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OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. "Land tenure and agricultural development in Kenya and Tanzania"; Journal of the Denning Law Society (now Dar-es-Salam Law Journal).". In: East Africa Journal. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1969. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and its implications for the development of Semi-Arid Areas"; paper for the Workshop on the Development of Kenya's Semi-Arid Areas. Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, July 23-27.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1979. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and land administration in Tanzania: a paper for a Workshop on Land Use Planning and Land Tenure System", Sokoine University of agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, February.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and natural resource management: the Kenya experience", paper for the OSS/IGADD/ECA Workshop on Land tenure, Addis Ababa Ethiopia, March.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure and resource management: a comment:" in ENTWICKLUNG LANDLICHER RAUM Vol. 3 No. 2 Bonn, Germany.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1996. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
(eds.) OCO, et al. "Land Tenure and Sustainable Environmental Management in Kenya.". In: Environmental Governance in Kenya: Implementing the Framework Law. NAIROBI: East African Education Publishers; 2008.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. ""Land Tenure and Water Resources," in In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property & Constitutional Change, Juma, C & Ojwang J.B. (eds) Initiatives Publishers/ACTS press, (1996), at p. 143, with A.F. Juma & C Torori).". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1996. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Land Tenure in Slum Upgrading Projects.". In: In Slum Upgrading Programmes in Nairobi: Challenges in Implementation. Nairobi: French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA); 2011.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land Tenure Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Africa", paper for the symposium on communal Land Tenure Reform, held in Johannesburg, south Africa, August 12-13.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2002. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenure, agrarian legislation and environmental management systems"; in Bakama, R. J. (Ed.) Land Tenure and Sustainable Land Use (Chapter 2) KIT Bulletin 221, The Netherlands.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1994. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Land Tenure, Land Use and Sustainability in Kenya: Towards Innovative Use of Property Rights in Wildlife Management' in C.O. Okidi et al. eds., Land Use for Sustainable Development, Cambridge University Press, New York.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2005. Abstractland_tenure.pdf

Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.

A.Duraiappah, G.K.Ikiara, Manundu M, Nyangena W, R.Sinange. "Land Tenure, Land Use, Environmental Degradation and Conflict Resolution: a PASIR Analysis for the Narok District, Kenya." International Institute for Environment and Develo pment, London and Institute for Environmental Studies. 2000.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Land tenurer problems in the Ten-Mile Strip of the Coast Province of Kenya"; memorandum prepared for and at the request of the Parliamentary Select.". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1977. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "LAND TITLING IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991.
Nkonya, E; Jawoo K; MLP; R. Land under pressure..; 2011. Abstract

This chapter presents and discusses the causes of land degradation, and ways of sustainable land development and agricultural productivity. The evidence presented here suggests several avenues for achieving a world without land degradation. First, efforts to promote sustainable land management need to improve locally and nationally. Second, instead of focusing solely on fertilizer subsidies, countries should use broader and more cost-effective incentives to encourage farmers to adopt integrated soil fertility management.

Muhati GL, Olago D, Olaka L. "Land use and land cover changes in a sub-humid Montane forest in an arid setting: A case study of the Marsabit forest reserve in northern Kenya." Global Ecology and Conservation. 2018;16:e00512. AbstractWebsite

Abstract

There have been drastic changes in land-use patterns in the Marsabit Forest Reserve (MFR) as a consequence of anthropogenic processes for livelihood improvement over time. The objective of this study was to assess the land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), especially those related to the forest cover, in the MFR using multi-temporal Landsat images from Landsat 7 and 8 covering the period 1990 to 2017. Unsupervised and supervised classifications were carried out with the final classification done using the Maximum Likelihood Classifier for each period image to create six dominant land-use and land-cover classes (LULC) which included: shrubland, grassland, bare land, open forest, agriculture and settlement, closed forest, and wetland. The results showed that, between 1990 and 2010, the closed forest area had reduced from 19,599 to 9275 ha (−52.7%), open forest from 30,214 to 7345 ha (−75.7%), and shrubland from 83,288 to 65,212 ha (−21.7%). Over the same period there was, a corresponding increase in the grassland area from 35,233 to 56,066 ha (+58.7%), bare land from 19565 to 35,691 ha (+82.4%) and agriculture/settlement class from 12,842 to 24,072 ha (+87.5%). With the introduction of a forest moratorium illegalising consumptive forest use between 2010 and 2017, the closed forest area increased from 9275 to 12,133 ha (+30.8%), bare land from 35,691 to 42,275 ha (+15.6%) and shrubland 65,212 to 100, 452 ha (+35.1%), with a corresponding decrease in open forest area from 7345 to 1385 ha (−430%), grassland from 56,066 to 39,542 ha (−41.9%), and agriculture/settlement class from 24,072 to 7235 ha (−232.7%). The Focused group discussion (FGD) and Key informant interview (KII) respondents identified illegal logging, livestock incursion/foraging, inadequacies of Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) in forest management, forest excisions, firewood collection and illegal settlements in the Marsabit National Reserve (MNR) as the main drivers of LULCC. The study proposes the implementation of the ten-year (2015–2025) Marsabit Forest Ecosystem Management Plan in managing the drivers of LULCC in a bid to safeguard the ecosystem services (ES) provided by the MFR.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use and spatial distribution of two gum and incense producing tree species in the Blue-nile valley of Wogidi district, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 14:77- 87.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Benjamin Nyilitya, Mureithi S, Boeckx P. "Land use controls Kenyan riverine nitrate discharge into Lake Victoria – evidence from Nyando, Nzoia and Sondu Miriu river catchments." Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 2020.
Oroda A, Anyango SO, Branthome A, Situma C. "Land use land cover changes in the lake Victoria region .". In: East. African ecology, Conference. Kampala, Uganda ; 2009.
MO O, OA K’akumu. "Land Use Management Challenges for Nairobi City." International Refereed Journal Urban Forum. 2007;17(3).
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Land Use Patterns on Eastern and Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya.". In: Published by University of Nairobi Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Land Use Planning and Management (ACTS).". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1999. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
A. DRSWAZURIMUHAMMED. ""Land Use Policy in Relation to Social Forestry in Kenya". Paper presented to the Social Forestry Refresher Course, Muguga, Nairobi, 12th to 16th March, 1990.". In: Key issues for Developing Countries. 1992 Ed., Bhatnagar S.C., pp. 103-114. Tata-Mcgraw-Hill. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya; 1990. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Muchane MN, Karanja D, Wambugu GM, Mutahi JM, Clet Wandui Masiga, Mugoya C, Muchai M, others. "Land use practices and their implications on soil macro-fauna in Maasai Mara ecosystem." International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2012;4:500-514. Abstract
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Okoth SA, Roimen H, Mutsotso B, Muya E, Okoth P. "Land use systems and distribution of Trichoderma species in Embu region, Kenya." Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2007;(7):105-122.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Land use, ecology, and socio-economic changes in a pastoral production system. Journal of Human Ecology, 16: 83-89.". In: Journal of Human Ecology, 17: 143 . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2004. Abstract

A study was conducted to determine dietary characteristics of sheep and Grant's gazelles on Kapiti Ranch, Kenya. The dietary botanical composition was determined using the microhistological technique. Plant species in the diets were categorized into grass, forb and browse classes. Shannon-Wiener and Morisita's similarity indices were used to express dietary diversity and overlap respectively. Diets were simulated based on microhistology results to give 50 gm samples, then analysed for crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, lignin, and in vitro dry matter digestibility. Sheep were predominantly grazers during dry and wet season while Grant's gazelles were mixed feeders, with a higher preference for grasses during the wet season and an equal preference for both grasses and browse during the dry season. Diets of Grant's gazelles were more diverse than those of sheep for both seasons. Degree of dietary overlap between the animal species was highest during the wet season. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in dietary nutrient content between the animal species, within seasons. Dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05) for both species during the wet season. Neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, lignin and cellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05) during the dry season. Sheep diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) in crude protein during the wet season, whereas it was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the diets of Grant's gazelles during the dry season. Study findings indicate that, sheep and Grant's gazelles are compatible for efficient use of vegetation on Athi Kapiti plains. Integration of the two ruminants can make unique and important contribution to food production and income generation opportunities in areas with vegetation composition similar to that of Athi Kapiti plains.

