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Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of {Douglas}: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of {Douglas}: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical significance? Mwachaka P.M., Saidi H., Odula P.O., Awori K.O., Kaisha W.O. Clinical Anatomy 2010; 23: 84-86.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Locating the arcuate line of douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010.
OCHIENG' DRODULAPAUL. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: Is it of surgical relevance?". In: Journal of Clinical Anatomy.23 (1): 84-86. Mwachaka, P, Saidi H.S, Odula P, Awori K and W. Kaisha; 2009.
Mwachaka PM, Saidi HS, Odula PO, Awori KO, Kaisha WO. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?" Clinical anatomy (New York, {N.Y.)}. 2010;23:84-86. Abstract

Ventral hernia formation is a common complication of rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest. The site and extent of harvest of the flap are known contributing factors. Therefore, an accurate location of the arcuate line of Douglas, which marks the lower extent of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath, may be relevant before harvesting the flap. This study is aimed at determining the position of the arcuate line in relation to anatomical landmarks of the anterior abdominal wall. Arcuate lines were examined in 80 (44 male, 36 female) subjects, aged between 18 and 70 years, during autopsies and dissection. The position of the arcuate line was determined in relation to the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, and intersections of rectus abdominis muscle. Sixty four (80.4%) cases had the arcuate line. In most cases (52), this line was located in the upper half of a line between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Most males (93%) had the arcuate line, while more than a third of females did not have it. In all these cases, the line occurred bilaterally as a single arcade, constantly at the most distal intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Consequently, the arcuate line is most reliably marked superficially by the distal tendinous intersection of the rectus abdominis muscle. Harvesting of the muscle cranial to this point will minimize defects in the anterior abdominal wall that may lead to hernia formation.

Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2006.
Mwachaka, P. M.; Saidi OPO'; KHS; W. "Locating the arcuate line of Douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". 2010.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Locating Quantitative Trait Loci for maize stem borer resistance in Kenya through molecular markers. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Nielsen, MR; Lund JF; BTA; I. Locally-based monitoring and its relevance to management and research.; 2012. Abstract

Locally-based monitoring (LBM) has been pro posed as a solution to overcome the costs of monitoring the condition and development of natural resources and ecosystems in developing countries. Based on a recent empirical study on LBM, this brief argues that careful attention should be paid to the incentives and power struggles surrounding the particular context within which LBM schemes are based as they will invariably shape the information produced and communicated.

OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Locally Made Woodworking Machine. A Technical Report, 1985 (Revised 1988).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1988. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Locally Made Wind pumping System. A technical Report, 1987 (Revised 1992, 1997, 1999).". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
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OMONDI MRMISANGOQUIRENEBERNARD. "Locally Made Laundry Machine. A technical Report, 1986.". In: Far East J. of Theo. Stat. 18 (2), pp. 161 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1986. Abstract
v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Common nearly best linear estimates of location and scale parameters of normal and logistic distributions, which are based on complete samples, are considered. Here the population from which the samples are drawn is either normal or logistic population or a fusion of both distributions and the estimates are computed when it is not yet known which of the two populations (between the normal and logistic) is true. The problem discussed in this paper involves two possible population types in a given sample. Samples of sizes  and  are used to validate these estimates and a comparison of their variances is made with those of the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for normal and logistic distributions.
Zarins CK, Xu C, Taylor CA, Glagov S. "Localization of {Atherosclerotic} {Lesions}." In: MD RWA, MD LHH, eds. Vascular {Surgery}. Blackwell Publishing; 2007:. Abstract

This chapter contains sections titled: * Arterial structure and function * Physiologic adaptation of the arterial wall * Human atherosclerotic plaque morphology * Mechanical determinants of plaque localization * Susceptible regions of the arterial vasculature * Conclusion

Njagi L W, Mbuthia P G, Nyaga P N, C BL. "Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-location_of_nd_viral_nucleoprotein_in_ducks.pdf
L.C. B, Nyaga P.N., Mbuthia P.G. "Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in the tissues of carrier ducks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference . Nairobi ; 2008.2008_-_localisation_of_nd_nucleoprotein_in_tissues_of_carrier_ducks.pdf
Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Michieka JN;, Minga UM. "Localisation Of Newcastle Disease Viral Nucleoprotein In The Tissues Of Carrier Ducks.".; 2008. Abstract

Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleo protein in the tissues of carrier ducks was evaluated in 45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ducks. Ten chickens were used as positive control bir ds. The ducks were sacrificed serially on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 – post - inoculation. Six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, cecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) were collected from each bird, preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 hours, and then transferred to 70% ethanol. Indirect alkaline phosphatase – antialkaline phosphatase immunoperoxidase staining was performed to detect viral nucleoprotein. The ducks (28.9 %) had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in their tissues. The viral nucleoprotein s were found in l arge mononuclear cells of cecal tonsils and tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys of infected ducks. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the respective cells. Liver, lungs, spleen and brain of all infected ducks did not have detectable viral antigens. The number of ducks with viral antigen increased with duration of infection from 22.2%, 16.7%, 33.3% and 41.7% on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post - inoculation , respectively (p<0.05).Viral antigen intensity in cecal tonsil tissue section s was 4, 5, and > 5 cells in 15.4%, 53.8% and 30.8%, respectively, of the infected ducks. In the kidneys, more than 5 positive cells were recorded. Thus, in Newcastle disease virus carrier ducks, the kidneys and cecal tonsils need to be sampled for virus i solation besides other tissues.

