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OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Luo Meets Latin: Linguistic Evidence for Contacts Between Speakers of Pre-Dholuo and Speakers of Lation.' In Proceeding of the Third Nilo-Saharan Linguistic Colloquim. Hamburg Buske Verlag.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1991. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
Kokwaro JO, Johns T. Luo-English Biological Dictionary. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers Ltd; 2013.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Luo-English Botanical Dictionary, Nairobi,.". In: First Edition. 4to. Hard cover. Dust jacket. Study of medicinal plants and their uses in East Africa. Pp. (xii),384, photos, line-drawings. Some light browning. University of Nairobi Press; 1972. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Geissler PW, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Magnussen P, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Friis H. Geophagy among pregnant and lactating women in Bondo District, western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):734-41. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Geophagy was studied among 827 pregnant women in western Kenya, during and after pregnancy. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks and followed-up to 6 months post-partum. The median age (range) of the women was 23 years and median parity 2. At recruitment, 378 were eating earth, of which most (65%) reported earth-eating before pregnancy. The preferred type of earth eaten was soft stone, known locally as odowa (54.2%) and earth from termite mounds (42.8%). The prevalence remained high during pregnancy, and then declined to 34.5% and 29.6% at 3 and 6 months post-partum respectively (P < 0.001). The mean daily earth intake was 44.5 g during pregnancy, which declined to 25.5 g during lactation (P < 0.001). A random sample of 204 stools was collected from the women and analysed for silica content as a tracer for earth-eating. The mean silica content was 2.1% of the dry weight of stool. Geophagous women had a higher mean silica content than the non-geophagous ones (3.1% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001). Faecal silica and reported geophagy were strongly correlated (P < 0.001).
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Luoba AI, Wenzel Geissler P, Estambale B, Ouma JH, Alusala D, Ayah R, Mwaniki D, Magnussen P, Friis H. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7.". In: Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Mar;10(3):220-7. Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were less unequivocal. These findings call for increased emphasis, in antenatal care, on the potential risks of earth-eating, and for deworming of women after delivery.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Luscher MA, Choy G, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ball TB, Wade JA, Plummer FA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS.Naturally occurring IgG anti-HLA alloantibody does not correlate with HIV type 1 resistance in Nairobi prostitutes.AIDS Res Hum Retro.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB, O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Luscher MA, Choy G, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, Anzala AO, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ball TB, Wade JA, Plummer FA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS.Naturally occurring IgG anti-HLA alloantibody does not correlate with HIV type 1 resistance in Nairobi prostitutes.AIDS Res Hum Retro.". In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 20;14(2):109-15. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1998. Abstract
In an effort to identify an immunological basis for natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, we have examined serum antibody responses to HLA class I antigens in female prostitutes of the Nairobi Sex Workers Study. Anti-HLA antibodies are known to block HIV infectivity in vitro and can be protective against SIV challenge in macaques immunized with purified class I HLA. Thus, it was postulated that broadly cross-reactive alloantibodies recognizing common HLA alleles in the client population might contribute to the prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV. In fact, 12% of the women were found to have serum IgG antibodies against class I alloantigens. However, this alloantibody did not correlate with the HIV status of the women and was found in a similar proportion of HIV-positive and HIV-resistant women. The observed levels of alloantibody did not increase with HIV infection in susceptible individuals, suggesting that potential antigenic mimicry between HIV and host HLA class I antigens does not significantly increase levels of anti-class I antibodies. The lack of correlation between serum anti-allo-class I HLA antibodies and the risk of sexual transmission indicates that this humoral immune response is unlikely to be the natural mechanism behind the HIV-resistance phenotype of persistently HIV-seronegative women. This result, however, does not preclude the further investigation of alloimmunization as an artificial HIV immunization strategy.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Lutalo-Bosa A.J., Sekadde C.B., Opiyo W. and Kiwanuka J.B., Presentation of paper to the Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council, February, 1977 Liver function tests among normal Ugandans. A paper was reported in the Annual Re.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of East Africa Medical Research Council. uon press; 1977. Abstract

PIP: Masturbatory semen specimen from 49 fertile Black African males in Kenya whose wives were pregnant was obtained after at least 3 days of abstinence for the analysis of parameters which included volume motility, vitality, sperm concentration, pH, fructose and acid phosphatase levels. About 1/2 the spermatozoa was actively progressive in motility, while 40% was nonmotile. Vitality in the 1st hour revealed that 81.4% of the sperm was alive. About 90% of the semen specimens had more than 40% idea forms of spermatozoa. Spermatozoal abnormalities were a frequent feature. There was no correlation between age and the testicular volume, but seminal fluid volume and sperm density tended to decrease with age. Serum levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone were determined in the subjects' sera, enabling the establishment of reference values for these parameters in African Kenyan males.

M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1980). Transient flow development due to a strong heat source in the atmosphere; Part I: Uniform temperature source. Combustion Science and Technology, 23, pp 163-75.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1980. Abstract

This paper describes a finite difference experiment to simulate the transient development of the convection column above a strip of uniform high temperature source in a stratified uniform cross flow atmosphere. The k-e model of turbulence is used and an upstream weighted scheme for this vorticity-stream function formulation is employed. Some computation results for a 195m wide source are presented. The immediate goal of the undertaking was to devise a scheme which could yield realistic flow 'boundary conditions' in the immediate vicinity of a fire to enable one to model the detailed structure of the fire region. The predictions are quite consistent with observations and this provides the link between the heat source and environmental parameters. This scheme, together with a refined near zone fire model, can be used to describe the interplay between the heat source (fire) component and the environmental components of a mass fire system.