Shihembetsa L. "Land Utilisation in Inner City Areas: The case of Nairobi Kenya in Forum." CARDO Research Group. 1992;(University of Newcastle Upon Tyne).
"Land Valuation Taxation: An Applied Analysis ." Discovery and Innovation. 2006;Vol 20.
Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Land, Governance and Poverty Alleviation in Kenya. Issues for the next millennium.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
Muchai M, Bennun L, Lens L, Rayment M, Pisano G. "Land-use and the conservation of Sharpe's Longclaw Macronyx sharpei in central Kenya." Bird Conservation International. 2001;12:107-121. Abstract
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Obala LM, Kimani MW. "Land-use Conflicts and Urban Land Management in Kenya.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Protected areas throughout the world are key for conserving biodiversity, and land use is key for providing food, fiber, and other ecosystem services essential for human sustenance. As land use change isolates protected areas from their surrounding landscapes, the challenge is to identify management opportunities that maintain ecological function while minimizing restrictions on human land use. Building on the case studies in this Invited Feature and on ecological principles, we identify opportunities for regional land management that maintain both ecological function in protected areas and human land use options, including preserving crucial habitats and migration corridors, and reducing dependence of local human populations on protected area resources. Identification of appropriate and effective management opportunities depends on clear definitions of: (1) the biodiversity attributes of concern; (2) landscape connections to delineate particular locations with strong ecological interactions between the protected area and its surrounding landscape; and (3) socioeconomic dynamics that determine current and future use of land resources in and around the protected area.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Land-use planning, development and policy for rural Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

This paper is concerned with policy and development issues relating to the planning of rural land use in Kenya. The central theme of the analysis is the critical and urgent need for sustainable land use. Based on a study of land considerations in past development policies and of current land use issues, the paper discusses current development strategies and issues. Pitfalls likely to be encountered in future land use planning in rural Kenya are discussed.

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "Landholding and Ethics: Critical issues for Kenya.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1991.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20.; 2011. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Landlords, Tenants and the Law: There is Recourse to the Law".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 19-20 (February 1991).; 1991. Abstract
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ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "Lands on Campus, Report: African Design Perspectives as Discussed by PJ Aranador (Philippines).". In: Faculty of Architecture, Design and Development, facilitated by Product Design and Development Center, Nairobi. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract

The Department of Design, University of Nairobi recently hosted internationally reknowed Filipino Design Consultant, PJ Aranador. This event was a milestone, in many ways, for design in Kenya in that we had a distinguished designer, with an equally distinguished audience, discussing an important economic aspect lof national development. PJ is a design consultant for all major Philippine Trade Fares and a product development consultant for his government. He has been interviewed by CNNs' Elsa Klench in "Style:. And, "PJ" products sell on the international market with the buy line - "Style made modern". These styles include casual wear, swim wear and youthful clothes. PJ also indulges in interior and industrial design. The lecture included slides, posters and transparencies and was attended by a record assembly of over 100 participants from the major tertiary institutions in Kenya that offer design courses such as Evelyn College of Design, Marion Institute College, The Kenya Polytechnic and the University of Nairobi itself". This is the first assembly of these various tertiary institutions in pursuit of one goal - to listen and share in the experience of a fellow designer. PJ, on his part, gave a broad overview of the design profession, touching on its importance as an economic activity and its difference and similarities with Fine art. Design engages art and other factors in conception, but is driven by market forces because design is primarily, a marketing function. Design must concern itself with production unlike Art, which is not driven by reproduction. As a function of marketing, designers need to be sensitive to consumers of their products.

Lund, JF; Helles MNI; TF; H; I. Landsbyskovbrug i Tanzania : hvem vinder, hvem taber?.; 2008.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D., Mwenda J., Chege G., and Wango E.O. (1996).Characterisation of retroviral related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental and other tissues. .". In: Kenya Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society, 21st Annual Scientific Conference, 21st-23rd February. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.O. Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.M. (1999). Immunohistochemical characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental villous tissue. J. Medical. Primatol., 27, 278-286.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.O.,Wango E.O. (1997). Characterisation of HIV/SIV cross-reactive antigens expressed in normal baboon placental villous tissue. J. Reprod.Immunol. 34, 66.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Owiti G.O., Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.S. (1998). Characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental and other tissues. African J. Health Sci. 5,139-146.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Owiti G.O., Wango E.O. and Mwenda J.S.(1997). Localisation of HIV/SIV cross-reactive antigens expressed in normal baboon placental tissues. J. Mol. Medicine, 75,(7):B178.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Johnson P.M., Rote N.S., Wango E.O., Owiti G.O.,Isahakia M.A., and Mwenda J.M., (1999). Characterisation of antigens expressed in normal baboon trophoblast and cross reactive with HIV/SIV antibodies. J. Reprod. Immunol.42, 41-58.". In: 25th Annual Conference, 23rd . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Langat D.K., Mwenda J.M., Owiti G.E.O. and Wango E.O. (1996).Biochemical characterisation of retroviral-related antigens expressed in normal baboon placental tissues.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. I-8. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Langat DK, Morales PJ, Omwandho CO, Fazleabas AT. Polymorphisms in the Paan-AG promoter influence NF-kappaB binding and transcriptional activity.". In: Immunogenetics. 2007 May;59(5):359-66.; 2007. Abstract

The human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes a protein that is highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy and may be critical to the survival of the semiallogenic fetus. A unique feature of this gene is a 13-bp deletion in the proximal promoter that renders it unresponsive to transactivation by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We previously showed that the proximal promoter of Paan-AG, the functional homologue of HLA-G in the olive baboon (Papio anubis), is intact. We cloned the promoters of two putative Paan-AG alleles (AG1 and AG2) and identified a number of regulatory elements including two kappaB sites. In the current study, binding and activity of the two kappaB elements in each putative allele were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays. Functional activity was determined using luciferase reporter assays. The kappaB1 and kappaB2 elements in AG1 bound NF-kappaB with similar affinity. In contrast, the kappaB1 element of AG2 bound NF-kappaB with a much higher affinity than AG-1 kappaB1 (a 30-fold increase), whereas kappaB2 did not bind. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the difference in binding intensities was due to two nucleotides in the 3' end of kappaB1. Similarly, failure of AG2 kappaB2 binding was a result of the last nucleotide in the 3' end that differed from the consensus; mutating this nucleotide to match the consensus reestablished binding. Functional activity of the two putative alleles also differed; AG1 luciferase activity was consistently lower than that of AG2. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of AG1 kappaB1 resulted in increased luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results show that in vitro variations in the promoter region may influence transcription of Paan-AG.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1989) Passive obligatory heterothermy of the giraffe. Journal of Physiology London 415, 89P.". In: Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 17, 335. EAMJ; 1989. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) Respiration and metabolism in the giraffe. Respiration Physiology 50,141-152.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., MALOIY, G.M.O., SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, K. and SCHROTER, R.C.(1978) Respiratory water and heat loss in camels subjected to dehydration. Journal of Physiology, London 278, 33P.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., MALOIY, G.M.O., SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, K. and SCHROTER, R.C.(1979) Nasal heat exchange in the giraffe and other large animals. Respiration Physiology 37, 325-334.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1979. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., ROBERTS, T.J., BLACK, J., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND,N.C., WEBER, J.M. and TAYLOR, C.R.(1990) African elephants: energetics of walking in a large mammal.Physiologist 33, 36A.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "LANGMAN, V.A., ROBERTS, T.J., BLACK, J., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND,N.C., WEBER, J.M. KRAM, R. and TAYLOR, C.R.(1995) Moving cheaply: energetics of walking in the African elephant.Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 629-632.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Kithaka WM. "Language.". 1990.Website
"Language and Politics in the Horn of Africa.". In: International Symposium on the Horn of Africa. University of Cairo, Cairo; 1985.
Abdulaziz MH, Alfa SI. "Language and Social Change.". 1993.Website
Mukhwana A. "Language Attitudes Towards Mother Tongue in Urban Kenya." Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2014;VI(1).
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language choice and Information Flow.". In: Waigani Seminar. University of Papua New Guinea; 1986.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "Language Education Improvement and the Creation of Language Related Careers in Kenya" In K.R. (ed.), Employment and Education in Kenya: Strategies and Opportunities for Development. Nairobi: Professors World Peace Academy.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Mutua BF. "Language Games and Language Teaching in Kenya: The Case of Kiswahili in Lower School." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5(6):191-198.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language in Afro-Arab Relations: The historical Interactions between Arabic and African Languages.". In: UNESCO - sponsored symposium on the Historical and Socio Cultural Relations between Black Africa and Arab World: 1935 to the present - organized by the International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. Unesco-Paris; 1979.
Mohamed A. "Language in Contras.". 1997.Website
Mungania BG. "Language Issues in a Multi-lingual Society: The Kenyan Experience." Occasional papers in language and lingustics. 2001;Vol. 1:30-40.
Maina. The Language of Design. Seattle: Amazon; 2017.
Mogambi H, Onchiri H. "The Language of graffiti on Public Transport Vehicles in Kenya: Issues and perspectives." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;3(6):47-56.
"The Language of History in African Philosophy." Hekima:Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2005;II ( 2).
Gatere AW. "The Language of Love." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2021;1(1):33-35.the_language_of_love.pdf
Mukhwana A. "Language Planning in Pre-Colonial Kenya.". 2014:27-34.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Language Planning with special reference to East African Countries." University of Washington, Seattle; 1981.
Ayub M. "Language Policy and Planning in Urban Kenya." VDM Publishers, Saarbrucken, Germany; 2010. Abstract
n/a
Kibui AW, Logarmuthie L. "Language Policy in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research- ISSN: 2249-8052. 2014;Vol.4 :89-98 .
Mungania G. "Language Policy in Kenya: Prospects and Retrospects.". In: 22nd Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Nairobi, Kenya; 1991.
Mohamed PA,(ed) AIS. "Language Situation in Kenya." Languages et PolitiQues en Afrique Noire. 1977.
Pauw GD, de Schryver GM, Forcada ML, Sarasola K, Tyers FM, Wagacha PW. "Language Technology for Normalisation of Less-Resourced Languages." Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2012). 2012:2012. Abstract

