of 17-27 dioptres (dpt) were implanted and a model was created to predict spherical refractive error if a standard 22 dpt lens had been used. RESULTS: In 104 out of 131 eyes (80%) biometry was possible. Failure to obtain K-readings in eyes with coexisting corneal pathology was the main limiting factor. The calculated mean IOL strength to achieve emmetropia was 21.56 dpt with a SD=1.96 (min: 14.78 dpt, max: 27.24 dpt). If 22dpt lenses had been implanted around 20% would have had an error of more than 2 dpt and 7% an error of more than 3 dpt. CONCLUSION: Biometry is a challenging procedure in remote areas where comorbidities are common. However, without biometry and implantation of different IOL powers poor refractive outcome can be expected in around 20% of patients.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "RH Kipkemboi, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, J Karimurio: Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 14, No. 1 (2008).". In: PMID: 20164797. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the barriers to uptake of eye care services and to establish the pattern of utilization of eye care services in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. DESIGN: Community based survey conducted from 15th to 31st October 2007. Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City. SUBJECTS: Of the 4,200 people of all ages who were randomly selected; 4,056 were examined giving a response rate of 96.6%. Of those not examined, 126 (3.0%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) refused to be examined. Mean age of the study population was 22 years. RESULTS: A total of 294 subjects (7.2%) despite having some ocular disorder, had not visited any health facility to seek treatment. The majority, 144 (49%) gave the reason as no perceived need to seek treatment as the problem did not bother them; especially those with refractive error. A third, 97 (33%), gave the reason as lack of money, 22 (7.5%) said that they did not know where to seek eye care and 20 (6.8%) said they had no time to seek eye care. Only 3 said that the health facility where to go for eye care was too far. The population in the survey area has vast number of nearby secondary and tertiary eye care facilities to choose from. The majority of subjects indicated Mbagathi District Hospital (20.9%), Kikuyu Eye Unit (18.5%), Kenyatta National Hospital (12.1%) and private clinics (10.9%) as their health facilities of choice for eye care. The rest preferred Lions Sight First Eye Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, City Council Health Centers and optical shops. 7.7% of the subjects would visit a health centre or dispensary if they had an eye problem. A signifi cant proportion of respondents (7.5%) had no idea where they could seek treatment for eye disorders; most of them knew Mbagathi District Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital but were not aware that eye care services were available at these facilities. CONCLUSION: Despite the large number of eye care facilities surrounding the NCES, community members are not able to access their services mainly because of lack of felt need (ignorance) and lack of money (poverty). RECOMMENDATIONS: There is need for eye health education and review of cost of services to the very poor communities within the NCES. It is important to strengthen the community eye care structures and referral network now that the project area has excess secondary and tertiary health facilities offering eye care services.

wood, et al. "Rh Proteins and NH4+ –activated Na+-ATPase in the Magadi Tilapia (Alcolapia grahami), a 100% Ureotelic Teleost Fish." Journal of Experimental Biology. 2013;216:2998-3007 . Abstracthttp://jeb.biologists.org

The small cichlid fish Alcolapia grahami lives in Lake Magadi, Kenya, one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth (pH ~10, carbonate alkalinity ~300 mequiv l−1). The Magadi tilapia is the only 100% ureotelic teleost; it normally excretes no ammonia. This is interpreted as an evolutionary adaptation to overcome the near impossibility of sustaining an NH3 diffusion gradient across the gills against the high external pH. In standard ammoniotelic teleosts, branchial ammonia excretion is facilitated by Rh glycoproteins, and cortisol plays a role in upregulating these carriers, together with other components of a transport metabolon, so as to actively excrete ammonia during high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure. In Magadi tilapia, we show that at least three Rh proteins (Rhag, Rhbg and Rhcg2) are expressed at the mRNA level in various tissues, and are recognized in the gills by specific antibodies. During HEA exposure, plasma ammonia levels and urea excretion rates increase markedly, and mRNA expression for the branchial urea transporter mtUT is elevated. Plasma cortisol increases and branchial mRNAs for Rhbg, Rhcg2 and Na+,K+-ATPase are all upregulated. Enzymatic activity of the latter is activated preferentially by NH4+ (versus K+), suggesting it can function as an NH4+-transporter. Model calculations suggest that active ammonia excretion against the gradient may become possible through a combination of Rh protein and NH4+-activated Na+-ATPase function.

