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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.Surgery: a historical perspective.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jun;70(6):348-56. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1993. Abstract
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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.Issues involved in pre-operative consent.East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):329-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Jul;81(7):329-30. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2004. Abstract
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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.Intussusception.East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):1.". In: East Afr Med J. 1998 Jan;75(1):1. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1998. Abstract
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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM.A case for day-care surgery.East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):169.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Apr;78(4):169. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2001. Abstract
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M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi JM, Kasili EG, Onyango JN, Kitonyi GW.The management of Wilms' tumour in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1981 Jun;58(6):424-30.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Jun;58(6):424-30. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1981. Abstract
At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.
M. PROFKYAMBIJ. "Kyambi J. Pediatric surgery in Kenya.". In: J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Oct;25(10):1085-7. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1990. Abstract

In this retrospective study carried out covering the period, 1978-1991, 62 neonates were seen, diagnosed and treated for intestinal atresia which included: duodenal atresia and stenosis, small bowel atresia and atresia of large bowel. Locations of obstruction were duodenal in 17 patients, jejunal in 25 patients, jejuno-ileal in 5 and colon in two. Duodenal atresia was noted in 9 infants and duodenal stenosis due to annular pancreas, Ladd's bands with malrotation of bowel in 8. Associated anomalies which were observed were anorectal malformations in 2 and malrotation in 2 infants. Birth weights ranged from 1450 gm to 3000 gm. Prematurity was recorded in 11 infants. Diagnosis of intestinal atresia in our patients was made clinically and radiologically. Intestinal atresia in neonates was differentiated from other causes of obstruction such as Meconium Ileus, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal volvulus, rectal atresia in anorectal malformations. Treatment of infants with intestinal atresia was surgical. Surgical techniques used depended on pathological findings. In 36 patients, complications such as functional obstructions with vomiting and failure to thrive, malabsorption, aspiration, bronchopneumonia, sepsis were observed. Overall mortality rate in our cases was 25 (41.9%) out of 62 patients.

MIMUNYA JN. "Kyama MC, D.". In: Gynecol Obstet Invest 2004: 57:1-60.; 2004. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kyalo M.M., Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi, N., Nyaga P.N., Njagi, L.W., Mutune M.N., Otieno R.O., Gachoka J.M., Msoffe, P.L.M. and Bunn, D. 2012. Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens in Kenya. In the Proce.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Scholarly Research Network; 2012. Abstract
The study was carried out between November 2008 and April 2009 to investigate the occurrence and pathology due to Echinostomum revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens. One hundred and fifty six (156) indigenous chickens were purchased from various farms and markets in A thorough post mortem examination was performed on each bird and the isolated worms from the ceaca, large intestines, cloaca and oviduct were identified and quantified.  Tissues were collected for histopathology, processed, examined and the severity of the lesions determined. Echinostoma revolutum was recovered in 3/156 (1.9 %) birds examined in the ceaca and large intestines but not in cloaca and oviduct. Affected birds originated from market birds in Kiambu. They caused heamorrhages and typhylo-enteritis in the affected birds. Other worms observed from these organs were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis isolonche, Heterakis dispar, Subulura brumpti, Raillietina echinobothrida and Hymenolepis contaniana. The trematodes are reported in Kenya for the first time.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Kyaligonza J.K., Adoyo P.A. Wango E.O., and Kigondu C.S. (1998).The acrosome reaction in gray mangabeys (Cercocerbus galeritus) sperm after induction with dbcAMP and calcium ionophore A23187.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences.5th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "KY Dawd, NKR Musimba, WN Ekaya and KO Farah.The nutritional value of Zizyphus spina-christi for goat production among the pastoralists of Kalu district, South Wello, Ethiopia.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
"Kwedho, G., Opata, C.P., Ayonga, N.J. (2012). Management of Human Waste in the Informal Settlements of Eldoret Municipality. ." International Journal of current Research. . 2012;(ISSN:0975-833X.):4(3), 062-065.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. The pattern of neurological disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):236-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):236-9. uon; 1992. Abstract
A retrospective survey of neurological disease seen at KNH in medical wards and medical outpatients clinics is presented. Neurological diseases constituted 7.5% of all medical conditions seen over that period. Infections especially meningitis were found to be the commonest. The 3 commonest diseases were meningitis (23.1%), epilepsy (16.6%) and cerebrovascular diseases (15.0%). Neurosyphilis, trypanosomiasis, and leprosy only infrequently seen (1-2 cases annually). Multiple sclerosis seen regularly through infrequently since 1981. The trend of the 3 commonest conditions is presented and a downward trend is noted. The mortality patterns for the 3 commonest diseases is also presented.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. The diagnosis and management of migraine. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):477-8. uon; 1995. Abstract
Neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that neurological manifestations are some of the commonest modes of clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS. At autopsy, the prevalence approaches 100%. These manifestations include: involvement of the higher functions, craniopathies, spinal cord disease, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease. It is therefore stressed that the central nervous system must be particularly assessed in patients with HIV/AIDS and where the clinician is not sure of the neurological diagnosis, a referral to the neurologist is recommended as some of these are treatable
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO. Neurological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a review. East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):664-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Oct;72(10):664-8. uon; 1995. Abstract
Neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS is reviewed and discussed. It is noted that neurological manifestations are some of the commonest modes of clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS. At autopsy, the prevalence approaches 100%. These manifestations include: involvement of the higher functions, craniopathies, spinal cord disease, peripheral neuropathy and muscle disease. It is therefore stressed that the central nervous system must be particularly assessed in patients with HIV/AIDS and where the clinician is not sure of the neurological diagnosis, a referral to the neurologist is recommended as some of these are treatable
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Townes B, Hill H, Carr J, Mwai S, Schaffer R. Related Articles, Links Behavioural mechanisms in AIDS patients under stress. East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):43-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;70(1):43-5. uon; 1993. Abstract
Clinical observation at the Kenyatta National Hospital showed unusually rapid deterioration of patients testing seropositive to HIV infection and being moved to a side room for nursing. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that deterioration was at least partly, mediated by B-endorphins and other endogeneous opioids. The study design was a prospective and comparative study looking at 6 HIV seropositive and 10 control (HIV seronegative) patients matched for sex, age, and clinical status at time of study. The laboratory measures compaired were baseline, and daily serum B-endorphin and ACTH. A significant variation is noted between the two groups. The significance of this study is discussed. PIP: From among patients hospitalized at Kenyatta National Hospital, 6 subjects diagnosed as HIV positive by at least one HIV ELISA antibody test and 10 HIV negative control patients were enrolled into a study and matched for age, sex, level of education, and ethnic group. A baseline blood sample was obtained from each patient at 2.00 p.m. for complete blood count biochemical assays for B endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as well as an HIV ELISA test. HIV positive patients were informed of ELISA test results and transferred to isolation rooms. Blood was drawn on the next 3 consecutive days. Concentration of ACTH was measured by radio-immunoassay. B-endorphin assay was almost the same as for ACTH. Assay sensitivity was 5 pg/ml with a range of 5-500 pg/ml. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate the differences in biochemical responses between HIV positive (under stress) patients and HIV negative (with no stress) patients. (ACTH and B endorphin concentrations in plasma were obtained on the day of diagnosis and at different times 1 and 72 hours thereafter. Change scores (pre-post 72 hours) in plasma ACTH and B- endorphin concentrations support the hypothesis that patients diagnoses to have AIDS experience stress mediated biochemical changes. The change score distributions predominantly indicated elevated concentrations of each neurohormone. By contrast, HIV, negative patients exhibited more random patterns of change following diagnosis. The results could be used in situations of stress-induced immuno-incompetency. Identification of significant effect of stress on neuroendocrine response and immune competence in patients diagnoses as HIV positive may suggest methods of prolonging the life of patients who otherwise have no definitive treatment. B endorphin antagonists such as Naltrexone may exert beneficial effects in selected HIV positive patients by modifying the endogenous opioid systems.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Ogada SW. The management of cerebral malaria in a provincial general hospital in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):568-72.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):568-72. uon; 1990. Abstract
The practice of physicians at the Nakuru Provincial General Hospital (NPGH), Kenya, when dealing with cerebral malaria is reviewed over a 4-month period. The definition, management, and outcome of patients labelled to have cerebral malaria is presented and criticism of their practice offered in a manner applicable to other rural hospitals in Kenya.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Muthingi PM. The experience with electroencephalography at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):259-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 May;69(5):259-61. uon; 1992. Abstract
Review of electroencephalography (EEG) requests at KNH over a 3 year period is presented. Majority of patients were aged between 0 and 10 years. None was older than 80 years. The epilepsies were the commonest reason for requesting EEG (58.5%). SSPE had the highest positivity rate of 91.7% followed by convulsive states of uncertain aetiology. The symptom of headache by itself was the least rewarding to study by EEG. It was more rewarding to first attempt to make a diagnosis of the headache. Hysteria had an EEG positivity rate of 40%, most of them being epilepsy. EEG picture for petit-mal, epilepsy focal seizure and generalized seizures are included in the text.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO, Jowi JO, Amayo EO.Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine.East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. uon; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kwasa TO Stroke at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7):482-6. uon; 1990. Abstract
Seventy two patients presenting with stroke to Kenyatta National Hospital were studied between January 1986 and January 1987. The majority were from the rural areas. There were about equal numbers between left and right sided hemipareses. The majority of the patients were in their 6th and 7th decades. 22 of the patients were hypertensive. Diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and valvular heart disease were some of the other factors associated with strokes. 46% of the patients died while the remainder had residual neurological deficits.
OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Kwasa T O, Jowi J O, Amayo EO .Efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine East African Medical Journal 1995. Vol 72;479.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):479-82. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
An open prospective study of the efficacy and tolerability of oral sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine attacks at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, is presented. Thirty two patients were initially recruited and 24 completed the trial giving a drop-out rate of 25%. The age range was 17 to 55 years with a mean of 35 years. Sumatriptan was found to be effective in 22 (92%) out of 24 patients. Side effects occurred in 38% (9/24) patients. These were mild and transient and included nausea, vomiting, numbness of limbs, fever and a feeling of heat in the head. It is concluded that oral sumatriptan is an effective drug in the treatment of acute migraine headaches. It has few side effects and is well tolerated by majority of patients.
Odhiambo T. "Kwani? and the Imaginations around Re-invention of Art and Culture in Kenya.". In: Rethinking Eastern African Literary and Intellectual Landscapes. New Jersey: Africa World Press; 2012.
C N. "Kwale Report.". In: Challenges of Implementing Free Primary Education in Kenya: Experiences from the Districts. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2005.
A. PROFKETERJOSEPHKIPKORIR. "Kwaje, S., and J.K.A. Keter (Eds.) 1994. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Capacity Building in Soil and Water Management in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 9-11 November, 1992. Academic Science Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 9966-831-15-0.". In: First International Workshop on Capacity Building in Soil and Water Management in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 9-11 November, 1992. Academic Science Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 9966-831-15-0. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KWAJE S.L.& F.B.MWAURA.(eds.)(1994). Proceedings of the first International Workshop on capacity building in Forestry Research in Africa Academy Science Publishers: Nairobi, pp.115.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
Rayya. "Kuwa Mume.". In: Mwavyaji wa Roho na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Focus Publishers; 2012.
Chaga H. Kutiwa Jando’ in Mizungu ya Manabii na Hadithi Nyingine. Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers ; 2010.
O PROFAGUMBAHGILBERTJ. "Kusina, N.T., F. Tarwirei, H. Hamudi Kuwanda, G. Agumbah and J. Mukwena (2000). A Comparison of the effects of Progesterone sponges and ear implants, PGP2∝ and their combination on efficacy of Oestrus synchronization and fertility of Mashona goat do.". In: World Veterinary Poultry association. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2000. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kusimba J, Voeten HA, O'Hara HB, Otido JM, Habbema JD, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo JJ.Traditional healers and the management of sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi, Kenya.Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Mar;14(3):197-201. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
To describe the role of traditional healers in STD case management, in-depth interviews were held with 16 healers (seven witchdoctors, five herbalists and four spiritual healers) in four slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya. All healers believed that STDs are sexually transmitted and recognized the main symptoms. The STD-caseload varied largely, with a median of one patient per week. Witchdoctors and herbalists dispensed herbal medication for an average of seven days, whereas spiritual healers prayed. Thirteen healers gave advice on sexual abstinence during treatment, 11 on contact treatment, four on faithfulness and three on condom use. All healers asked patients to return for review and 13 reported referring patients whose conditions persist to public or private health care facilities. Thus, traditional healers in Nairobi play a modest but significant role in STD management. Their contribution to STD health education could be strengthened, especially regarding the promotion of condoms and faithfulness.