The 8th International Workshop of the ISCA Special Interest Group on Speech and
Language Technology for Minority Languages (SALTMIL) 1 and the Fourth Workshop on
African Language Technology (AfLaT2012) 2 is held as a joint effort as part of the 2012
International Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2012). Entitled
“Language technology for normalisation of less-resourced languages”, the workshop is
intended to continue the series of SALTMIL/LREC workshops on computational language

• Michira JN. "Language, Resistance and Subversive Identities in Matatu Sub-culture." The International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2018;Vol. 6(No. 3):242-253.
Jayne M. "Languages and Society: A Gender Perspective.". In: Proceedings of Understanding Gender Inequalities. Egerton University; Forthcoming.
Wasamba P. Languange in Marjorie Oludhe Macgoye’s Fiction. Chesaina PC, Odari M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.abstract.pdf
Wango GM, Ngerema D, Owang S. "Languishing and Assisting People Get on their Feet." The Counsel-ling Magazine. 2022;2(1):7-9.languishing_and_assisting_people_get_on_their_feet.pdf
Patel SC, Jumba GF, Akmal S. "Laparoscopic appendicectomy at the {Aga} {Khan} {Hospital}, {Nairobi}." East African medical journal. 2004;80:447-451. AbstractWebsite
n/a
I C, P S, B N, M M, JA O’o. "Laparoscopic surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: detection of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues, fluids, and surgical smoke." Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2021;406(4):1007-1014. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Background: There are still concerns over the safety of laparoscopic surgery in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients due to the potential risk of viral transmission through surgical smoke/laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of currently available literature to determine the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in abdominal tissues or fluids and in surgical smoke.

Results: A total of 19 studies (15 case reports and 4 case series) comprising 29 COVID-19 patients were included. The viral RNA was positively identified in 11 patients (37.9%). The samples that tested positive include the peritoneal fluid, bile, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysate, duodenal wall, and appendix. Similar samples, together with the omentum and abdominal subcutaneous fat, tested negative in the other patients. Only one study investigated SARS-COV-2 RNA in surgical smoke generated during laparoscopy, reporting negative findings.

Conclusions: There are conflicting results regarding the presence of SARS-COV-2 in abdominal tissues and fluids. No currently available evidence supports the hypothesis that SARS-COV-2 can be aerosolized and transmitted through surgical smoke. Larger studies are urgently needed to corroborate these findings.

magabe PC. "Large aneurysm in renal angiomyolipoma causing life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage." African Journal of Urology . 2014; Vol 20, (No 4 (2014) ).
AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two-phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi-arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution . 2019.
Augustine DJ, Wigley BJ, Ratnam J, Kibet S, Nyangito M, Sankaran M. "Large herbivores maintain a two‐phase herbaceous vegetation mosaic in a semi‐arid savanna." Ecology and Evolution. 2019;9(22):12779-12788.
Kibugi R, Makathimo M, Mwathane I. Large Scale Land Acquisitions for Investments in Kenya: Is the Participation, and benefits for affected local communities meaningful, and equitable? A case study of the situation in Lamu, Isiolo and Siaya Counties . Nairobi: Land Development and Governance Institute ; 2016. Abstractlarge_scale_land_acquisitions_for_investment_in_kenya.pdfWebsite

Land acquisitions, either driven by foreign investments or domestic investment needs have continued to polarize opinions. When this research was proposed, it was premised on arguments by scholars Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Helen Markelova, who had analysed agricultural land deals, and argued that there were potentially two schools of thought about foreign acquisitions over agricultural land. Their school of thought regards them as “beneficial investments” whereby investors are viewed as bringing needed investment, possibly improved technology or farming knowledge, thereby generating employment and increasing food production. Meinzen-Dick and Markelova further argued that because these land acquisitions, foreign and domestic, are ongoing at a very fast rate, it is necessary for host countries to focus on what they can do to seize the opportunities and mitigate the risks associated with the deals.
During implementation of the research project in Kenya, it became clear that although prior illustrations of land deals included foreign acquisitions (e.g. Dominion farms), a government economic policy focusing on mega- infrastructure projects was driving (or expected to drive) a much higher pace of land acquisitions either for primary infrastructure, or for the economic activities that flowed from the primary infrastructure. This is in the context of the Lamu South Sudan Ethiopia Transportation Corridor (LAPSSET) project, which is a flagship means for realization of Vision 2030; Kenya’s current national development plan. Thus, a national conversation is necessary to debate the crucial question of how to provide safeguards to protect the interests of local communities directly affected by these investments, including compensation of land that is taken, and their place in the socio-economic and environmental continuum of investment projects from design to implementation.
The following findings and recommendations have resulted from this research, and it is anticipated they will be valuable in setting the agenda and tone of such a useful national conversation, as well as tangible actions:

A. Lessons, Conclusions and findings requiring policy level interventions

1. Regularization of landholding and tenure systems.
The absence or weakness of formal landholding, and land registration systems was evident in most of the research sites, in Isiolo and Lamu. This is despite Kenya having put in place new land laws in 2012 to give effect to constitutional provisions to protect land rights. This has resulted either in emergence of informal land administration and conveyance systems (Lamu), or the emergence of a complex system of formal land allocation that brings about multi-allocation of land through repeated issuance of allotment letters, (Isiolo), or non-adjudication and registration of community lands (Isiolo, Lamu). In either instance this results in undermining security of tenure, and enhances the vulnerability of concerned communities who will face difficulties securing their interests in the land ahead of any large scale land acquisitions, due to the entry of speculators, and persons interested in grabbing the land by being first to obtain formal registration. The Kenyan national government should consider partnering with the County government in Isiolo in order to identify the nature and extent of, and take steps to resolve the problem of multi-allocations of land there. In addition, putting in place a programme for regularization of tenure rights by addressing the challenges of those without title is important as it will enhance the security of tenure of people affected by compulsory acquisition.