Casteels K, Beckers D, Wouters C, Van Geet C. "Rhabdomyolysis in diabetic ketoacidosis." Pediatric Diabetes. 2003;4:29-31. Abstract

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially lethal disorder, characterized by elevated serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) due to skeletal muscle injury. In this paper a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is reported who developed rhabdomyolysis (maximum CK level, 37,700 U/L; normal, {\textless} 170 U/L), anemia (6.2 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (16,000/microL). This combination of rhabdomyolysis with anemia and thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported in DKA. The pathogenic mechanism leading to rhabdomyolysis in DKA remains unsettled. From the literature it seems that those patients who develop rhabdomyolysis have very high glucose levels and a high osmolality on admission. Low phosphate levels can play a role as well. The etiology of anemia and thrombocytopenia in our patient remains obscure. Intravascular hemolysis could not be demonstrated but intramedullar hemolysis, due to osmolar shift or hypophosphatemia, cannot be excluded. A review of the literature data revealed that rhabdomyolysis is not so uncommon in DKA. However, to obtain incidence data in children, prospective studies are necessary.

Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Chindia ML. "Rhabdomyosarcoma of the oral and maxillofacial region.". 2003. Abstract
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.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Rheological Models for Shelled Maize En-masse. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Engineering and Food. Makuhari, Chiba, Japan, May 23-27.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Odiemo LO. The Rhetoric of Positivistic Science and Professional Education for Teachers. Bergen, Norway: Norwegian Teacher Academy,; 1999.
Kitata M. Rhetorical Strategies in the Novels of Chinua Achebe. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2014.
WAMITILA PROFKYALLOWADI. "A Rhetorical study of Kiswahili classical Poetry: The Nature and role of repeatition. RESEARCH IN AFRICAN LITERATURES, spring vol. 30/1, Indiana Press.-1999.". In: Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium on Biotechnology for Rapid Development ,Nairobi, Kenya, 17th - 21, February, 1992. pp 233-239. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Olufemi Adelowo, Girish M. Mody, Mohammed Tikly, Omondi Oyoo, Samy Slimani. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Nature reviews. 2021;s41584(021):00603-4. Abstract

Abstract | Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

Adelowo O, Mody GM, Tikly M, Oyoo O, Slimani S. "Rheumatic diseases in Africa." Af r ic a n J o u r n a l o f R h e u mat o l o g y. 2021;7(1):1-6. Abstracts41584-021-00603-4_1_2.pdf

Abstract
|
Historically, rheumatic diseases have not received much attention in Africa, particularly
in sub- Saharan Africa, possibly owing to a focus on the overwhelming incidence of infectious
diseases and the decreased life span of the general population in this region. Global attention
and support, together with better health policies and planning, have improved outcomes for
many infectious diseases; thus, increasing attention is being turned to chronic non- communicable
diseases. Rheumatic diseases were previously considered to be rare among Africans but there is
now a growing interest in these conditions, particularly as the number of rheumatologists on the
continent increases. This interest has resulted in a growing number of publications from Africa
on the more commonly encountered rheumatic diseases, as well as case reports of rare diseases.
Despite the limited amount of available data, some aspects of the epidemiology, genetics and
clinical and laboratory features of rheumatic diseases in African populations are known, as is some
detail on the use of therapeutics. Similarities and differences in these conditions can be seen
across the multi- ethnic and genetically diverse African continent, and it is hoped that increased
awareness of rheumatic diseases in Africa will lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes
for patients.

McGill PE, Oyoo GO. "Rheumatic disorders in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2002. Abstract

Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth pauses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease (The Stigmas of Sore Throat) - MEDICOM.". In: The African Medical Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
Obara I, Githaka N, Nijhof A, Krücken J, Nanteza A, Odongo D, Lubembe D, Atimnedi P, Mijele D, Njeri A, Mwaura S, Owido G, Ahmed J, Clausen PH, Bishop RP. "The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick vector of Theileria parva is absent from cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations and associated ecosystems in northern Uganda." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(7):2363-2367. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.