M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1987). Experimental modelling of axial temperature profiles of buoyant diffusion flames. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, vol. 6, no. 1, 76-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Mean temperatures were measured along the axis of propane gas flames using a porous ceramic burner. Data for fire heat release rates ranging form 13.3kW to 30.6kW were taken and analyzed. It was found that the lower zone of a fire in a clam environment could be conveniently divided into three regions. For the same heat release rates, the fires were subjected to a cross flow of 0.72ms-1 and it was found that along the axis, the three zones could be identified. The excess temperature in the intermittent zone decreased with height to the power of 0.60 for the calm environment and 1.11 with crossflow. In the plume zone, excess temperature decreased with 1.87 power for the clam case and 2.05 with crossflow case, all data when plotted on log plots fell on a single curve.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (1987). Experimental modelling of axial temperature profiles of buoyant diffusion flames. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, vol. 6, no. 1, 76-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 1987. Abstract
Mean temperatures were measured along the axis of propane gas flames using a porous ceramic burner. Data for fire heat release rates ranging form 13.3kW to 30.6kW were taken and analyzed. It was found that the lower zone of a fire in a clam environment could be conveniently divided into three regions. For the same heat release rates, the fires were subjected to a cross flow of 0.72ms-1 and it was found that along the axis, the three zones could be identified. The excess temperature in the intermittent zone decreased with height to the power of 0.60 for the calm environment and 1.11 with crossflow. In the plume zone, excess temperature decreased with 1.87 power for the clam case and 2.05 with crossflow case, all data when plotted on log plots fell on a single curve.
M. PROFLUTIFELIX. "Luti, F.M. (2002). Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi, ISBN 9966846530, 385 pp.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 May;76(5):281-3. UN-HABITAT; 2002. Abstract
Galactosaemia is a disorder of galactose metabolism in which raised levels of galactose and galactose-l-phosphate damage various organs. It is a very rare disease (incidence 1 in 60,000) and the diagnosis is often missed, leading to poor prognosis. A case of clinical galactosaemia that was diagnosed at the age of 11 months is reported. It is important to be aware of this condition as early treatment may prevent some of the complications.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S.Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.
Otieno SP, Ngang'a E. Lwanda. Githinji K, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2008.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LYKKEBOE, G., JOHANSEN, K. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1975). Functional properties of haemoglobin in the teleost, Tilapia grahami.Journal of Comparative Physiology 104, 1-11.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
de Casso MC, Lewis NJ, Rapado F. "Lymphangioma presenting as a neck mass in the adult." International journal of clinical practice. 2001;55:337-338. AbstractWebsite
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Naidu SI, McCalla MR. "Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck in adults: a case report and review of the literature." Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2004;113:218-222. AbstractWebsite
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and 1. Elias R. M., G. Wandolo REJNSJMG. "Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin." Circulation Research 1990. 1990;(67):1097-1106. Abstract

1) Elias R. M., G. Wandolo, N. S. Ranadive, J. Eisenhoffer and M. G. Johnston: Lymphatic Pumping in response to changes in transmural pressure is modulated by erythrolysate/haemoglobin. Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106. - 1990
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
Circulation Research 1990; 67: 1097 – 1106.

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected children in Nairobi. Embree J, Bwayo J, Nagelkerke N, Njenga S, Nyange P, Ndinya-Achola J, Pamba H, Plummer F.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403.". In: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Apr;20(4):397-403. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Campbell KA, Lipinski MJ, Doran AC, Skaflen MD, Fuster V, McNamara CA. "Lymphocytes and the adventitial immune response in atherosclerosis." Circulation research. 2012;110:889-900. Abstract

Although much of the research on atherosclerosis has focused on the intimal accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells, there is an increasing amount of interest in the role of the adventitia in coordinating the immune response in atherosclerosis. In this review of the contributions of the adventitia and adventitial lymphocytes to the development of atherosclerosis, we discuss recent research on the formation and structural nature of adventitial immune aggregates, potential mechanisms of crosstalk between the intima, media, and adventitia, specific contributions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, and the role of the vasa vasorum and surrounding perivascular adipose tissue. Furthermore, we highlight techniques for the imaging of lymphocytes in the vasculature.

Mier PD, van den Hurk JJ. "Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. 2. Ester hydrolases." Br. J. Dermatol.. 1975;93(4):391-8. Abstract

Five distinct ester hydrolases (EC 3-1) have been characterized in guinea-pig epidermis. These are carboxylic esterase, acid phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, and arylsulphatase A and B. Their properties are consistent with those of lysosomal enzymes.

Mier PD, van den Hurk JJ. "Lysosomal hydrolases of the epidermis. I. Glycosidases." Br. J. Dermatol.. 1975;93(1):1-10. Abstract

Seven distinct glycosidases (EC 3.2) have been characterized in guinea-pig epidermis. Their properties indicate them to be of lysosomal origin. The 'profile' of the epidermal glycosidases is significantly different from that reported for whole skin, the activities of beta-galactosidase and beta-acetylglucosaminidase being very high and those of the remaining enzymes relatively low in epidermis.

Mwenesi BM. "L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue Est-Africain et kenyan .". In: L’enseignement du français dans le contexte multilingue Est-Africain. Kenyatta University; 2011.ku_paper.pdf

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