2. Enhancing tenure of certain communities through implementation of the provisions of Community Land Act.
This conclusion is drawn from findings in research amongst the Aweer (Bargoni), and Turkana communities (Ngare Mara) where residents expressed apprehension over their tenure security in the face of land acquisition for LAPSSET infrastructure. This is because the land has not been (fully) adjudicated or registered in favour of the community notwithstanding existence of the Land (Group Representatives) Act that preceded the 2016 community land law. It is recommended that the government expedites the application of the provisions of the Community Land Act for the Lamu and Isiolo communities faced by these land acquisition projects as a first step to guaranteeing the beneficial interests of the community members, first by protecting tenure rights, and subsequently providing for equitable community land governance mechanisms.

3. Clarification on the practice and methodology of valuation of land and non-land assets for compensation.
The repeal of the Land Acquisition Act, and with that the Schedule that defined the methodology of valuation of land requires to be resolved. In any event, based on the analysis in the research, and findings, there is need to formally resolve the entitlement to compensation for persons without legal title. In addition, it is imperative for Kenya to state in law or regulations the methodology to be applied in valuation of non-land assets, including the loss of livelihoods. Application of the full replacement cost methodology, as discussed, provides a viable option because, in addition to anchoring on the market value of the land, the replacement cost approach extends compensation to non-land assets, using the real cost of full replacement, and not factoring in any depreciation of the non-land assets being replaced, and takes into account all the transaction costs of purchasing (conveyancing fees, etc), or logistical costs of replacement of non-land assets.

4. Internalization of resettlement safeguards principles and practice into Kenyan law of compulsory acquisition of land
A review of the current legal situation in Kenya concerning compulsory acquisition of land discloses the absence of safeguards governing interaction with host community, as well as involuntary resettlement safeguards in the event of displacement by land acquisition. This includes exploring the possible application of an FPIC process that emphasizes the quality and meaningfulness of affected community participation, including the impact that views obtained during consultations have on the final decision. Equally critical is the decision to vertically integrate the process by requiring the consultation of the affected public during project planning. In the sense of feasibility studies, and project designs, this suggests that community participation may add value to the process by being conducted much earlier on in the process, and contribute to analysis of project sites, and alternatives.

For practical purposes, Kenya could consider a legal requirement for a national Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) that would govern internalization of resettlement safeguards, including participation of communities. Key to this is that if a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is required, in terms of EMCA, both the RAP and RPF would have undergo a Strategic Environmental Assessment thereby providing a means for risk assessment in advance of major implementation steps being underway.

5. Policy linkage of investment promotion rules with investments flowing from land acquisitions to secure community benefit through contracts and business models
At a policy level, it is important for Kenya to revisit, in a framework sense, how to use investment promotion rules and binding contracts to safeguard socio-economic, environmental benefits and livelihoods of local communities. This is mainly in context of the continuum of an investment, from land acquisition, and during its implementation. The Investment Promotion Act, while addressing the benefit to Kenya threshold, is not aggressively applied, and as evidenced by the Dominion contracts, critical socio-economic safeguards were not included. A clear policy evaluation of business models application, either contracts in the context of farming investments, or other types, should be undertaken and public disclosure of the proposed business model(s) should be undertaken early enough, to ensure affected project communities do not experience anxiety over their future.

This could be done in context of section 12 of the Land Act, which requires the National Land Commission to make regulations to govern how investments on public land will safeguard community benefits and livelihoods. The details of these considerations have been discussed at length earlier in this report.

6. Regulations to regulate methodology for assessment of just compensation
Kenya is currently engaged in a number of infrastructural projects that call for the compulsory acquisition and compensation of land. As noted in the study, Section 111 of the Land Act requires the National Land Commission to develop rules to regulate the assessment of just compensation where land is compulsorily acquired. As at the time of this report, these rules had not yet been developed. The rules will help to standardize the methodology for the anticipated assessment and make the process more predictable and, in an environment where the government is involved in the development of infrastructure calling for massive compensation of compulsorily acquired land, the development of these rules should have been accorded priority.

It is however noted that regulations to operate the entire Land Act have not yet been developed. Perhaps the development of these regulations, and the rules to govern assessment for just compensation, may have been delayed by the amendments recently effected to the Land Act. Now that the amendments were concluded, it is recommended that the development of the rules to govern the assessment of just compensation payable to landowners affected by large scale investments on land be expedited.

B. Lessons, conclusions and findings requiring direct actions at community level
In this category, the conclusions and findings are drawn to highlight matters that directly affect the voice and equitable benefit or participation of affected local communities, either in land acquisition process, or in the continuum of investments introduced in their midst.

1. A community dissemination manual for transfer of knowledge about land laws, policies and land administration processes
In focus group discussions held in the course of field work, the research team got similar feedback multiple times that the (potentially) affected “had heard” on radio, or through other fora that Kenya had new land laws in place, they did not really know the content of these laws. A similar sentiment was expressed with regard to knowledge of details about the components of the various LAPSSET projects. Communities indicated that they would want to have some form of civic education on this, especially regarding tenure rights, the land administration system (surveying, adjudication and registration), the implications and contents of the new community land law, and legal protection of community rights during land acquisition. One key finding was a preference by community members to have some of their own members trained in order to pass the knowledge to the communities, a sentiment that arose from a desire to receive information from a trustworthy source who was part of the community. Another finding was that community members did not have clear details on available grievance mechanisms on the land administration system, and while some had managed to access the National Land Commission, they lamented that it was based in Nairobi.

This finding suggests there is a need to develop a basic community dissemination manual, that includes a provision for empowerment of community based trainers (through a Training of Trainers concept). In such an approach, the dissemination manual can be published in simple language, including translation to Kiswahili or local languages where preferable.

2. Enhancement of meaningful public participation in the entire continuum through effective consultations and disclosure of relevant information

In order to enhance the voice of the community ahead of any process of land acquisition, it will be helpful to integrate a constructive and meaningful process of consultation with potentially affected communities, from early on during project planning, feasibility studies to onboarding of investments. This would particularly aid in providing value on local circumstances and risks that may not be obvious to technical teams. Occurrences such as in the Isiolo Kiwanjani settlement (displaced for the airport) where residents of Kiwanjani Zone G Squatter complained that maps generated during the acquisition process continued to record their land as being part of the airport complex despite there being a 75 feet road between the airport boundary, and the plots in question, would be avoided.

Enhanced community participation would further provide a valuable avenue through which the [potentially] affected local community can enhance its voice by having an opinion (which is taken into account) early on in the stages of the project design. However, this approach would also require protection from speculative behavior, that could result in an artificial increase in market value of land, due to market behavior triggered by anticipation of a project, and land acquisition. Access to information requires that this type of information is made available to the public, but in order to control speculative behaviour that drives up the cost of land compensation, government can apply the new 2016 Access to Information Act to sieve out aspects that are either confidential or considered deliberative and therefore not to be publicly disclosed. Another helpful approach would be to undertake the feasibility studies focusing on multiple alternative sites, without showing preference for any particular site.

Meaningful community participation requires a legal or policy definition of how to ensure consultations are effective. This could include possibility of requiring consulting (public) agencies to return to the host community and disclose how they considered the various opinions, and provide feedback. The community dissemination manual proposed above would provide a valuable tool through which to structure techniques that affected local communities can apply in order to have meaningful consultations. The manual could also include implications of the procedures set out in the new 2016 Access to Information Act.