Ochieno DMW, Karoney EM, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN, Baraza DL, Shibairo SI, Naluyange V. "Rhizobium-linked nutritional and phytochemical changes under multitrophic functional contexts in sustainable food systems." Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;4:283. Abstract
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Otieno SPV. Rhumba. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Rice Husk Ash and its application as a cement replacement material in Kenya," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 132.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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Dulo, Syagga, P. M., Sabuni, A.Z, Kamau, L. "Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement for Kenyan Building Industry.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT Vol. 8, March 2003, pg 13-26. UNDPCap-Net, March 2009.; 2003.
Kamau GN, Dulo SO, Syagga PM, Waswa-Sabuni B. "Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry.".; 2002.
C O, K KC, N MJ. "Rice Straw and Egg Shell as Partial Replacements of Cement in Concrete." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(6):6481-6487.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Richard Sandbrook: Proletarians and African Capitalism".". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1978. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Ngugi E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Evaluation of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomized clinical trial.Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Ju.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Jul;28(7):394-400. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Low-dose nonoxynol-9 products have a potential advantage of reduced toxicity. However, little is known about their efficacy in reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). GOAL: To determine the effect that an intravaginal gel containing 52.5 mg of nonoxynol-9 has on the acquisition of STDs in a cohort of HIV-1-seronegative female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial was performed. RESULTS: In this study, 139 women were randomized to the nonoxynol-9 group and 139 to the placebo group. No significant differences were found between the two study groups in terms of safety outcomes and reported symptoms, except for a lower incidence of vaginal erythema in the nonoxynol-9 group. There was a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea in the nonoxynol-9 group than in the placebo group. No significant differences were observed between the groups for acquisition of Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1, although the statistical power to detect differences for some of these STDs was limited. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial of a low-dose nonoxynol-9 gel, a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea was found in the nonoxynol-9 group, but no significant differences between the groups were found for Candida, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, C trachomatis, syphilis, or HIV-1.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Lavreys L, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Ngugi E, Mandaliya K, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola J, Kresiss JK. Evaluation of a low- dose nonoxynol-9 gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomised clinical trial, Sex Transm Dis 2001.". In: Sex Transm Dis 2001; 28394-400. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 318 HIV-1 seropositive women in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Vaginal and cervical swab specimens were tested for the presence of HIV-1 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for CD4 count and vitamin A deficiency, were used. RESULTS: Selenium deficiency (defined as levels <85 microg/L) was observed in 11% of the study population. In unstratified multivariate analyses, there was no significant association between selenium deficiency and vaginal or cervical shedding. In stratified analyses, however, significant associations became apparent after excluding women with predictors of shedding with strong local effects on the genital tract mucosa. Among women who did not use oral contraceptives and who did not have vaginal candidiasis, selenium deficiency was significantly associated with vaginal shedding (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–8.8
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Martin HL Jr, Stevens CE, Hillier SL, Mwatha AK, Chohan BH, Nyange PM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Use of nonoxynol-9 and changes in vaginal lactobacilli.J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5.". In: J Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;178(2):441-5. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Several in vitro studies have shown nonoxynol-9 (N-9) to be toxic to lactobacilli, especially to strains that produce H2O2. Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial that investigated the safety and toxicity of 2 weeks of daily vaginal application of an N-9 gel were analyzed, to examine the effect of N-9 use on vaginal lactobacilli and bacterial vaginosis. In vivo, N-9 promoted sustained colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli among women already colonized (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.7). In addition, use of N-9 for 2 weeks reduced the likelihood of bacterial vaginosis (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0). In contrast, N-9 use by women initially colonized only by non-H2O2-producing lactobacilli resulted in loss of vaginal lactobacilli (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3). These data suggest that daily use of N-9 does not adversely affect vaginal colonization by H2O2-producing lactobacilli but that such use may promote loss of non-H2O2-producing strains.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Richardson BA, Martin Jr. HL, Stevens CE, Mwatha AK, Chohan BH, Nyange PM, Mandalya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JKUse of Nonoxynol-9 and changes in Vaginal LactobacilliJ. Inf. Dis 178: 441-5, 1998.". In: Inf. Dis 178: 441-5, 1998. IBIMA Publishing; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions.

K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Richardson BA, Morrison CS, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Sinei SK, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Weiner DH, Kreiss JK. Effect of intrauterine device use on cervical shedding of HIV-1 DNA.AIDS. 1999 Oct 22;13(15):2091-7.". In: AIDS. 1999 Oct 22;13(15):2091-7. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1999. Abstract
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA. OBJECTIVE: Hormonal contraception has been associated with an increased prevalence of cervical shedding of HIV-1 DNA among infected women. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) on the detection of HIV-1 DNA in cervical secretions. DESIGN: A prospective study of HIV-1-seropositive women undergoing IUD insertion at two public family planning clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Cervical swab samples were collected before IUD insertion and approximately 4 months thereafter for the detection of HIV-1-infected cells using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of HIV-1 gag DNA sequences. RESULTS: Ninety-eight women were enrolled and followed after IUD insertion. The prevalence of HIV-1 DNA cervical shedding was 50% at baseline and 43% at follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.2]. There was no statistically significant difference between the baseline and follow-up shedding rates in a multivariate model that controlled for previous hormonal contraceptive use, condom use, cervical ectopy, friable cervix, cervical infections at an interim visit, and CD4 lymphocyte levels (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1). CONCLUSION: The insertion of an IUD did not significantly alter the prevalence of cervical shedding of HIV-1-infected cells. The use of IUDs, in conjunction with condoms, may be an appropriate method of contraception for HIV-1-infected women from the standpoint of potential infectivity to the male partner through exposure to genital HIV-1.
Kaingu CK. "Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are.". 2012. Abstract

Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethnopharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. Materials and methods: The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values o0.05 were considered significant. Results and conclusions: All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue’s response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts.