Kurunzi ya Kiswahili ( KCSE) . Nairobi: Focus publishers; 2006.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Kurukulasuriya, P., Mendelsohn, R., Hassan, R., Benhin, J., Deressa, T., Diop, M., Eid, H.M., Fosu, K.Y., Gbetibouo, G., Jain, S., Mahamadou, A., Mano, R., Kabubo-Mariara, J., El-Marsafawy, S., Molua, E.L., Ouda, S., Ouedraogo, M., S .". In: Ninth Annual Global Development Conference "Security for Development: Confronting Threats to Survival and Safety"; Brisbane, Australia. January 29-31, 2008. University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Kurudi Nyumbani na Hadithi Nyingine (editor and main contributor) . NAIROBI: Focus Books; 2007.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Wahome R.G., Gachuiri, C.K. and Wanyoike, M.M. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on the plasma mineral profiles in camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Int. J Agric and Biol., 8: 168 -171.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and M.M. Wanyoike. 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. South African J Anim Sci 34:180-188.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Effect of mineral supplement on plasma minerals concentration of camels (Camelis dromedalis) in Kenya. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:168-171.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2006. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2005. Nutritive value of important range forages species for camels in Western Marsabit, Kenya. Tropical and subtropical ecosystems. 5:14-24.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2005. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., M.M. Wanyoike, C.K. Gachuiri and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Indigenous camel mineral supplementation knowledge and practices on manyatta based camel herds by the Rendille pastoralists of Marsabit district, Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Developm.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2005. Nutritive value of important range species for camels in Marsabit District, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 5:14-24.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsmans Arms Hotel, Nanyuki, Kenya, February 15-17, 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., Gachuiri, C.K., Wanyoike, M.M. and Wahome R.G., 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels Marsabit District, Kenya. Journal of camel Practice and research 11:87- 96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2006. Use of linear body measurements in estimating live weight of camel calves in Kenya. Accepted for publication. Journal of Camel Practice.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Kuria, S.G., C.K. Gachuiri, M.M. Wanyoike and R.G. Wahome. 2004. Effect of mineral supplementation on milk yield and calf growth of camels in Marsabit of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 11:87-96.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kuria, J.N., Ommeh, H., Kabuage, L., Mbogo, S. and Mutero, C.M. (2003). Technical efficiency of rice producers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th Oc.". In: Paper 9 presented at the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society at Hilton hotel Nairobi, Kenya on 16th October 2003. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Nyaga, P.N., 1997. Clinical, serological and pathological response in goats infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis through cutaneous and subcutaneous routes. Bul. Anim. Hlth. & prod. Afr. 45:73-78.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1997.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Wahome, R.G. and Kang'ethe, E.K., 1998. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the dose of infection and the serological response. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 68:601-604.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria, J.K.N., Mbuthia, P.G., Kang'ethe, E.K. and Wahome, R.G., 2001. Caseous lymphadenitis in goats: the pathogenesis, incubation period and serological response after experimental infection. Veterinary Research communications 25: 89-97.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Kuria, J. K.N., P. G. Mbuthia, E.K. Kang.". In: A paper presented at the Kenya Veterinary Association annual general meeting and scientific meeting held in Nomad Palace, Garissa, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 2001.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria S G, R.G. Wahome, Gachuiri C. K. and Wanyoike M M, 2004. Evaluation of forages as mineral sources for camels in western Marsabit, Kenya. South African Journal of Animal Science, 34:180-188.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Biennial KARI Scientific Conference (In Press). Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004.