3. Promotion of Networking by Project Affected communities in various parts of Kenya to build knowledge and exchange thoughts
There are multiple instances of compulsory acquisition of land in Kenya (e.g. For LAPSSET projects), or the allocation of land by government for private investments (Siaya – Dominion). The processes are at various stages, either at conceptual point, or having gone through various steps of acquisition and onboarding of investments. Equally, others are complete and the investment has been operational for a number of years. In all these cases, there multiple lessons to be learnt between the various affected local communities. In both Lamu and Isiolo for instance, the research engaged with multiple focus groups drawn from within the same project locality but in different geographical sections – and there was evidence that there was no integrated system to promote consultations and learning from each other. Further, even where acquisition and investments have been undertaken in separate parts of the country, people from Isiolo or Lamu could learn coping techniques from those in Siaya, or by learning the adverse impacts in Siaya, become more interested in enhancing their voices in the local context to avoid a similar outcome. Therefore, the idea of a network that brings together representatives of the various communities is useful to consider. Such a network would also include policy makers drawn from the national and county governments. Already in most of these local communities, the research observed that chiefs (who are national government administration officers) are an integral part of the community process. Learning forums could be organized, and a feedback process put in place such that when representatives return to their local communities, they can provide details to their neighbours. Such a network would however require that policy makers also commit to provide valuable information and feedback to any questions and problems raised by participating communities.

An alternative to utilization of physical meetings for such a network is application of internet-based technology. In this case, a network can be developed through low cost options, such as through the WhatsApp Platform. Although this requires internet access through a smartphone, the Land Development and Governance Institute has been piloting a WhatsApp based platform that creates a Network aptly named Community Land Matters. The experience with this platform is discussed at length in section 9.

4. Involvement of Women in Community Interventions
The study exposes some good lessons in the involvement of women in community interventions and leadership on communal land rights. It was instructive that for instance in the discussion with the Aweer group in Bargoni, Lamu, some women participants in the focus group discussions were very active and made crucial contributions. In addition, the women also made distinguished contributions too during discussions with the Turkana community at Ngare Mara, Isiolo County, where critical leadership positions in the community are held by women.

Yet, the two communities, like many others in Kenya, are largely patriarchal. This experience provides a good benchmarking lesson that, despite the cultural practices that have informed many communities in the past, given opportunity, women may play critical roles in helping communities protect and mitigate their communal land rights where circumstances so demand.

5. Compensation to “occupants in good faith” without title to land
As noted in the study, Article 40(4) of the Constitution of Kenya states that ‘provision may be made for compensation to be paid to occupants in good faith of land acquired under clause (3) who may not hold title to the land”. While the rules to govern how the discretion implied by this Article are yet to be developed, the study reveals that the State has exercised this discretion positively in the studied Port site in Lamu and the Airport site in Isiolo. Despite land owners not holding title to their land in the two places, cash-for-land and land-for-land compensation was made to the claimants in Lamu and Isiolo respectively.

These are good precedents for other parts of the country where formal processes to register communal land have not been applied or completed. Lessons learnt from these two Counties may be borrowed to inform and improve similar compensation exercises elsewhere.

6. Protection of interests of legitimate beneficiaries during compensation

Incidents were recounted of husbands and fathers pocketing the proceeds of compensation and departing home with the entire compensation sum. This leaves the wives and children vulnerably exposed and without alternative livelihoods. Such people become a problem for the community and State. To avoid such negligence, the government should consider regulating the release of compensation funds. The practice under the Land Control Act Chapter 302 of the Laws of Kenya which regulates transactions of agricultural land could be borrowed. Though not written into the law, Land Control Boards always require the proprietor’s spouse to be in attendance before approval to any application for approval of a transaction such as subdivision or sale of family property. And where they are in doubt about the facts to any application, they will usually refer to an area elder or the Assistant Chief for pertinent information in an effort to ensure that spouse and children are in agreement. Such a procedure could be enforced in the case of compensation following acquisition.

It is recommended that the Government, in liaison with the National Land Commission, puts in place modalities to explore how a similar social safeguard procedure could be instituted in the proceedings for compensation under the Land Act to protect legitimate beneficiaries in instances where acquisition of land for projects has to be done with requisite compensation to landowners.

7. Preservation of indigenous and local knowledge:
Project activities involving large scale land acquisition have the inevitable consequence, in some cases, of interfering or totally defacing available traditional/indigenous knowledge from the affected site. This is the case in some parts of Lamu and Isiolo where invaluable oral and cultural knowledge, including some cultural sites, have been preserved over the years. In any event, if enhanced community participation is adopted, and a threshold placed to examine if the participation is meaningful, the indigenous and local knowledge of the communities will also benefit the project at the point of local risk assessment. In this case, recording of such knowledge can be undertaken for posterity use.
It is therefore recommended that the implementation of such projects be preceded by a quick knowledge mapping to determine and document such knowledge before destruction or adulteration, together with enhanced community participation. Where possible, such knowledge can be proactively preserved in collaboration with the relevant state organs. Such a mapping can still be done for the LAPSSET Corridor and Isiolo Resort City before implementation takes off.

Zhang Q, Nam J-S, Han J, Datta S, Wei N, Ding E-X, Hussain A, Ahmad S, Skakalova V, Khan AT, others. "Large-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Transparent Conductor Overcoming Performance–Yield Tradeoff." Advanced Functional Materials. 2022;32:2103397. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
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Sun W, Li N, He S. "Large-scale morphological survey of mouse retinal ganglion cells." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2002;451:115-126. AbstractWebsite

Five hundred twenty ganglion cells in an isolated whole-mount preparation of the mouse retina were labeled using the “DiOlistic” method (Gan et al. [2000] Neuron 27:219–225) and were classified according to their morphological properties. Tungsten particles coated with a lipophilic dye (DiI) were propelled into the whole-mount retina using a gene gun. When a dye-coated particle contacted the cell membrane, the entire cell was labeled. The ganglion cells were classified into four groups based on their soma size, dendritic field size, and pattern and level of stratification. Broadly monostratified cells were classified into three groups: RGA cells (large soma, large dendritic field), RGB cells (small to medium-sized soma, small to medium-sized dendritic field), and RGC cells (small to medium-sized size soma, medium-sized to large dendritic field). Bistratified cells were classified as RGD. This study represents the most complete morphological classification of mouse retinal ganglion cells available to date and provides a foundation for further understanding of the correlation of physiology and morphology and ganglion cell function with genetically manipulated animals. J. Comp. Neurol. 451:115–126, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Tan T, Chu TS, Peng B, Wang J. "Large-scale traffic grid signal control using decentralized fuzzy reinforcement learning.". In: Proceedings of SAI Intelligent Systems Conference. Springer; 2016:. Abstract
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O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift.". In: KRISP Working Group Nature vol. 354.223-227. Wiley Interscience; 1991. Abstract
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M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Larsen, M., Nansen, P., Henriksen, S.Aa., Gr.". In: Joint Meeting of the Am. Soc. of Parasitologist and the Am. Association of Veterinary Parasitologists, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, July 6-10. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Garba LC, Oyieke FA, Owino EA, Mwansat GS, Houmsou RS, Chintem DGW, BE W. "Larval habitats of anopheline vectors of malaria on the highlands of Mambilla Plateau Taraba State North East Nigeria." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2018;5(1):96-100.liatu_et_al_2018.pdf
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
Bernard LK, David SK, A NMO, et al. "Larvicidal Action of Extracts from Tithonia diversifolia Against the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae." J Biol. Act. Prod. Nat. 2012;2(1):46-49.
Bosire CM, Deyou T, Kabaru JM, Kimata DM, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal activities of extracts and rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)." Journal of Asia pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Yenesew A, Bosire CM, Deyou T, Kabaru JM, Kimata DM. "Larvicidal activities of extracts and rotenoids from Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)." Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology . 2014; 17(3):531-535. Abstractpaper_71_bosire_et_al__asia-2014.pdf

The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Millettia usaramensis subspecies usaramensis was tested for its larvicidal activity against the 4th instar Aedes aegypti larvae and demonstrated activity with LC50 value of 50.8 ± 0.06 μg/mL at 48 h. Compounds isolated from the extract were also tested for their larvicidal activities, and the rotenoid usararotenoid-A (LC50 4.3 ± 0.8 μg/mL at 48 h) was identified as the most active principle. This compound appears to be the first rotenoid having a trans-B/C ring junction and methylenedioxy group at C-2/C-3 with high larvicidal activity. Related rotenoids with the same configuration at the B/C-ring junction did not show significant activity at 100 μg/mL.