Ebinger C, Muirhead J, Roecker S, Tiberi C, Muzuka A, Ferdinand R, Mulibo G, Kianji G. "Rift initiation with volatiles and magma.". In: European Geophysical Union . Vienna, Austria; 2015.
Waruiru RW, Mutune M, Kilelu ES. "Rift Valley fever virus antibody analysis in Machakos district.". 2003.
MALECHE MRZACHARIAH. "Rift Valley Province Regional Physical Development Plan. In collaboration with the Town Planning Department, Ministry of Lands and settlement, Republic of Kenya.". In: KISE Bulletin, July 1987. Vol. 1 No. 2. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 1971.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Rifting of the Continents:.". In: A keyproject of the International Lithospere Program. Tectonophysics, 236, 1-2. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract
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Daniels J, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Right from primary school, I liked science: understanding health research capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa through Kenyan training experiences." Glob Health Promot. 2014;21(2):32-42. Abstract

Defining research career paths that enable Africans to address local and global health issues is essential for population health. This study was conducted to better understand how international health training programs contribute to human resource capacity building in health research. Research career motivations, decision-making and experiences were explored among a small group of Kenyan HIV/AIDS researchers who had completed an international training program. We found that intersecting social dynamics within specific geographic spaces influenced individual training decision-making and motivated research career decisions over time. The concept that 'geo-social motivation' is an important determinant of success for an African considering a research career developed from this study, and may be used to tailor future health research human resource capacity-building programs.

JAMES PROFODEK. "The Right to Silence in Criminal Proceedings in Kenya, Nairobi Law Monthly, June.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1988. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Sihanya B. "Rights in a performance in Kenya." South African Intellectual Property Law Journal . 2014:59-85.
OKECH MROWITIMAURICED. "The Rights of an Employee in Kenya (Nairobi, Oxford U.P).". In: Chapter 3. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1990. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
CONSTANTINE DRMWIKAMBA. "Rights of Nature, IN: Ogutu, G.E.M.(Ed.), God, Humanity and Mother Nature, Masaki Publishers, Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1992.
Mutungi OK. "The rights of the Unborn Child and Minors." Paper presented to the Regional Workshop on the Teaching of Population Dynamics in Law Schools in Africa; 1974. Abstract
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Mutungi OK. "The Rights of the Unborn Child and Minors." (ed.) by U.U. Uche, 1976, E.A.L.B; 1976. Abstract
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Makamu BL, Bukachi F, Mwangi PW. RIMONABANT HAS PARADOXICAL EFFECTS ON cART ASSOCIATED METABOLIC DISEASE. Cape Town, South Africa: IUPHAR; 2014.
Muketha SM. "Riparian Zones and Their Role in Enhancing Resilience to Flooding in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Nairobi River Basin." Africca Habitat Review Journal. 2019;Volume 13 Issue 1 (December 2019) (ISSN: 2524-1354 (Online), ISSN: 2519-7851 (Print)):1615-1625.
Muketha, Silas M.; Konyimbih TM. "Riparian Zones in Nairobi City.". 2012.
Otieno SP. Ripples of Guilt. Trafford: Trafford; 2004.
Busby L, Brown I, Mwango G, Rawlings-Fein M, and others. "RISE (Radiology International Student Education): creation and utilization of virtual online classroom for global radiology education." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):408-409.
Ross JA, Agwanda AT. "The Rise of Injectable Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa." African Journal of Reproductive health . 2012;16(4):63-73.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "The Rise of Shopping Malls: From Shopping Centres to MegaMarkets." SOKONI,.". In: Journal of the Marketing Society of Kenya, July/August, 12-18.; 2001.
L. Owiti, W. Musyoni JB. Rise Up and Act: A Resource Material on iolence Against Women. Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches; 2002.
"Rising suicide cases worry the experts." The Star, September 11, 2023.
J N-M, P.M.F M, J.K W;, P.G M. "Risk (Predisposing) Factors for Non-Infectious Claw Disorders in Dairy Cows Under Varying Zero-Grazing Systems.". 2000. Abstract