Njagi LW;, Mbuthia PG;, Nyaga PN;, Bebora LC;, Michieka JN;, Minga UM. "Localisation Of Newcastle Disease Viral Nucleoprotein In The Tissues Of Carrier Ducks.".; 2008. Abstract

Localisation of Newcastle disease viral nucleo protein in the tissues of carrier ducks was evaluated in 45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ducks. Ten chickens were used as positive control bir ds. The ducks were sacrificed serially on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 – post - inoculation. Six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, cecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) were collected from each bird, preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 hours, and then transferred to 70% ethanol. Indirect alkaline phosphatase – antialkaline phosphatase immunoperoxidase staining was performed to detect viral nucleoprotein. The ducks (28.9 %) had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in their tissues. The viral nucleoprotein s were found in l arge mononuclear cells of cecal tonsils and tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys of infected ducks. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the respective cells. Liver, lungs, spleen and brain of all infected ducks did not have detectable viral antigens. The number of ducks with viral antigen increased with duration of infection from 22.2%, 16.7%, 33.3% and 41.7% on days 1, 4, 8 and 14 post - inoculation , respectively (p<0.05).Viral antigen intensity in cecal tonsil tissue section s was 4, 5, and > 5 cells in 15.4%, 53.8% and 30.8%, respectively, of the infected ducks. In the kidneys, more than 5 positive cells were recorded. Thus, in Newcastle disease virus carrier ducks, the kidneys and cecal tonsils need to be sampled for virus i solation besides other tissues

C.K. M, S. T. Local plants with known medicinal value. Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ; 1980.
and Mutune, J.M. WMRGDN. "Local Participation In Community Forest Associations: A case Study of Sururu and Eburu Forest." International Journal of African and Asian Studies. 2015;24:84-94.
Njeru G. "Local Level Politics: The 2007 Parliamentary Elections in Kenya.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development; 2010.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Local Level Institutions of Participation in a Changing Political and Economic Development Environment - The Kenyan Experience'. Paper presented to the IDE Workshop on African Political Economy in Transition, Tokyo, Japan, March 1992.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1992. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Mogambi H. "Local language broadcasting in Kenya.". In: Global Media Research Centre. Southern Illinois University; 2010.
Magoha GAO. "Local infiltration and spermatic cord block for inguinal, scrotal and testicular surgery. .". In: East African Medical Journal, 75: 575-577, 1998. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract

This was a prospective study involving 372 male patients. Surgical procedures including simple inguinal hernia repair, inguinal lymph node biopsy, hydrocelectomy, testicular biopsy, testicular fixation, orchidectomy and scrotal exploration were performed under local anaesthesia using various quantities of 0.5% xylocaine with adrenaline depending on the procedure, in the form of spermatic cord block and local infiltration nerve blocks. No premedication was given to any patient and only five patients (1.34%) were given intraoperative sedation due to anxiety. No complication directly attributed to the anaesthetic agent used or the technique of spermatic cord and nerve blocks were reported during the study. Three hundred and sixty patients (96.77%) were operated on as outpatients and were happy and satisfied to return home on the same day. This experience confirms that spermatic cord block accompanied by local infiltration with 0.5% xylocaine with adrenaline is simple, safe and effective technique that should be used more widely in outpatient urological and general surgical settings in this locality. It provides excellent intra-scrotal and inguinal anaesthesia. Furthermore, the technique is cost effective, and personnel effective since no anaesthetist is required for the procedure which is usually carried out by the surgeon. This would enable many more people to afford the surgical procedures.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Local Government in Kenya: A Case of Institutional Decline," in P. Mawhood, (ed.), local Government in the Third World: Experience of Decentralisation in Tropical Africa 2nd ed., Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 1994 (the first edition was pub.". In: The Leviathan (W. Berlin), Volume 6/pp. 197-215 (in German). IPPNW; 1983. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Amadi H. "Local Government Functions in a Societal Perspective: Evolution of Government-Society Relations in Kenya".". In: Local Government: A Global Perspective.; Forthcoming.
Mbaria JM, Kanja LW. "Local Experience on Conduct of Acute Toxicological Studies: Presented in Seminar on Procedure of Evaluation of Pesticides: toxicology Ecotoxicology and Efficacy. .". In: Workshop organized by Pest Control Products Board (PCPB) . information resource centre (AIRC), Nairobi, Kenya.; 2008.
Onjala J. "Local Economic Development and Regional Planning in Poverty Reduction at County Levels in Kenya.". In: Conference on Sustainable Development and Management, United Nations Human Settlements Programme and the African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD). AICAD Nairobi; 2015.
. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Local Development of a Production Process for Replacement Cylinder Head Journal of Agriculture Science and technology (JAST) Vol. 3 (2) 2001.". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 2001. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Clifford PS. "Local control of blood flow." Advances in Physiology Education. 2011;35:5-15. AbstractWebsite

Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors varies over time, from tissue to tissue, and among vessel generations.

Guthiga P;, Mburu J;, Holm-Muller K. "Local Communities’ Perceptions Towards Forest Management Regimes: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Kakamega Forest is located in western Kenya and covers approximately 240 Km2. The forest is the only lowland tropical rainforest in Kenya and it is world famous for its diversity of unique and numerous flora and fauna. However its survival is under immense threat since it is located in a densely populated area where local communities depend heavily on agriculture and forest extraction for their livelihoods. Currently, the forest is divided into three different parts that are managed through three distinct management approaches: an incentive-based approach of the Forest department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and a quasi private- approach of a local church mission, the Quakers. A review of literature clearly indicates that forest management regimes of public forests are important in assigning property rights to the various stakeholders and guiding use and consequently the outcomes. On the same footing research has pointed out the centrality of the local communities in the process of natural resource management. The persistence of resource degradation problems and failure of technical simple technical or economic prescription clearly indicates that there is need to consider the more complex aspects of natural resource management. The perception of the local people towards management regimes and the factors that condition their perception is important in designing policies for sustainable use of natural resources. This study considers how the local communities perceive the management regimes in terms of meeting the goal of utilising and conserving forest biodiversity. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results.

Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

Mutie S;, Mburu J;, Ackello-Ogutu C;, Guthiga P. "Local Communities' Dependence on Ntfps in Kakamega Forest: Analysis of Economic Value, and Determinants of Participation and Extraction Levels.".; 2004. Abstract

The study assesses the types and quantities of direct non-timber forest products (NTFPs) extracted by the local people living around the Kakamega Forest in Western Kenya. It further analyses the factors that influence a household's decision to participate in NTFPs' collection and the level of extraction undertaken. The results of this study are derived from a stratified sample of 370 households who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The quantities of the different products obtained by extracting households are valued at the average market prices to obtain their financial values. The results of the study indicate that the forest generates a substantial economic value to the local people. It was found that this value is comparable to that of the common crop enterprises in the research area. A Heckman two- stage regression model is used to analyse the socio-economic, institutional, and geo-physical factors that influence the household decision to participate in forest extraction and the quantities of the different products obtained. Proximity to the forest edge, the form of forest management approach, age and education level of the household head, household private land holding and participation in forest conservation activities are the main factors influencing the household decision to extract NTFPs from the forest. The level of extraction for the participating households is influenced by their proximity to the forest, the household size, participation in forest conservation activities and whether the household uses the extracted forest products as a source of income. The study concludes by highlighting some important policy inferences for sustainable use and conservation of Kakamega Forest.

Guthiga P;, Mburu J. "Local Communities Incentives for Forest Conservation: Case of Kakamega Forest in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

"The study is based on a biodiversity-rich remnant of a tropical rainforest located in western Kenya under immense threat of survival. The forest is located in a densely populated area inhabited by poor farming communities. Currently the forest is managed by three management regimes each carrying out its function in a different manner. The study identifies, describes and where possible quantifies the various conservation incentives (both economic and non-economic) offered by the three management regimes. Further, the study analyses local people's perception of management regimes by generating management satisfaction rankings; both overall and for specific management aspects. The findings of the study indicate that extraction of direct forest products is the main incentive offered by two of the regimes. The local people obtain substantial financial benefits in the form of products they extract from the forest. Satisfaction ranking showed that the strictest regime among the three was ranked highest overall for it performance. Coincidentally, the highest ranked regime has the best performance among the three in conserving the forest in its pristine state. An ordered logit regression was used to analyse factors influencing the overall satisfaction ranking. The results indicate that socio-economic factors are not significant in explaining the level of satisfaction ranking but involvement in forest conservation activities appears important in explaining satisfaction ranking. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of the results."

Ondicho TG. "Local Communities and Ecotourism Development in Kimana, Kenya." Journal of Tourism. 2012;XIII(1):41-60.tom-_jto_paper.pdf
Alila PO. "Local Communicty Social Systems and Human Security." A. Kumssa et al (eds). Conflict and Human Security in Africa: Kenya in Perspective, Macmillan, 2011; 2012. Abstract
n/a
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Local Authorities in Kenya (H.E.B.) . forthcoming.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; Submitted. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "A Local Approach Methodology for the Analysis of Uncracked Tubular Joints. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 2, October 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
Njuguna CN, Odiemo LO. "Loaded but Applauded: The Relationship between Workload and Job Satisfaction among High School Teachers in Kiambu County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2022;10(2):43-50.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Load-Deformation Behaviour of Soils and En-Masse Grains. Proceedings of the Symposium on Unsaturated Soil Behaviour and Applications. Nairobi, Kenya. 22 - 23 August.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1995. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling. Naivasha, Kenya; 2009.
Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga WO-OKGBMAN. "A Load Balancing Heuristic for Agent-based Parallel Machine Scheduling.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Lloyd, I.J., Burnstyn P.G., Horrobin, D.F., Kahuho, S.K., Mulimba, J. and Webala, G.S.R.: .". In: J. Obst. and Gynae.Comm. 1970;77:928-931. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1970. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Thesis, 1987, Towards Sustainable Development: Environmental Degradating and the rural Poor of Kenya.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1987. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
JAMES PROFODEK. "LL.M Thesis, 1987, Towards Sustainable Development: Environmental Degradating and the rural Poor of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1987. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1994), Humanitarian law and the International Protection of victims of Armed Conflicts.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
SHEM MRON&#39;GONDO. "LL.M Course Work Essay (1993), University of Nairobi. The individual as a Subject or Object of International Law.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
JAMES PROFODEK. "LL.B. Thesis. 1992, Rigit and Flexible Constitutions. A Consideration of Theory in the Light of the Kenyan Experience.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1992. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Living to die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000 (343 pp.).". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.the_abstract.pdf
WACHEGE PATRICK. "Living to Die, Dying to Live: African Christian Insights, 2nd Edition, Nairobi.". In: Paulines Publications Africa. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2005.
Mandela P. Living the Mysteries of the Holy Rosary. London: Xlibris Publishing Corporation; 2012.
Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Scheinfeldt LB, Tishkoff SA. "Living the high life: high-altitude adaptation." Genome Biology. 2010;11:133. AbstractWebsite

Genome-wide scans demonstrate that genetic variants associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans and Andeans arose independently as a result of convergent adaptation. PMID: 20979669

