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Edwards PS, Janisch CT, Peng B, Zhu J, Ozdemir SK, Yang L, Liu Z. "Label-free particle sensing by fiber taper-based Raman spectroscopy." IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2014;26:2093-2096. Abstract
n/a
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "LAB SCALE BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MARKET WASTES AND DAGORETTI SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE IN KENYA." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research. 2020;8(1):12-21. Abstract

In this study, fruits and vegetable market wastes were used as substrates in biogas
production under psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Slaughterhouse waste
consisting of blood and diluted rumen fluid mixture was used as inoculum with seven days retention
time. Influence of C: N ratios of the unique mixtures of vegetables found in the market were
investigated. On average, the vegetable wastes found at the market contained >86% moisture, 5 -
12% volatile solid and 0.46 – 2.06% ash matter on a wet basis. The protein range was between
0.57 – 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado (Persea americana) wastes at
9.03%. The highest cumulative biogas was recorded in wastes mixture at 3500ml on seventh day
while low biogas yield was registered for wastes with C: N ratios greater than 35:1 like avocado
and lower than 10 like coriander and courgette wastes. The optimum operation pH was in the
range of 6.80 – 7.2.It can be concluded that the highest cumulative biogas was generated from
fruits/vegetable mixture at 3500ml in mesophillic conditions. This study recommends pH
adjustment to 6.8 – 7.2 in market wastes and C: N ratios of 20 – 25 for large scale biogas
production of wastes found in the Dagoretti Market.

Oyugi CCA. "La mise en valeur du non-dit en classe du français langue étrangère.". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue estafricain et kenyan (Teaching of French in a multilingual context in East Africa and Kenya). Kenyatta University; Submitted.conference_presentation-_k.u..docxconference_presentation_2-_k.u..docxconcilier_formation_doc__ku.docx
Njeru E. "La mancanza di coordinamento e armonizzazione negli interventi dei donatori per la risposta all'HIV e AIDS in Kenya: descrizione del problema." Chi fa da se: non fa per tre. 2005. Abstract

Premessa
Le ONG che operano sotto I'ombrello dell'Osservatorio Italiano per l'Azione Globale contro I'AIDS notano
con preoccupazione la mancanza di coordinamento tra i diversi progetti per la lotta all'HIV e AIDS
finanziati dai donatori. La maggior parte di questi interventi viene realizzata in modo indipendente e
scollegato dalle iniziative coordinate a livello globale 0 dalle istituzioni nazionali competenti nei Paesi
che beneficiano dei finanziamenti. Raccogliendo queste preoccupazioni, AMREF Italia e ActionAid
International hanno commissionato uno studio per valutare I'adeguatezza e il grado di coordinamento
dei differenti donatori in Kenya.
II problema del coordinamento ha assunto recentemente una rilevanza internazionale attraverso la
strategia dei "Three Ones" accettata dai maggiori donatori. I"Three Ones" costituiscono i tre principi
strategici di riferimento per gli interventi nazionali e dei donatori e consistono in: 1) un unico piano
nazionale per la lotta alia pand~mia; 2) un'unica autorita nazionale di coordinamento; 3) un unico sistema
di monitoraggio e valutazione.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "La Litteratura Dopo L'Independenza, in Synchron Numero 5 - Anno 4 Decembre 1985, 53-65.". In: published by Agip Ptroli of Milan Italy.; 1985. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "La Femme Malgache' in 'La Nouvelle Revue de Makerere'.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1970. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. E.A.M.J. (2004): 81:44-47.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Carrier status for Listreria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. E.A.M.J.( 2004): 81:39-43.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Kisipan, M.L.; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). ELSAYED EL BANHAWY,1 L. IRUNGU1 & H. MUGO2; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). MBA; 2008.
WANJIRU MRSKARIUKILUCY, KINYUA DRNGUUEDWARD, W. DRKINYANJUIPETER, BULIMO DRDIMBUSONWALLACE. "L.W. Kariuki, E.K. Nguu, R.M. Njogu, P. W. Kinyanjui, J.O.Midiwo, W.D. Bulimo, J.K.Kiaira. MAESANIN: A BENZOQUINONE FROM MAESA LANCEOLATA THAT COMPLETELY INHIBITS RESPIRATION IN BLOODSTREAM TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI.". In: 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2008.
MUNYAO ML. "L.M. Mulwa, "Meeting the Challenge of Managing Quality for E-Service Organizations", A paper presented in The third ORSEA Conference held at Entebbe." EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