Lameness in cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in dairy production systems (Hernandez et al., 2005; Kossaibati & Esslemont, 1997). These losses occur through various negative impact directly on cattle and indirectly on the dairy production system. These include reduced milk yield (Hernandez et al., 2005), discarding of milk due to withdrawal period of drugs used to treat some of the lameness conditions, cost of veterinary drugs and professional services in managing the conditions (Enting et al., 1997), lowered conception rate and increased calving interval (Melendez et al., 2003; Sogstad et al.,2006), reduced ovarian activity during early postpartum period (Garbarino et al., 2004), as well as premature culling and occasional mortalities (Enting et al., 1997). Lameness has also been identified as a major welfare determinant in cattle because of discomfort and pain that it causes (Offer et al., 2000). Claw lesions account for between 60% and 90% of all lameness incidences in cattle in various countries of the world (Bergsten et al., 1994; Manske et al., 2002; Weaver, 2000). More than 60% of lameness in cattle is caused by lesions and disorders affecting the horn of the claw such as sole ulcers, heel erosion, sole bruising, white line separation and underrun (double) soles. All these claw disorders and lesions have a direct or indirect effect on the dermis (corium) of the claw and are associated with laminitis ( Belge & Bakir, 2005; Manske et al., 2002; Nocek, 1997). They are common in cattle raised under intense systems and feedlots (Smilie et al., 1991). Claw horn disorders in cattle are discernible at clinical level by lameness symptoms or at subclinical level by hoof trimming to reveal non-painful lesions within or under the horn (Clarkson et al., 1996; Nocek, 1997). However, adoption of confined housing in dairy cattle husbandry as is the practice in smallholder dairy production systems particularly in developing countries has led to higher incidences of claw disorders. This is mainly due to cattle spending long hours standing on confined hard floors that exposes claws to higher pressures which predispose them to circumscribed excessive local loading, thus stimulating more horn production and enlarging of the claws.

Makita K, Arimi SM, Kang'ethe G;, Mwai CW. "Risk analysis of E. coli O157: H7 contamination of beef carcasses in slaughter houses in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

In the year 2009, a study was carried out in abattoirs supplying meat in Nairobi, Kenya and its environs. Three slaughterhouses with different level of hygiene control, classified as export, improved and typical local, were selected. Three hundred cattle were tracked along the slaughtering process to sample faeces and carcass swabs. Faecal samples from the rectum were taken from each animal after stunning. Two carcass sites, flank and brisket were swabbed after flaying, evisceration and after cleaning. In total seven samples were taken from each carcass. METHODS: E.coli O157 was isolated by culture and serotyped using card agglutination test. The isolates were further tested for verotoxin production and Monte Carlo simulation was run to determine the risk of carcass contamination. A HACCP model was also developed for one of the abattoirs. E.coli O157:H7 was detected from the faecal and carcasses samples at different stages. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty out of 2,100 samples (13.3%) were IMVIC positive for E. coli. (++---) and Sorbitol MacConkey negative and were therefore tentative E. coli O157 colonies. After serotyping for O157, 92 out of 280 (4.3%) isolates, were positive for E. coli O157:H7. Forty two isolates were tested for verotoxin production, eight were positive for VT1 only while two were positive for both VT1 and VT2. The probability of a carcass being contaminated with E.coli O157 in the abattoir was 2.9% (90% CI: 0.8%-6.1%), 4.8% (90%CI: 2.0%-8.6%) and 3.8% (90%CI: 1.3%-7.3%) in the export, the local improved and the typical local abattoir respectively. Based on E. coli detection as an indicator of hygiene, the risk of contamination is low in the export slaughter house followed by the typical local slaughter house and highest in the local improved; however the confidence intervals overlapped and the level of hygiene was not significantly different. This trend was observed also for the probability of a carcasses being contaminated with vero-toxin producing E. coli: 0.7% (90% CI: 0.2%-1.7%), 1.2% (90% CI: 0.4%-2.4%) and 1.0% (90% CI: 0.3%-2.0%) in the export, the local improved and the typical local abattoir, respectively. SUMMARY: This study shows that there is a risk of carcass contamination with E.coli O157 in all the different categories of slaughterhouses in Nairobi.