Wairire G. "Living but Leaving: Therapy in Light and Right of Life and Death in Traditional-Cum-Contemporary Societies." International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018;10(4):79-94.
Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living -Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit ." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2015:134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related
organ donation is practiced in Kenya.
Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta National hospital from the 2010.
The duration from 2010-
2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones
done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation
was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were
extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this
period but only 113
complete
records were traceable.
There were 113 medical records for both kidney
graft donors and recipients from 2010-
2015. Demographic
characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor
-recipient relationships. The mean
donor age was 32.94±8.52 years, median age of 32years with minimum donor age of 20 yea
rs and maximum of
54 years. Fifty five percent (54.90%) of the donors were males. Among the recipients, the mean age was
39.15
±12.68 years, median age of 36 years with the minimum recipient age of 14 years and maximum age of 66
years. Three in every four (
74.30%) of recipients were males. First degree relatives contributed 85.60% of all
the donors, with brothers and sisters to the recipients contributing almost equally (31.9% and 29.2%)
respectively
. The recipients clinical characteristics include the prim
ary disease, where hypertension and
glomerular diseases contributed 85.0% while diabetes mellitus contributed 13.30% of the documented primary
morbidity. Haemodialysis was the only modality of renal replacement therapy with a mean duration of
2.39±1.63 yea
rs and modes of 2 and 3 years. The most popular vascular access for dialysis was permanent
catheter (58.40%) with arteriovenous fistu
lae at 25.70%. Blood group O Rhesus positive was the commonest
among donors and recipients (70.80% and 53.10% respectively
). Blood transfusion was very common among
the recipients before and around transplantation. (51% and 68% respectively). The HLA
-A,
-B,
-DRB1
first and
second loci
match between the donors and recipients were zero match at 5.30%, one match at 9.70%, two
ma
tches at 11.50%, three matches at 38.10%, four matches at 20.40% five matches at 2.70% and six matches at
12.40%. All the transplantations were first kidney transplants
apart fro
m one case.
In our living
-related kidney transplantation programme, the donor
s are younger than recipients with males being
transplanted more than females. First degree relatives dominate the donation
. The commonest cause of the
ESRD was glomerular diseases and hypertension. The program shows plausible feasibility of organ transpla
nt
where the most po
pular modality of renal replace
ment therapy
.

Olukoye GA;, Wakhungu JW;, Wamicha, W.N.;, Kinyamario JJ;, Mwanje JL. "Livestock Versus Wildlife Ranching In Kenyan Rangelands: A Case Study Of Laikipia District Ranches.".; 2004.
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "Livestock price policy in Kenya: case of beef,.". In: paper presented in a workshop on Africa price policy and (published as a document of Economic Development Institute of the World Bank,1985). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Gathiaka JK. "Livestock farming and poverty reduction in smallholder farms in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):212-228.
Nguu J, Ndivo S, Aduda B, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi. "Livestock Farmers’ Perception on Generation of Cattle Wastebased Biogas Methane: the Case of Embu West District, Kenya." Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy. 2014; No.8(Vol.4). Abstract

Abstract
Perception of livestock farmers on the generation of cattle waste-based biogas methane was evaluated in this
study. The study was carried out in Embu West district in Kenya. A random sampling technique was used to
gather information related to farmers’ perception and the data collected with the help of self designed
questionnaires and face to face interviews. In the study, 92.9% of the one hundred and fifty six (156) livestock
farmers practiced zero-grazing and only fourteen (9%) of them had installed biogas digesters in their farms. Chi square tests yielded a value of χ = 0.591, p >0.05 which indicated that there was no significant relationship between uptake of cattle waste-based biogas and farmer’s perception. The hypothesis that low uptake of cattle waste-based biogas technology was due to negative perception of the farmers was found not to hold. Further Chi square tests indicated significant relationship (χ=23.56, p< 0.05) between farmers’ perception and knowledge of cattle waste-based biogas methane. Thus livestock farmers in Embu district had a very positive perception and were quite knowledgeable about biogas technology despite the minimal installation of the cattle waste-based biogas digesters. The research findings indicated that other factors like installation cost contribute to the low uptake of biogas technology. These research findings should assist government and industry understand the reason behind public ‘reservations’ in the adoption of biogas technology as well as develop strategies for enhanced promotion of renewable energy technologies.

Keywords: Biogas methane, perception, renewable energy, Embu west

Stelfox, John G; Kufwafwa JMSPDW; W; G. Livestock and wild herbivore populations in the Kenya rangelands in 1977 compared with 1978.; 1979. Abstract

Compares wild herbivore and livestock poulation data collected during the aerial suveys throughout the rangelands areas during 1977 and 1978. rangelands which were flown in straight line belt transects the first year at l0km spacing and the second at 5km apart. Elephant population estimates according to the ecoregions were: Northern Rift Valley 1,600 in 1977 but not included in 1978; Northern volcanics 1,600 in 1977 and 110 in 1978; Northern Central 4,170 in 1977 and 1,930 in 1978; North East 9,500 in 1977 and 3,060 in 1978; South Central 2,800 in 1977 and 4,130 in 1978, East Central-Coastal 13,900 in 1977 and 8,450 in 1978; South East 25,500 in 1977 and 21,900 in 1978; South West 1,800 in 1977 and 3,180 in 1978 providing a total estimate for 1977 of 59,800 and for 1978 of 42,800.

Okeyo AM;, PERSLEY G;, Kemp SJ. "Livestock and Biodiversity: The Case of Cattle in Africa."; 2010. Abstract

Africa is home to diverse and genetically unique ruminant livestock and wildlife species. The continent, however, faces huge food security challenges, partly due to low productivity of the livestock. As a centre of cattle domestication, Africa hosts genetically unique cattle, being products of generations of co-evolution with diverse people, each selecting for different attributes under different production systems and environments. Over millennia, this diversity of purpose has led to rich and unparalleled blends of indigenous and exotic cattle. Different parasites and pathogens, whose vigour has been buoyed by variable but generally favourable tropical conditions, have coevolved and served as critical drivers, making African cattle some of the world’s most scientifically interesting and valuable populations. This diversity is being lost at an alarmingly rate, and insitu conservation will not significantly save it These cattle can potentially provide adequate food and income to their keepers. First their genetic and phenotypic diversity should be understood, and then carefully tailored to specific production systems to improve their productivity. To realistically conserve these cattle, for which no conservation plans currently exist, available modern bio- and information technologies are needed to assemble and analyse complex sets of information on them. As the climate and pathogens all change, by smartly conserving (ex-situ) those at risk the genetic attributes critical for the world’s future food security challenges would be saved. This paper discusses the diversity of the African cattle and the need for their system-wide characterisation in order to allow their keepers to cope with the changing system, and minimise the loss of these unique genotypes.