Bosire CM, Tsegaye D, Kabaru JM, Kimata MD, Yenesew A. "Larvicidal Activities of the Stem Bark Extract and Rotenoids of Millettia usaramensis sub-species usaramensis on Aedes aegypti L." Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2014;17:531-535.
Kaduki KA, Ghiti A, Batty W, Allsopp DWE. "Laser applications of exact expressions for hole subband effective mass in arbitrarily shaped quantum wells grown along arbitrary crystal axes.". In: National Quantum Electronics Conference, QE-12 `95. Southampton, U.K.; 1995.
Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Laser Induced Breakdown spectroanalysis and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta B. 2013; 87:81-85.
Mukhono PM, Angeyo HK, Dehayem-Massop A, Kaduki KA. "Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroanalysis and Characterization of Environmental Matrices Utilizing Multivariate Chemometrics.". In: 7th Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Conference. Luxor, Egypt; 2012.
Angeyo KH, Mukhono PM, Dehayem-kamadjeu A, Kaduki KA. "Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and characterization of environmental matrices utilizing multivariate chemometrics." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2013;87. Abstract

We exploited multivariate chemometric methods to reduce the spectral complexity and to retrieve trace heavy metal analyte concentration signatures directly from the LIBS spectra as well as, to extract their latent characteristics in two important environmental samples i.e. soils and rocks from a geothermal field lying in a high background radiation area (HBRA). As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ti were modeled for direct trace (quantitative) analysis using partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). PLS performed better in soils than in rocks; the use of ANN improved the accuracies in rocks because ANNs are more robust than PLS at modeling spectral non-linearities and correcting matrix effects. The predicted trace metal profiles together with atomic and molecular signatures acquired using single ablation in the 200–545 nm spectral range were utilized to successfully classify and identify the soils and rocks with regard to whether they were derived from (i) a high background radiation area (HBRA)-geothermal, (ii) HBRA-non-geothermal or (iii) normal background radiation area (NBRA)-geothermal field using principal components analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA).

Odada EO, Olago DO, Street-Perrott FA, Perrott RA. "LATE HOLOCENE SEDIMENTOLOGY AND PALAEOENVIRONMENT OF KILULI SWAMP, MOUNT KENYA." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2003;Vol. 4,(No. 2,):pp. 12-23. AbstractWebsite

Kiluli Swamp is an extensive valley swamp near the lower limit of the montane forest on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, East Africa. The swamp is fed by a small spring on the northeastern margin, and the water table lies a few centimetres below the surface. The swamp’s sediments modify water chemistry: the Na-Mg-HCO3 water-type at the input changes to a Ca- Mg-HCO3 water-type in the central parts of the swamp. A short sediment core (2.12m) was retrieved from the central part of the swamp using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The sediments were mainly composed of silty organic mud, silty clay and coarse silt. Three radiocarbon dates were obtained. A suite of sedimentological analyses was carried out in order to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental history of the area, and these included: mineral magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, IRM etc.); total organic carbon (TOC); total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopes. The sediment record stretches from about 4,000 yr BP (before present) to present. Indications are that the valley was initially dry and the catchment vegetation was characterised by dominant C4-type grassland. The initiation of true swamp conditions occurred at ca.470 yr BP immediately following a phase of deep ponding and high diatom productivity within the swamp between 600 and 470 yr BP. A high incidence of charcoal from 470 to 0 yr BP probably marks the period of persistent anthropogenic activities within the catchment. There is a change in vegetation type from a predominantly C4-type to predominantly C3-type at about 130 yr BP that is attributed to crop cultivation within the swamp rather than due to climate change, since the arid phase which marks this zone would have, under natural conditions, abetted the continued dominance of C4 plants which are more drought-resistant than C3 plants. The changes observed are broadly synchronous with other palaeoenvironmental records from Mount Kenya and the surrounding region.

Omuombo C, Olago D, Rucina S, Williamson D. Late Holocene variations from Lake Rutundu, mount Kenya. Goa, India: PAGES; 2013.
Olago D, Russell JM, Verschuren D, Kelly MA, Loomis SE, Jackson MS, Morrill C, Damsté SJS, et al. "Late Pleistocene temperature, hydrology, and glaciation in equatorial East Africa." American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractFull Text Link

In the coming century the world's high tropical mountains are predicted to experience a magnitude of climate change second only to the Arctic due to amplification of warming with elevation in the tropics. Proxy data suggest that substantial changes in tropical temperature and hydroclimate also occurred during the last deglaciation, the most recent time period when rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused large changes in global climate. Determining whether the rate of temperature change with elevation (the lapse rate) was different from today during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is therefore critical to understanding the future of tropical mountain environments and resources. Here we present a new 25,000-year temperature reconstruction based upon organic geochemical analyses of sediment cores from Lake Rutundu (3,078 m asl), Mount Kenya, East Africa. Through comparison with regional reconstructions of lower elevation temperature, we show that LGM cooling was amplified with elevation and hence that the lapse rate was significantly steeper than today. Comparison of our lapse rate reconstructions with equilibrium line altitude reconstructions from glacial moraines indicates that temperature, rather than precipitation, was the dominant control on tropical alpine glacier fluctuations at this time scale. Nevertheless, our results have important implications for the tropical hydrological cycle, as changes in the lapse rate are intimately linked with changes in atmospheric water vapour concentrations. Indeed, we attribute the steeper lapse rate to drying of the tropical ice-age atmosphere, a hypothesis supported by palaeoclimate models. However, comparison of our data to these simulations indicates that state-of-the-art models significantly underestimate tropical temperature changes at high elevation and therefore the lapse-rate change. Consequently, future high-elevation tropical warming may be even greater than currently predicted.

O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The late Proterozoic Yatta Shear Zone: A possible lateral ramp extending across the Kenya Rift.". In: In Opiyo-Aketch (Editor): Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya Publication. 69-77. Wiley Interscience; 1993. Abstract
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O. OE, Tyson PD, C PT. "Late Quaternary Environmental Change in Southern Africa." South African Journal of Science 97. 2001;97(3 &4):139-150.
JM Schoorl, A Veldkamp, L Claessens, JR Wijbrans, Olago DO, Lievens C. "Late Quaternary lahars and lava dams: Fluvial responses of the Upper Tana River (Kenya)." Geomorphology. 2019;341:28-45. Abstractlate_quaternery.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Geomorphological and sedimentary records near the confluences of the Tana River and major tributaries draining the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya and the Nyambeni Range, indicate impacts of Late Quaternary volcanic activity in their fluvial records. The main reconstructed event was triggered by a 366.9 ka basalt flow (40Ar/39Ar dated) which flowed along Kazita River from the Nyambeni Range blocking both Kazita River and Tana River near Kibuka Grand Falls, causing a temporary lake. Consequently, Tana River and Kazita River started to build volcanoclastic Gilbert type deltas. The preserved pro-delta sediments rich in trachytic pumice fragments display a mineralogical and age match with known Ithanguni trachytic tuffs, indicating delta build up right after a contemporary Ithanguni eruption. This trachytic eruption caused the deposition of lahars and fluvial volcaniclastic sediments in all river records draining the Eastern side of Mt. Kenya. The multiple lahars seem to be triggered by eruptions under glacial conditions (basalt age indicates MIS 10). The lava dammed lake was only short lived (estimated to have lasted only a few years to decades) and breached before a complete lake infill could occur. The current Kibuka Grand Falls can be viewed as the delayed incisional response of this lava dam breach, indicating that after >366.9 ka, Tana River is still responding and adjusting to this short-lived disruptive phase. The current Kazita River has re-incised adjacent to a MIS 4 basalt flow down into the crystalline Basement System rocks. The MIS 10 pre-volcanic sedimentary record indicates that more sediments were in the fluvial system during glacial conditions than during the interglacial conditions. An implication of our reconstruction is that the Late Quaternary fluvial record of Tana River is of only limited use to reconstruct uplift rates because reconstructed Quaternary incision rates are reflecting both volcanic disruptions as climate change trends of aridification and decreasing glaciation extents.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV- specific CD8+ responses. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA. J Clin Invest. .". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb;107(3):341-9. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Kaul R, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Dong T, Yang HB, Kiama P, Rostron T, Njagi E, Bwayo JJ, MacDonald KS, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA.J Clin Invest. 20.". In: J Clin Invest. 2001 Feb;107(3):341-9. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
Resistance to HIV infection in a small group of Kenyan sex workers is associated with CD8+-lymphocyte responses to HIV cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Eleven prostitutes meeting criteria for HIV resistance seroconverted between 1996 and 1999. The occurrence and specificity of preexisting HIV-1 epitope-specific responses were examined using the IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and any epitopes recognized were cloned and sequenced from the infecting viral isolate. Immunologic and behavioral variables were compared between late seroconverters and persistently uninfected sex worker controls. HIV-1 CTL epitope responses were present in four of six cases, 5-18 months before seroconversion, and their presence was confirmed by bulk CTL culture. A possible viral escape mutation was found in one of six epitopes. The key epidemiologic correlate of late seroconversion was a reduction in sex work over the preceding year. In persistently uninfected controls, a break from sex work was associated with a loss of HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Late seroconversion may occur in HIV-1-resistant sex workers despite preceding HIV-specific CD8+ responses. Seroconversion generally occurs in the absence of detectable CTL escape mutations and may relate to the waning of HIV-specific CD8+ responses due to reduced antigenic exposure.
Wangai AM, Amayo EO, Olunya.O, Waa.S. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med Journal. 2011;11(3):407-411. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