Dorothy McCormick, Kinyanjui N. "Risk and Firm Growth: The Dilemma of Nairobi's Small-scale Manufacturers.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1993. Abstract

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Ndiba PK. "Risk assessment of metal leaching into groundwater from phosphate and thermal treated sediments." Journal of Environmental Engineering. 2010;136(4):427-434.
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B. "Risk Assessment of the Coping and Adaptation Mechanisms for Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case Study of Kongelai Ward, West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences(ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(Issue 02, April 2017).
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B, 3 SM. "Risk Assessment of Traditional Strategies, Values and Practices of Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case of West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(ssue 04, August 2017).
Muchiri LW, Kigondu CBS EBBATM. "Risk Association between Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) and cervical neoplasia in Kenyan women. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2012;1(1):8-13.
Lucy MW, Christine S-KB, Benson EBA, Marleen TT. "Risk Association between Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) and Cervical Neoplasia in Kenyan Women.". 2012. Abstract

Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide (Franco et al, 2003). Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer (Franco et al, carcinogenic process (Chan et al, 2005). Most HPV infections are transient and regress spontaneously and only a minority of women develops persistent infection that with time may evolve into cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or progress to invasive cervical cancer(Villa, 1997; Franco et al, 1999). Given that host immune response to HPV is thought to be an important determinant of HPV acquisition and progression to high-grade cervical lesions and cancer, it is plausible that human leucocyte antigen (HLA) variations may affect pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia (Beskow et al, 2005; Clerici et al, 1997; Hildesheim et al, 1997). The major histocompatibility complex is a highly polymorphic gene cluster on the short arm of chromosome six. The genes in this cluster are divided into three classes with different roles in immune responses. HLA gene polymorphisms result in variations in peptide-binding cleft, therefore influencing the antigens bound and presented to T cells (Beskow et al, 2005; Wang e al, 2005). The HLA class I genes (HLAA, -B, and –C) present foreign antigens to CD8+ Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, while class II genes (HLA-DR, - DQ and –DP) present antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells and are important in host immune responses to viruses and other pathogens (Wang et al, 2001).

Mutinda, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod.. 2014.
Nsadha, Z., Saimo, M., Waiswa, C., Maingi, N., Ojok, L., Willingham III, A. L., Mutagwanja, R., Nyakarahuka L, Lubega GW. "Risk factors and lingual prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the Lake Kyoga Basin in Uganda." African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Sciences . 2010;5(3):43-50.2010._risk_factors_and_lingual_prevalence_of_porcine_cycticercosis_in_uganda.pdf
Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk Factors and Management of Stress Ulcers in the Critical Care Unit in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(2):51-61. Abstract

Background:
Stress ulcers develop due to extreme physiological stress among critically ill patients. Data on it management is scant in resource limited settings.

Objectives:
To determine the incidence, risk factors and management of stress ulcers among adult patients admitted to the Critical Care Unit of a Kenyan referral hospital, Kenyatta National Hospital. The outcome of the prophylaxis was also evaluated.

Methodology:
This was a retrospective cohort study among 186 critically ill adult patients admitted between January and December, 2012. The data was extracted from patient files. Logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for development of stress ulcers by manual forward stepwise model building.

Results:
Ninety percent of the patients received prophylaxis and this was done within 72 hours of admission. Twenty patients did not qualify for prophylaxis but received it. Most (76.4%) patients received prophylaxis with histamine 2 receptor blockers. The incidence of stress ulcers was 36.6% which was mainly treated with ranitidine (57.4% of cases) and omeprazole (38.8% of cases). The only diagnostic criteria were presence of the following clinical signs: epigastric tenderness (60 patients, 36.6%) and melena (3, 4.4%) and hematemesis (5, 7.4%). Mechanical ventilation of patients was the most important risk factor for stress ulcer development (adjusted OR: 43.76, 95% CI [5.067, 377.9]; followed by hospital stay for more than 7 days (adjusted OR: 11.88, 95% CI [3.923, 36.9]). Antibiotics (adjusted OR: 0.044, 95% CI [0.002, 0.936]) and benzodiazepines (adjusted OR: 0.074, 95% CI [0.013, 0.419] appeared to confer protection. Prophylaxis with histamine receptor antagonists did not seem to confer protection.

Conclusion:
The incidence of stress ulcers was high and methods for prophylaxis of stress ulcer need to be improved.