Maina EN, Kinyi HW, Ochwang’i DO, Meroka AM, Wanyonyi WC. "Liver toxicity of Crude extract of Ficus natalensis traditionally used in South Western Uganda." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(4):116-121.
Maina EN, Kinyi HW, Ochwang’i DO, Meroka AM, Wanyonyi WC. "Liver toxicity of Crude extract of Ficus natalensis traditionally used in South Western Uganda." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3. Abstract
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"Livelihoods Under Climate Variability and Change: An Analysis of the Adaptive Capacity Of Rural Poor to Water Scarcity in Kenya’s Drylands." Journal of Environment Science and Technology. 2011;ISSN 1994-7887:DOI: 10.3923/Jest.2011.
Mwang'ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Muiru WM, Wasonga VO, Mnene WN, Mongare PN, Chege SW. "Livelihoods Under Climate Variability and Change: An Analysis of Adaptive Capacity of Rural Poor to Water Scacity in Kenya's Drylands." Journal of Environmental Science. 2011;4(4):403-410.abstract.doc
Onditi OF, kITHIIA SM. "Livelihood-Conservation Scorecard Balancing: Sustainable or Dispensable? Access to Natural Resources and Policy Implications in Bwidi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. ." International Journal of Social Science, Volume1, Number 1, 2009. 2009;Volume1, Number 1, 2009(Number 1).
Opande T, Olago D, Dulo SI. "Livelihood Vulnerability Approach to Assessing Climate Impacts on Smallholders in Kisumu, Kenya." International Journal of Innovation Research and Development. 2019;8(7):147-155.
Muriithi MK, Kamau G. "Livelihood strategy and food security in Turkana county of Kenya." Tanzania, Arusha; 2012.
Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Livelihood Diversification and Household Vulnerability to Climate Shocks in Rural Kenya." Climate Change and Development. 2021.
Njeru G. "Livelihood Diversification and Agricultural Entrepreneurship: An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere." An Analysis of Production and Marketing Innovations in Smallholder Farming in a Rural Kenyan District, Mbeere. 2001;(539).
Mueni J. Live audience. Medeva; 2007.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Perciani CT, Farah B, Kaul R, Ostrowski MA, Mahmud SM, Anzala O, Jaoko W, MacDonald KS. "Live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine does not induce HIV target cell activation." J. Clin. Invest.. 2019;129(2):875-886. Abstract

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is under consideration as a promising recombinant viral vector to deliver foreign antigens including HIV. However, new vectors have come under increased scrutiny, since trials with adenovirus serotype 5-vectored (Ad5-vectored) HIV vaccine demonstrated increased HIV risk in individuals with pre-immunity to the vector that was thought to be associated with mucosal immune activation (IA). Therefore, given the prospect of developing an HIV/VZV chimeric vaccine, it is particularly important to define the impact of VZV vaccination on IA.

Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "The Little Foxes‘that Upset Students‘Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology Journal . 2019;128.
R. NID; &, M M, R I. "The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology. 2019;128(2):52862-52867.
"The Little Foxes‘ that Upset Students‘ Learning of Professionalism." Elixir Psychology . 2019;128(128):52862-52867.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Little Fishes and Crocodiles' (A Short Story) in Little Amu and the Kobole ed. by W.Mwotia et al Oxford University Press:.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1989. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Wang’ondu VW, Bosire JO, Kairo JG, Kinyamario JI, Mwaura FB, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. "Litter Fall Dynamics of Restored Mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. and Sonneratia alba Sm.) in Kenya. ." Restoration Ecology. 2014;22(6):824-831.
M PROFNGECUWILSON. "Lithostratigraphic and facies distribution of Pleistocene sediments in southern Kenya Rift Valley at Munyu wa Gicheru Formation.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 29/2. Pp. 411-421. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 1999. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The lithospheric structure of the Kenya Rift as revealed by wide-angle seismic measurements.". In: In: Mac Caill, C. and Ryan, P.D. (eds). Continental Tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 164, 254-269. Wiley Interscience; 1999. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Riogi B, Odhiambo K, Ogutu O. "Lithopedion Causing Intestinal Obstruction." The Annals of African Surgery . 2010;vol 8(No 7).lithopaedon.docx
Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractWebsite

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

Odada EO. "Lithology, colour and mineralogy of pelagic sediments from the Romanche fracture zone (RFZ) in the equatorial atlantic." Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East). 1992;14(1):13-23. AbstractSCIENCE DIRECT

Sediment cores from the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ) in the equatorial Atlantic have been described visually and microscopically as well as analyzed by X-ray diffraction techniques in order to study the main controls on their lithology, colour and mineralogy. The sediments display graditional changes in colour, mineralogy and lithology. Water depth and biogenic dissolution appear to play an important role in controlling the lithology and mineralogy of the sediments. Distance from continental and volcanic sources of sediment appear to play secondary roles. Changes of colour downcore largely reflect variation in the Mn and Fe oxides content of the sediments.

Onyancha C, Nyamai C. "Lithology and Geological Structures as Controls in the Quality of Groundwater in Kilifi County, Kenya." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4(25):3631. AbstractFull Text

Aims: Saline and brackish water has been encountered in more than half of the boreholes
across Kilifi County. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between
lithology and structural geology and the quality of water encountered in boreholes in the
study area. Study Design: The study involved field observation of boreholes and collection of
hydrogeological data and analysis of geological and structural setting and water quality.
Place and Duration of Study: Borehole data was collected between January and June 2012.
Field observation of boreholes was carried out between June and September 2012. Data
analysis was carried out between October 2012 and July 2013 at Masinde Muliro University
and University of Nairobi.