Wangai A-M, Waa S, Wangai M, Amayo E, Olunya O. "Late-onset Visual Loss in Osteopetrosis." Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2011;11(3):407-11. Abstract

Late-onset visual loss is a complication of nerve entrapment and increased intracranial pressure. We hereby describe the first case in Eastern Africa. A 23 year-old lady presented with sudden blindness, headaches and body weakness. She had previously had treatment for multiple unexplained fractures. Findings of optic nerve entrapment explained this blindness. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in cases of unexplained fractures with late-onset blindness.

Gatumu HN. "Latent Trait Theory from a confirmatory factor analysis point of view of a Criterion referenced University Examinations." Ife Psychology IA International Journal. 1993;vol. 1 No. 2:59-68.
"Latent trait theory- from theory to practice: a descriptive approach." African Journal of Educational Studies. 2005;vol.1 no.1.
Odera S, Mureithi M, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, Anzala O, Julius Oyugi. "Latent tuberculosis among household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Nairobi, Kenya." The Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;37. Abstract
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Jonnalagadda S, Barbara Lohman Payne, Elizabeth Brown, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Maxwel Majiwa, Carey. "Latent Tuberculosis Detection by Interferon g Release Assay during Pregnancy Predicts Active Tuberculosis and Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Women and Their Children." Journal of infectious diseases. 2010. Abstractlatent_tb_detection_by_interferon.pdf

Background. We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon g release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis
and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected women and their infants.
Methods. Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were
determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1–infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline
maternal CD4 cell count (aHRCD4), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active
tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
Results. Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women,
120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis
(aHRCD4, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–18.0; Pp.030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count,
!250 cells/mL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHRCD4, 3.5; 95%
CI, 1.02–12.1; ), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHRCD4Pp.045 , 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7–15.6; Pp.004), and
infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHRCD4, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0–8.9; Pp.05) and among HIV-1–exposed
uninfected infants (aHRCD4, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6–33.5; Pp.01).
Conclusions. Positive IGRA results for HIV-1–infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum
active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Jonnalagadda S, Lohman Payne B, Brown E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Maleche Obimbo E, Majiwa M, Ng'ayo M, Otieno P, Mbori-Ngacha D, John-Stewart. "Latent tuberculosis detection by interferon γ release assay during pregnancy predicts active tuberculosis and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women and their children." J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1826-35. doi: 10.1086/657411. Epub 2010 Nov 10.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
We evaluated the prognostic usefulness of interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) for active tuberculosis and mortality in Kenyan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women and their infants.
METHODS:
Prevalence and correlates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T-SPOT.TB IGRA positivity were determined during pregnancy in a historical cohort of HIV-1-infected women. Hazard ratios, adjusted for baseline maternal CD4 cell count (aHR(CD4)), were calculated for associations between IGRA positivity and risk of active tuberculosis and mortality over 2-year postpartum follow-up among women and their infants.
RESULTS:
Of 333 women tested, 52 (15.6%) had indeterminate IGRA results. Of the remaining 281 women, 120 (42.7%) had positive IGRA results, which were associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of active tuberculosis (aHR(CD4), 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-18.0; P = .030). For immunosuppressed women (CD4 cell count, <250 cells/μL), positive IGRA results were associated with increased risk of maternal mortality (aHR(CD4), 3.5; 95% CI, 1.02-12.1;), maternal active tuberculosis or mortality (aHR(CD4), 5.2; 95% CI, 1.7-15.6; P = .004), and infant active tuberculosis or mortality overall (aHR(CD4), 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.9; P = .05) and among HIV-1-exposed uninfected infants (aHR(CD4), 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-33.5; P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS:
Positive IGRA results for HIV-1-infected pregnant women were associated with postpartum active tuberculosis and mortality among mothers and their infants.

Wahome EW. Later Iron Age in Nyeri District, Kenya.. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 1985.
OLUOCH PROFATINGAJOHNERNEST. "Lateral Condylar Mass Fracture of the Elbow in Children.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice, Vol. 2: 160 - 162. E Afr Med J; 1995. Abstract
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Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
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Loonturot PS, Mwero JN, Kabubo CK. "Laterized Quarry Dust and Crushed Bricks as Alternative Concrete Making Materials." Journal of Civil Engineering. 2017;Vol 3(1):1-14.
R. MRMUINAMIAKENNEDY. "A Latex Agglutination Test for Capripoxvirus K Muinamia, Y S Binepal, J Machuka, J Makumi, R Soi.". In: Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology. ISSN: 1607-4106. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2007. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
Keraita JN, Oyango HJ, Misoi GK. "Lathe stability charts via acoustic emission monitoring.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Signal parameters characterizing acoustic emission (AE) detected during metal cutting have been theoretically correlated in a simple manner, to the work material properties, cutting conditions, and tool geometry. During chatter, the cutting conditions and the tool geometry change considerably. Self-exited chatter, an instability of the cutting process in combination with the machine structure, is a basic performance limitation of machine tools. In the research findings presented in this paper, changes occurring to AE signal parameters have been used to detect the onset of chatter and hence plot stability charts, during a turning operation. Apart from showing the borderlines of stability, such charts can be used to identify the necessary changes required to eliminate chatter at minimum or no loss of production. The signal parameters investigated include AE mean intensity level, the skew and kurtosis of the power spectrum; as well as the count rate of the emissions.