Key words: Stress ulcers, Critical care, antibiotics, benzodiazepines, antibiotics, CNS depressants

Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk factors and management of stress ulcers in the critical care unit in a Kenyan referral hospital. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2014;3(2):51-61.
Kerama SK, Okalebo FA, Nyamu DG, Guantai EM, Ndwigah SN, Maru SM. "Risk Factors and Management of Stress Ulcers inthe Critical Care Unit in a Kenyan Referral Hospital." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2014;3(2):51-61.
Otieno CF, Amayo EO, MCLIGEYO SO, Nyamu PN. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenvatta National Hospital, Nairobi."; 2003. Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. Objective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting . Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. Main outcome measures: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. Results: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82(4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

MCLIGEYO SO, PN N, CF O, O AE. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.". In: East African Medical Journal. 2003; 80(1):56 - 58. University of Nairobi.; 2003. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.

FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Jan;80(1):36-43. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. The diabetic patients with foot ulcers require long hospitalisation and carry risk of limb amputation. The risk factors for developing diabetic foot ulcers are manageable. In Kenya there is paucity of data on such risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers and the risk factors in a clinic-based setting. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus who had active foot ulcers in both outpatient and inpatient units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic foot ulcers glycated haemoglobin, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: One thousand seven hundred and eighty eight patients with diabetes mellitus were screened and 82 (4.6%) were found to have foot ulcers. The males and females with diabetic foot ulcers were compared in age, duration of foot ulcers, blood pressure, glycaemic control, neurological disability score and their proportion. Diabetic foot ulcers occurred mostly in patients who had had diabetes for a long duration. The types of (occurence) ulcers were neuropathic (47.5%), neuroischaemic (30.5%) and ischaemic (18%). The neuropathic ulcers had significantly poorer glycaemic control compared to other types and the longest duration (23.3 weeks). Ischaemic ulcers had significantly higher total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure compared to other ulcer types. Wagner stage 2 ulcers were the commonest (49.4%) but stage 4 ulcers had their highest neuropathic score (7.8/10) and longest duration (23.6 weeks). Aerobic infective pathogens were isolated from 73.2% of the ulcers. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.6% in this tertiary clinic. The risk factors of diabetic foot ulcers in the study were poor glycaemic control, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidaemia, infection and poor self-care. These findings are similar to studies done in other environments and they are modifiable to achieve prevention, delay in formation or improved healing of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic.
Kihu, S.M., Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Njenga, M.J., Wairire, G.G., Karimuribo, E., Wahome, R.G., Maingi N. "Risk factors and socio-economic effects associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana District, Kenya.". In: 2nd Biennial Ruforum meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2010.
Olabu BO, Ogeng'o JA. "Risk factors associated with Aortic aneurysms at Kenyatta National Hospital ." Afr J Hosp Sci med. 2010;25:29-32.
Olabu B, Ogeng’o J. "Risk factors associated with Aortic aneurysms at Kenyatta National Hospital MEDICOM." Afr J Hosp Sci med . 2010;25:29-32.
Kipronoh AK, Ombui JN, Binepal YS, Wesonga HO, Gitonga EK, Kiara HK. "Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in Rift Valley region of Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine . 2016;132:107-112.
S. G. Peter, Gitau GK, S. Richards, Vanleeuwen A, F. Uehlinger, Mulei CM, Kibet RR. "Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya." Vet World. 2016;9(8)(9):811-819.
Peter SG, Gitau GK, Richards S, Vanleeuwen JA, Uehlinger F, Mulei CM, Kibet RR. "Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya." Vet World. 2016;9(8):811-9. Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves.

Kabaka WM, Gitao CG, Kitala PM, Maingi N, Vanleeuwen JA. "Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in Nakuru and Mukurueini districts, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2013;60:413-419.
Kabaka WM, Gitau GK, Kitala PM, Maingi N, Vanleeuwen JA. "Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections of cattle in Nakuru and Mukurweni districts in Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

A study was carried out in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in cattle on 128 dairy farms between June 16th 2010 and August 30th 2010. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 419 heads of cattle that were above three months of age on the selected farms, refrigerated and delivered to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, for GIN analyses (McMaster method) within 7 days. Questionnaires were administered on every farm to collect individual animal and farm management data. Logistic regression analysis was carried out (univariable and multivariable), and a model developed using a backward elimination method. The univariable analysis revealed that animal age, district, time to last deworming, frequency of manure removal, source of forages, and the type of dewormer used last as the factors associated with GIN infections in cattle. The final regression model indicated that animal age, farm district, time to last deworming, and the type of dewormer used last as the factors associated with nematode infections in cattle. The study concluded that grazing management and the deworming management, particularly among young animals, were the main factors associated with cattle GIN infections.