"L.K. KETER, G.N. THOITHI, I.0. KIBWAGE. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Six Protease Inhibitors Using a Polymer Column.". 2008. Abstract

A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HI\!) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, VI as developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 A, 250'x 4.6 mm J.D. column maintained
at 60 °C, a mobile phase consisting of tetrahydrofuran-potassium phosphate buffer (O.lM, pH 5.0)-tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.11\1, pH 5.0)-water(35:30:10:25 %v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mllmin, with ultraviolet detection at 254 nm.
The method was found to be linear over the ranges investigated with r2 values of 0.9997-0.9915 for the six drugs. The limit of quantitation for the six drugs was 0.16 to 5.12 Ilg, while the limit of detection was 0.08 to 2.12 Ilg. The intra-day and interday precision was within the ranges of 0.39 to 1.14% and 0.55 to 1.46%,
respectively.

DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "L.C.Me.ndoca Haggler, I.S. de Melo, M.C.Valadares-Inglis,B..Anyango,J.O.Sequeira,Pham Van Toan and R.E.Wheatly.( 2006) Non Target and Biodiversity Impacts in Soil. In. .A.Hilbeck , D.A. Andow. And E.M.G.Fontes.(eds.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2006. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
OKEYO DRMWAIALFAYO. "L.C. Iniguez, G.E. Bradford and Okeyo A. Mwai. 1986. Lambing Date and Lambing Production of Spring-mated Rambouillet, Dorset and Finn sheep Ewes and their F1 Crosses. .". In: Journal of Animal Science. 63: 715-728. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1986. Abstract
PIP: This research report studies several biochemical and histochemical aspects of cervical carcinoma and explores their use in follow-up of patients undergoing radiotherapy. Material came from 19 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital. A control group consisted of 20 women matched for age who attended clinics at the hospital but were not suffering from any malignant disease; control tissue for histological examination was obtained from 3 women who had undergone hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Biochemical assays for alkaline and acid phosphatases in patients with cervical carcinoma show an increase in alkaline phosphatase in carcinomatous tissue (35.7 umoles/hr/mg) as opposed to normal tissue (7.2). Acid phosphatase values were only moderately raised. Assays of the same enzymes in blood showed a less marked difference between patients and controls (ranges of 7.5-20.8 and 3-14, respectively). When examined histochemically, increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in connective tissue, epithelium of the glands and blood capillaries of tumor tissue. 1 section containing normal tissue bordering carcinomatous tissue demonstrated normal alkaline phosphatase activity in the normal tissue and increased activity in the tumor tissue. In summary, there is increased enzyme activity around the tumor areas, but values for serum levels show an overlap of normal and abnormal cases and are therefore not predictive. Results demonstrate a clear difference in activities of these enzymes in carcinomatous tissue and normal tissue, which may be of value in follow-up care.
S. PROFAKUNDABWENILEVI. "L. Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots and leaves of Vigna unguiculata L., Walp. under imposed water stress.". In: Legume Research J. 33:11-13. NISC Pty Ltd; 1995.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "L'economie Kenyane Face a l'ajustement structural (1978-1995).". In: Frncois Grignon et Gerard Pruntier (eds). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Verbal autopsy was used to determine causes of death in 239 children under the age of 5 years. The diagnosis derived from verbal autopsy was corroborated with hospital diagnosis in 39 cases. There was concurrence of diagnosis in 72% of the cases. Using the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia to validate the method, verbal autopsy was found to have a sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 85%. Reliability index of agreement was 0.654. Recall period up to 29 months after death was found to be reliable. PMID: 2282890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CAROLINE MUTAI. "L." KENYATTA UNIVERSITY; 2008. Abstract
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