Olaka LA, Musolff A, Mulch A, Olago D, Odada EO. "Lithological Influences on Occurrence of High-Fluoride Waters in The Central Kenya Rift." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2013. AbstractFull Text Link

Within the East African rift, groundwater recharge results from the complex interplay of geology, land cover, geomorphology, climate and on going volcano-tectonic processes across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The interrelationships between these factors create complex patterns of water availability, reliability and quality. The hydrochemical evolution of the waters is further complex due to the different climatic regimes and geothermal processes going on in this area. High fluoridic waters within the rift have been reported by few studies, while dental fluorosis is high among the inhabitants of the rift. The natural sources of fluoride in waters can be from weathering of fluorine bearing minerals in rocks, volcanic or fumarolic activities. Fluoride concentration in water depends on a number of factors including pH, temperature, time of water-rock formation contact and geochemical processes. Knowledge of the sources and dispersion of fluoride in both surface and groundwaters within the central Kenya rift and seasonal variations between wet and dry seasons is still poor. The Central Kenya rift is marked by active tectonics, volcanic activity and fumarolic activity, the rocks are majorly volcanics: rhyolites, tuffs, basalts, phonolites, ashes and agglomerates some are highly fractured. Major NW-SE faults bound the rift escarpment while the rift floor is marked by N-S striking faults We combine petrographic, hydrochemistry and structural information to determine the sources and enrichment pathways of high fluoridic waters within the Naivasha catchment. A total of 120 water samples for both the dry season (January-February2012) and after wet season (June-July 2013) from springs, rivers, lakes, hand dug wells, fumaroles and boreholes within the Naivasha catchment are collected and analysed for fluoride, physicochemical parameters and stable isotopes (δ2 H, δ18 O) in order to determine the origin and evolution of the waters. Additionally, 30 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The fluoride levels in surface and groundwater for the dry season range from 0.019 - 50.14 mg/L, on average above the WHO permissible limit. The high fluoride occurs both in the lake and groundwater. Preliminary petrographic studies show considerable fluoride in micas. The study is on-going and plans to present the relative abundances of fluoride in the lithology as the sources and the fluoride enrichment pathways of the groundwater within the Central Kenya rift.

L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. ""Literature in our Time and the University", in Trends and Future of University in Kenya in the 1990s and Beyond. Edited by Wanjala-Kerre and Kenneth Gray.". In: [Nairobi Masaki Publishers].; 1990. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literature at the Touch of a Key The People (Millennium Special), 31December." Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Literature as Medium for Moral Instruction: A Swahili/ Islamic Analysis of Ahmad Nassir's Utenzi wa Mtu ni Utu." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2019;Volume 4(1):17-30.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Literature and the Teaching of English." In The Place of Grammar in the Teaching of English. Published proceedings of an International Conference held at the British Council.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1988. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Literature and Society: A View on Approach", Busara 5, 2:70-76 Reprinted as "Literature and Society: What Approach" in Wanjala, The Season of Harvest.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1978. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Wanjala C. "Literature and Society: A View in Approach." Busara. 1973;5(2):70-76.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Literature and NationalBuilding; The Kenya Teacher , Dec. 1974.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1974. Abstract
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Muchiri J. "Literature and Human Rights: the Case of Chimamanda Adichie’s Fiction ." In Journal of Science Technology Education and Management. 2012;5(1 & 2):139-159.
Kithaka WM. ""Literature.". 1990.Website
Literary Translation in Kiswahili, . VDM Verlagsservicegesellschaft mbH, Germany: Lambart Academic Publishers; 2011.
Odhiambo T. "Literary Maps of Nairobi’s Citiness.". In: Afropolis: Cairo, Lagos, Nairobi, Kinshasa, Johannesburg. Koln: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther Konig; 2011.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Literary Journals,.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

Musonye MM. "Literary Insurgency: Mchongoano and the Popular Art Scene in Nairobi.". In: Popular Culture in Africa: The Episteme of the Everyday. New York & London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2014.
CHEGE MRMUNGAIJOSEPH. "Literacy In Perspective .". In: Bristol University, UK, September 1989. University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Seventeen cows of various breeds with varying degrees of severity of advanced ocular squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radical surgery, which included enucleation and extirpation of the surrounding ocular muscles and tissues. The degree of severity and the extent of the carcinoma lesion was correlated with the outcome of treatment for each case. It was observed that: 1. eyeball involvement, 2. ulceration and subsequent infection of carcinoma lesion involving the eyelids and 3. involvement of the regional lymphnodes especially the parotid , are some of the main factors that could be used to draw prognosis of such cases. Although the initial surgery may not be costly, the overall cost of managing postoperative complications is prohibitive and results to vast economic losses that should not be ignored.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Literacy in Kenya in the 21st Century. Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 .". In: Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 1. January 2002. Pp. 24 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. "Literacy and Post Literacy Print and Visual Materials with a Gender Perspective,.". In: UNESCO sub-regional seminar Arusha, Tanzania.- 3 rd to 13 th October, 1994. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
  
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Literacy and Education".". In: The OSSREA Kenya Chapter National Conference on Poverty, Literacy, Health and Environmental Issues in Kenya : Exploring the Alternative Strategies. 28 th to 30 th March 2001. Stem Hotel. Nakuru. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH).

Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study.

Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya.

Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic.

Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.

Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid Chromatographic Separation of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2010;58 (S 105):A-39.abstract.pdf
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of monoamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine." Chromatographia. 1993;35:451-454.
Thoithi G, Kibwage IO, Kingondu O, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and rifampicin on a reversed-phase silica column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:8-14.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of hexopyranosylated cytosine nucleosides from their degradation products." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.. 1997;16:533-540.
Thoithi G, Schepdael VA, Herdewijn P, Roets E, Hoogmartens J. "Liquid chromatographic separation of diamino analogues of 2'- or 3'-deoxyadenosine from adenine on a poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) polymer column." J. Chromatogr. A. 1995;689:247-254.
Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.. 2014;17(2):25-34. Abstract

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, precise and fast high performance liquid
chromatographic method for the determination of antihypertensive drugs amlodipine,
valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide singly or in combination was developed and
validated. Separation of the analytes was achieved on a Hypersil C-18 (250 mm × 4.6
mm, 5 μm) column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-KH2PO4 pH 3.0-
water (75:6:19 % v/v/v) delivered at 1 ml/min, UV detection at 229 nm and 40 oC
column temperature. The precision of the method was demonstrated through
repeatability (coefficient of variation = 0.298-0.724) as well as intermediate precision
(coefficient of variation = 0.435-1.412). The detector response was linear over the 25-
150 % range with R2 ≥ 0.99 for each of the three analytes. The limit of detection for
hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan and amlodipine were 10.72, 21.20 and 14.45 ng, while
the limits of quantification were 35.76, 71.23 and 48.16 ng, respectively. The method
showed satisfactory robustness and accuracy with a recovery of 99.7-100.6 %. The
method was applied in the assay of 6 commercial products containing drugs under
study. The results obtained revealed quality problems among the samples analyzed.

Gachangaga PN, Amugune BK, Ogeto JO, Abuga KO. "A Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Amlodipine, Valsartan and Hydrochlorothiazide in Tablets." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2014;17:25-34.
4. Adams E, R. Schepers LWGKRHREJ. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of a formulation containing Polymyxin, Gramicidin, and Neomycin. Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis ." . Journal of Pharmaceutical and biomedical Analysis . 1997;15:505-511.
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Liquid chromatographic analysis of phenobarbitone, ethosuximide, phenytoin and carbamazepine on a polystyrene-divinyl benzene column." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006;9(1):19-25.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
FREDRICK DROTIENOCF, N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12 Suppl):S173-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 2005. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.
Otieno CF, Mwendwa FW, Vaghela V, OGOLA EN, Amayo EO. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(12):180-183. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45 (9.4) years and that of males was 55.83 (9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85 (6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98 (5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol > 4.2 mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C > 2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment. CONCLUSION: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total–and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

CF Otieno, FW Mwendwa VENOEOAV. "Lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(12):173-179. Abstract

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high of cardiovascular events because they have abnormal lipid status compared to their non-diabetic counterparts.

Objective: To determine the quantitative lipid profile of ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Out-patient diabetic clinic of the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes but without obvious cardiovascular, renal or foot complications.

Results: A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied, 56.8% were females. The age range of the study population was 34 to 86 years, mean(sd) age of females was 54.45(9.4) years and that of males was 55.83(9.3) years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of females was 27.85(6.2) kg/m2 and 25.98(5.8) kg/m2 for males. The female subjects were more obese than the males in this study. Over 70% of the study participants had total cholesterol >4.2mmol/l, 43.8% and 57.6% of the females and males respectively had LDL-C >2.6 mmol/l , 25.6% of the females and 30% of the males had HDL-C < 1.00 mmol/l. Only a modest proportion of males (28.3%) and females (32.2%) had triglycerides >1.7 mmol/l. The LDL-C showed a significant positive correlation with age, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol but no correlation with glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, gender and the mode of glucose-lowering treatment.

Conclusion: There was significant proportion of quantitative dyslipidaemia in the study population especially with the Total - and LDL- cholesterols. Although treatment goals and lipid thresholds for cardiovascular risk in diabetes are not yet well-defined, even by the large randomized trials, high-risk patients with significant quantitative dyslipidaemia would require deliberate effort to correct the abnormal values to reduce the risk status. These high-risk patients without complications but already had significant dyslipidaemia, which enhances the risk of cardiovascular events, certainly required therapeutic intervention.

East African Medical Journal Vol. 82(12) 2005: S173-S179

Ndombi DSJ. Lipid metabolic changes in patients with pancreatitis . Shanghai Second Medical University; 1994.
Langat A, Benki-Nugent S, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Ngugi E, Diener L, Richardson BA, GC. J-S. "Lipid Changes in Kenyan HIV-1-Infected Infants Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy by One Year of Age." Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended for HIV-1 infected infants. There are limited data on lipid changes during infant HAART. METHODS:: Non-fasting total (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were measured at 0, 6 and 12 months. Correlates of lipid levels and changes post-HAART were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS:: Among 115 infants, pre-HAART median age was 3.8 months, CD4% was 19%, and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) was -2.42. Pre-HAART median lipid levels were: TC, 108.7 mg/dl, LDL, 42.5 mg/dl, HDL, 29.4 mg/dl and TG, 186.9 mg/dl. Few infants had abnormally high TC (6.2%) or LDL (5.6%), but many had low HDL (76.5%) or high TG (69.6%). Higher pre-HAART WAZ and HAZ were each associated with higher pre-HAART TC (P=0.04 and P=0.01) and LDL (P=0.02 and P=0.008). From 0-6 months post-HAART, TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), and HDL (P<0.0001) increased significantly, and 23.1% (P=0.002), 14.0% (P=0.2), 31.3% (P<0.0001), and 50.8% (P=0.2) of infants had abnormally high TC, high LDL, low HDL, and high TG, respectively. Changes in TC and HDL were each associated with higher gain in WAZ (P=0.03 and P=0.01) and HAZ (P=0.01 and P=0.007). Increased change in LDL was associated with higher gain in HAZ (P=0.03). Infants on protease inhibitor (PI)-HAART had smaller HDL increase (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:: Infants had substantive increases in lipids, which correlated with growth. Increases in HDL were attenuated by PI-HAART. It is important to determine clinical implications of these changes.
PMID:
23385950
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Klauss, V; Bhatt SM. "Lipaemia retinalis: a case report.". 1985.
O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Linnea U Warenius E, Faxelid Petronella Shichimba, Joyce O Musandu et al Nurse-Midwives.". In: Reproductive Health Matters Volume 14 No 27 May 2006. James Murimi; 2006. Abstract

Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong'any AA, Nissen EB.

Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Linnea.Warenius@ki.se

Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

PMID: 16713886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Linking Policy and Research: Towards Enhancing the Policy Advocacy Capacity of Civil Society in Kenya. An IPAR project proposal submitted to a number of Donors in 1997.". In: From Sessional Paper No. 10 to Structural Adjustment. Published by IPAR, Nairobi.; 1997. Abstract
n/a
Marani M, Ouma OK. "Linking Disasters and Development.". 2001.Website
Mugambi MM. "Linking Constructivism Theory to Classroom Practice." International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). 2018;5(9):96-104.constructivism_paper.pdf
Michaelina Almaz YOHANNIS, Timothy M WAEMA MHUTCHINSONAWAUSI. "Linking Climate Information to Livelihood Strategies through ICTs: the Role of Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework.". 2017. Abstracthttps://profiles.uonbi.ac.ke/wausi/

Abstract: In this paper, we propose that an Integrated Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (I-
SLF), that mainstreams ICT-driven climate information, provides the ideal means by which
such information may be leveraged to ensure sustainable enhanced livelihoods. We focus
on rural areas of Kitui County, Kenya. Guided by a range of theories such as Gender and
Development (GAD), Bourdieu's ideas of social capital, and the Information Needs
Assessment Model (INAM), we draw on the emerging variables to demonstrate that, while

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Linkages of Conflict in East Africa: An Overview'.". In: African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.3, No.2. University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
FES Papers in Conflict Management, No. 2
Owiti Z, Ogallo LA, Mutemi J. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall Anomalies." J.Kenya Meteorol. Soc.. 2008;2(1):3-17.abstract.doc
editor) Laban Ogallo FK(A, et al. "Linkages between the Indian Ocean Dipole and East African Seasonal Rainfall anomalies." Journal of the Kenya Meteorological Society. 2007;2(1-2).
Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

n/a

ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Linkages between Small and Large Firms in the Kenyan Food Processing Sector" with Dorothy McCormick. In Van Dijk M.P. and H. Sandee (eds). Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing.". In: Innovation and Small Enterprises in the Third World. Edward Elgar Publishing. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002.
Dorothy McCormick. "Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries.". In: Linkages Between Small and Large Firms In the Kenyan Food Processing and Tourism Industries. Hague, Netherlands.: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1998. Abstract

n/a

KABUBO-MARIARA JANE. "The Linkages between Property Rights, Migration and Productivity: The case of Kajiado District, Kenya." Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008.. 2003;8(4):621-636.Website
K'Oyugi BO. Linkages between Population and Vision 2030. KPA , Mombasa: Ministry of Planning national Development and Vision 2030; 2009.
M DRININDAJOSEPH. "Linkages between global sea surface temperatures and decadal rainfall variability over Eastern africa region.". In: International Journal of Climatology. Royal Meteorological Society; 2012. Abstract
Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. 256p.
Omondi P, Ogallo LA, Anyah R, Muthama JM, Ininda J. "Linkages between Global Sea Surface Temperatures and Decadal Rainfall Variability over Eastern Africa Region." Int. J. Climatol. . 2013;33:2082-2104. Abstractlinkages_between_global_sea_surface_temperatures_and_decadal_rainfall_variability_over_eastern_africa_region.pdfRoyal Meteorological Society

Linkages between dominant spatio-temporal decadal rainfall variability modes and the global sea surface temperature (SST) modes are investigated over East Africa region for the period 1950–2008. Singular value decomposition (SVD)and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) techniques are employed to examine potential linkages and predictability of decadal rainfall variability over the region. When the ten-year periodicity is filtered out from the observed monthly rainfall data, distinct decadal rainfall regimes are exhibited in the time series of mean seasonal rainfall anomalies. Spectral density analysis of rainfall time series showed dominance of a ten-year periodicity, significant at 95% confidence level.The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) results yielded nine and seven homogeneous decadal rainfall zones for long rains; March–May (MAM), and the short rains: October–December (OND) seasons, respectively. The third season of June–August (JJA) which is mainly experienced in western and coastal sub-regions had eight homogenous zones delineated. Results show that
the leading three SVD-coupled modes explain greater than 75% of the squared co variance between the two fields. The first SVD mode for Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans contributed to 50, 43 and 38% of the total square covariance for MAM season, respectively. The same mode accounted for 65, 48 and 40% for OND rainfall season, respectively. For the JJA season, mode one contributed to about 61, 39 and 42% of the variance. The study showed that forcing of decadal rainfall over the region is associated with El Ni˜no mode that is prominent over the Pacific Ocean, while Indian Ocean dipole is the leading mode over the Indian Ocean basin. An inter-hemispheric dipole mode that is common during ENSO was a prominent feature in the Atlantic Ocean forcing regional decadal rainfall. The high variability of these modes highlighted the significant roles of all the global oceans in forcing decadal rainfall variability over the region. In addition, results from multiple linear regression model showed substantial variation of the model prediction skill of the decadal rainfall variability
modes within various homogenous zones and for different seasons. Copyright© 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

KEY WORDS decadal rainfall variability; Eastern Africa; decadal modes of variability; global oceans SSTs

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