Feng H, O. OL. "Risk Factors Associated with High Birth Orders among Canadian Women." Canadian Studies in Popultion 2, 3: 8-19; 1996. Abstract
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Mutinda. WU, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Mbuthia. PG, G.Muchemi. "Risk factors associated with Infectious Bursal Disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Journal of Tropical animal Health and Production. 2014.
and Mutinda WU, Nyaga PN MPGBLCMG. "Risk factors associated with infectious bursal disease vaccination failures in broiler farms in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health Production. 2013;DOI 10.1007.abstract_1.pdf
Njagi L W, Nyaga P N. "The risk factors associated with Newcastle disease occurrence in indigenous free – range chickens in Embu and Mbeere districts, Kenya. .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2006.2006-risk_factors_of_nd-copy.pdf
Mulei IR, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru P, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of infectious diseases in farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Gachohi JW, Ng’ang’a JC, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.". 2012.
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:657-664.5_kagira_et_al_2012.pdf
Kagira JM, Kanyari PN, Githigia SM, Maingi N, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2012;44(3):657-664.
MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. 1. Kagira, J.M.; Kanyari, P.W.N.; Githigia,S.M.; Maingi,N.: Nganga, J.C.; Gachohi, J.M." Trop Anim Health Prod (August 2011). 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Nematode infections are a serious constraint to pig production, especially where free range pig keeping is practiced. This study investigated the epidemiology of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs from 135 farms were sampled for faeces that were analysed for nematode eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces using the McMaster technique. The nematode eggs were also identified to genus and species based on morphology. A questionnaire on risk factors was also administered to the pig owners. The overall prevalence and mean nematode EPG were 84.2% and 2,355, respectively. The nematode eggs were identified as those belonging to Oesophagostomum spp. (75%), Strongyloides ransomi (37%), Ascaris suum (18%), Metastrongylus spp. (11%), Trichuris suis (7%) and Physocephalus sexalatus (3%). The prevalence of nematodes was positively correlated (p < 0.05) with the amount of rainfall in the division of the pigs' origin (all nematodes except S. ransomi). The prevalence of nematodes was also associated with the age of the pigs. A lower burden of nematodes was associated (p < 0.05) with a history of deworming (A. suum) and the provision of night housing (S. ransomi and Metastrongylus spp.). In conclusion, this study has provided information on nematode infections and the associated risk factors for free range pigs in Busia District, which can be used when

Kagira J.M., Kanyari. P.W.N, Githigia, S.M., Maingi, N., Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2011;44(3):657-664.2011._risk_factors_associated_with_occurence_of_nematodes_in_free-range_pigs_in_busia_district_kenye.pdf
Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Nzalawahe J, Murugami JW, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nzalawahe J, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK, Murugami JW. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies . 2017;5(4):217-223.
KW M, Mbuthia P G, RM W, J N, JW M, Njagi L W, RH M, RH M, SK M. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Kihu SM, Gitao CG, Bebora L, Njenga MJ, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ndiwa NN. "Risk factors associated with spread of Peste des petits ruminants in Turkana district, Kenya.". In: Third RUFORUM Biennial Meeting. Kampala, Uganda; 2012.
Ndegwa EN, Mulei CM, Munyua SJM. "Risk Factors Associated With Subclinical Sub-acute Mastitis In Dairy Goats In Central Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

The prevalence of udder infections in clinically normal mammary gland halves of 315 dairy goats was determined over a three-month period by bacteriological examination. The most prevalent bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (63.6%) followed by Micrococcus spp (17.7%). Of the Staphylococcus spp, coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent isolates (64.3%). Other bacteria were Acinetobactor spp. (5%), Actinomyces spp. (5%), and Streptococcus spp. (1.1%). The overall prevalence of intra-mammary bacterial infection was 28.7%. The effects of the type of the doe (milking/suckling), litter size, parity, type of housing, stage of lactation and milking hygiene on intra-mammary infection was determined using logistic multiple regression. The infection status of the udder was significantly influenced (p<0.05) by the type of housing and the milking hygiene. The does housed on earth floors were significantly (p<0.05) at a higher risk (odd ratio 9.9) of having bacteria isolated from their udders than the does housed in raised timber floors. Does that were not routinely washed with warm water before milking had significantly higher (p<0.05) intra-mammary bacterial infections (odd ratio 2.5) than those washed and dried with individual towels.

Wanyoike G, Rukaria RK, Gachuno OW. "Risk factors associated with tubal infertility.". 2009.
L. L, O. O, K. AF, J. G, J. N. "Risk factors for abandonement of Wilms tumor therapy in Kenya." Pediatric blood and cancer. 2015;62(2):252-256.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.

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