Nyasani PJ, Owuor MA. Latin Maxims, Expressions, Phrases and Idioms in Legal and Philosophical Use. Nairobi: BR Professional Education; 2013.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "A Latter-Day Eve,Mwangaza 2.2 (July 2002):49.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 1 (March 2003): 15-22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

Borrowing its title from William Shakespeare's King Lear, this article examines some aesthetic and cognitive characteristics of some indigenous ethnic myths in Kenya as a subgenre of the oral narrative. The article asserts that human beings create the myth to help them make sense of human existence

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Launching of Literacy Materials Workshop".". In: UNE SCO/UNESCO/UNIT WIN CHAIR Workshop , 26 th - 28 th July,2000. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2000. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Ashley R, Chohan B, Richardson BA, Corey L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK. Human herpesvirus type 8: Seroprevalence and correlates in prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363.". In: J Infect Dis 2003; 187:359-363. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection is very prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, but the role of sexual transmission has not been well characterized. HHV-8 seroprevalence and correlates were evaluated in a cohort of female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Between February 1993 and January 2000, stored plasma samples taken from 736 women were tested, by whole-virus ELISA assay, for the presence of HHV-8 antibodies; of these 736 women, 633 were included in the analysis of correlates of HHV-8 infection; and, of these 633, 44.1% were seropositive for HHV-8 antibodies. In univariate analysis, age, years of education, years of prostitution, workplace, hormonal contraception, intrauterine-device use, alcohol consumption, syphilis, and gonorrhea were all significantly associated with the presence of HHV-8 antibodies. In a multivariate model, older age, fewer years of education, and 2 markers of high-risk sexual behavior-namely, alcohol consumption and gonorrhea-were each independently associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. These results suggest that heterosexual transmission may contribute to acquisition of HHV-8 infections in this African population of prostitutes.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten J, Overbaugh J, Patelleef DD, Chohan B, Richardson B, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss J. Acute HIV-1 infection illness in Kenyan women is associated with higher viral loads. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81.". In: Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:77-81. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
{ Observational studies have associated vitamin A deficiency with vaginal shedding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected cells and mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation on vaginal shedding of HIV-1, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 6 weeks of daily oral vitamin A (10,000 IU of retinyl palmitate) was conducted among 400 HIV-1-infected women in Mombasa, Kenya. At follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (18% vs. 21%
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Chohan V, McClelland RS, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. Higher set point plasma viral load and more severe acute HIV-1 illness predict mortality among high-risk HIV-1 infected African women.Clin Infect Dis.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;42(9):1333-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.dochigher_set_point_plasma_viral_load.pdf

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Africa, especially from individuals with well-defined dates of infection. We used data from a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, who were followed up monthly from before the date of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: Antiretroviral-naive women who had a well-defined date of HIV-1 infection were included in this analysis. The effects of set point plasma viral load (measured 4-24 months after infection), early CD4+ cell count, and symptoms of acute HIV-1 infection on mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Among 218 women, the median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 infection was 4.6 years. Forty women died, and at 8.7 years (the time of the last death), the cumulative survival rate was 51% by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Higher set point viral load, lower early CD4+ cell count, and more-symptomatic acute HIV-1 illness each predicted death. In multivariate analysis, set point viral load (hazard ratio [HR], 2.28 per 1 log10 copies/mL increase; P=.001) and acute HIV-1 illness (HR, 1.14 per each additional symptom; P=.05) were independently associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Among this group of African women, the survival rate was similar to that for HIV-1-infected individuals in industrialized nations before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Higher set point viral load and more-severe acute HIV-1 illness predicted faster progression to death. Early identification of individuals at risk for rapid disease progression may allow closer clinical monitoring, including timely initiation of antiretroviral treatment.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan BH, Hassan W, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in w.". In: J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15;189(2):303-11. Epub 2004 Jan 9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstractinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.docinjectable_contraceptive_use_and_genital_ulcer_disease.pdf

We examined the association between host factors present near the time of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and subsequent virus loads, in a prospective cohort study of women in Mombasa, Kenya. Women were prospectively followed monthly before HIV-1 infection. One hundred sixty-one commercial sex workers who became infected with HIV-1 were followed for a median of 34 months, and 991 plasma samples collected > or =4 months after infection were tested for HIV-1 RNA. The median virus set point at 4 months after infection was 4.46 log10 copies/mL, and the average virus load increase during subsequent follow-up was 0.0094 log10 copies/mL/month. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for sexual behavior, the use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) at the time of HIV-1 infection was associated with a higher virus set point, and the presence of genital ulcer disease (GUD) during the early phase of HIV-1 infection was associated with greater change in virus load during follow-up. These findings suggest that, in women, the use of DMPA and the presence of GUD during the early phase of HIV-1 infection may influence the natural course of infection.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Martin HL Jr, Overbaugh J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV-1 acquisition: results of a 10-year prospective study.AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7.". In: AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):695-7. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
Polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the prevalence and correlates of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in saliva, mouth, cervical, vaginal, plasma, and peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 174 HHV8-seropositive female prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. The prevalence of detection of HHV8 was 32% in saliva samples, 28% in mouth swabs, 4% in cervical swabs, 2.3% in vaginal swabs, 9% in plasma samples, and 18% in PBMC samples. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositivity was associated with detection of HHV8 from any mucosal surface (odds ratio, 2.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0]). In HIV-1-seropositive women, there was no association between detection of HHV8 and either CD4 count or HIV-1 viral load.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Panteleeff DD, Chohan BH, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Virus load during primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type 1 infection is related to the severity of acute HIV illness in Kenyan wo.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):77-81. Epub 2002 Jun 3. IBIMA Publishing; 2002. Abstract
We evaluated the association between the severity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and HIV-1 plasma virus load before seroconversion using stored plasma samples obtained from 74 prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Fever, vomiting, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, skin rash, or being too sick to work were each associated with significantly higher virus loads before HIV-1 seroconversion, and each additional symptom or sign was associated with an increase in virus load of 0.4 log(10) copies/mL.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff D, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.". In: AIDS 2006; 20:2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstracthigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.dochigh_levels_of_cervical_hiv-1_rna.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Panteleeff DD, Richardson BA, McClelland RS, Chohan V, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J.High levels of cervical HIV-1 RNA during early HIV-1 infection.AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90.". In: AIDS. 2006 Nov 28;20(18):2389-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstract
Few data are available on genital tract viral replication early after HIV-1 acquisition, when infectivity is high. We compared cervical HIV-1 RNA from 60 women with paired samples from within 90 days after HIV-1 acquisition and at viral setpoint (4-24 months). Cervical HIV-1 was higher in early compared with setpoint samples (mean 3.43 versus 2.85 log10 copies/swab, P < 0.001). After adjusting for HIV-1-plasma RNA, cervical HIV-1 RNA from 30 days or less after infection was increased by 0.45 log10 copies/swab (P = 0.006).
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Chohan V, Overbaugh J, Hassan W, McClelland RS, Kreiss J, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM.Hormonal contraception and risk of cervical infections among HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan women.AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84.". In: AIDS. 2004 Nov 5;18(16):2179-84. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and the acquisition of cervical sexually transmitted infections (STI) among HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 242 commercial sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya, followed from the time of HIV-1 infection. METHODS: At monthly follow-up visits, sexual behavior and contraceptive use were recorded, and laboratory screening for STI was performed. Multivariate Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the association between the use of hormonal contraception and the occurrence of cervical STI. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up after HIV-1 acquisition was 35 months, and 799 person-years of follow-up were accrued. After adjustment for demographic factors and sexual behavior, women using the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate were at increased risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection [hazard ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-9.4
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Thompson ML, Jackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan BH, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK.Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of .". In: J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):330-6. IBIMA Publishing; 1999. Abstract
To determine the effect of circumcision status on acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases, a prospective cohort study of 746 HIV-1-seronegative trucking company employees was conducted in Mombasa, Kenya. During the course of follow-up, 43 men acquired HIV-1 antibodies, yielding an annual incidence of 3.0%. The annual incidences of genital ulcers and urethritis were 4.2% and 15.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for demographic and behavioral variables, uncircumcised status was an independent risk factor for HIV-1 infection (hazard rate ratio [HRR=4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-8.3) and genital ulcer disease (HRR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.3). Circumcision status had no effect on the acquisition of urethral infections and genital warts. In this prospective cohort of trucking company employees, uncircumcised status was associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection and genital ulcer disease, and these effects remained after controlling for potential confounders.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Martin HL Jr, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss J.Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: clinical manifestations among women in Mombasa, Kenya.Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90.". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;30(3):486-90. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had >/=1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having >/=2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could potentially reduce secondary HIV-1 transmission during this highly infectious period.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp. 614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. "Law and Development in the Third World, pp.614 (Co-editor & Contributor, Faculty of Law, University of Nairobi,.". In: Journal of the Kenya National Academy of Science Nairobi 20-43.; 1994. Abstract
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