W DRKURIAMARY. "Kuria M.W. Drug abuse in urban as compared to rural secondary school students. East Africa Medical Journal, vol. 73 no. 5, 1996.". In: East Africa Medical Journal, vol. 73 no. 5, 1996. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Kuria J.K.N., Wahome R.G. and Gitau P.K., 2001. An account of a recent outbreak of marek's disease in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 21:34-36.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Kunyanga C N, Mbugua S K, Kangethe E K and J K Imungi 2009. Microbiological and acidity changes during traditional production of KIRARIO: - An indigenous Kenyan fermented porridge from green maize and Finger millets African Journal of Food, Agriculture, N.". In: An indigenous Kenyan fermented porridge from green maize and Finger millets African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, vol 9 No 6 1419 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kunimoto DY, Slaney L, Koss J, D'Costa LJ, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. Field testing of Modified Bieling Media for the Isolation of H. ducreyi in Kenya Eur. J. Clin. Microbiology 5: 673 - 5, 1987.". In: J. Clin. Microbiology 5: 673 - 5, 1987. IBIMA Publishing; 1987. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kummoto DY, Plummer FA, Namaara W, D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola JO, Ronald AR. Urethral infection with Haemophilus ducreyi in men. Sex. Tranm. Dis 15: 37 - 39, 1988.". In: Sex. Tranm. Dis 15: 37 - 39, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar S, Acharya SK.2,6-Dichloro-phenol indophenol prevents switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and -insensitive pathway of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the presence of inhibitors.Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 1;268(1):89-93.". In: Anal Biochem. 1999 Mar 1;268(1):89-93. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
To evolve a simple oxygen electrode-based method to estimate alternative respiration, one needs to develop a procedure to prevent switch-over of electrons to either pathway upon inhibition by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid. It was hypothesized that the inclusion of appropriate electron acceptor, possessing redox potential close to one of the electron transport carriers in between ubiquinone (branch point) and cytochrome a-a3, should be able to stop switch-over of electrons to either pathway by working as an electron sink. To test the hypothesis, 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol (DCPIP; redox potential +0.217 V), an artificial electron acceptor having a redox potential quite similar to the site near cytochrome c1 (redox potential +0.22 V) on the cyanide-sensitive pathway, was used with isolated mitochondria and leaf discs in the absence and presence of inhibitors (potassium cyanide, antimycin A, and salicylhydroxamic acid). Polarographic data confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP only from the inhibited (by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid) mitochondrial electron transport chain, hence preventing switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathway of respiration. Results with antimycin A and reduction status of DCPIP further confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Possible implications of the results have been discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar M, Prashad R, Kumar A, Sharma R, Acharya SK, Chattopadhyay TK. Relative merits of ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography in patients of surgical obstructive jaundice.Hepatogastroenterology. 1998 Nov-Dec;45(24):2027-32.". In: Hepatogastroenterology. 1998 Nov-Dec;45(24):2027-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
Fifty consecutive patients with surgical obstructive jaundice were evaluated prospectively with ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic scans (CT scan) and cholangiography-percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography (ERCP). The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in defining the level of obstruction was 86% as compared to 86% and 94.8% for CT scan and cholangiography, respectively. To measure the etiology of the obstruction, the accuracy of ultrasound, CT scan and cholangiography were 84%, 86% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity of CT scans and cholangiography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was 100%, 81.8% and 90%, respectively, whereas specificity was 97%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity for a diagnosis of malignant disease was 100% for both US and CT scans whereas specificity was 90% and 81%, respectively. Ultrasonography as a single radiological investigation is sufficient in the evaluation of the majority of patients with surgical obstructive jaundice. CT scan and cholangiography should be done only when US gives equivocal findings or if concomitant therapeutic procedures like basketing and stenting are also planned.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar A, Bal C, Srivastava DN, Thulkar SP, Sharma S, Acharya SK, Duttagupta S.Management of multiple intrahepatic recurrences after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma with rhenium-188-HDD-lipiodol.Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Feb;18(.". In: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Feb;18(2):219-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
We tried to evaluate the role of dosimetry-guided transarterial radionuclide therapy (TART) with rhenium-188 (Re-188)-4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol (HDD)-lipiodol in a patient with multiple intrahepatic recurrences after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The dosimetry helped in delivering the maximum possible activity of Re-188, thus the radiation-absorbed dose, safely to the tumour without jeopardizing other organs. There was no procedure-related complication and the patient tolerated therapy well with no adverse effects. The lesions were completely ablated with a single dose of Re-188 and the patient has been disease free for the past 18 months. TART with Re-188-HDD-lipiodol appears to be a promising therapeutic option in patients with HCC who experience recurrence after percutaneous ablative therapy.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Kumar A, Acharya SK, Joshi YK, Gandhi BM, Irshad M, Tandon BN.Role of immune serum globulin in post transfusion virus B infection.Indian J Med Res. 1989 Jan;89:12-5.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1989 Jan;89:12-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
Fifty four blood recipients were administered prophylactic immune serum globulin (31) or hepatitis B immune globulin (23) and followed up for six months. None of the patients developed either acute hepatitis B or HBsAg carrier state. However, 7 (14%) had anicteric self limiting non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. Twenty (40%) of the blood recipients developed anti-HBs during the follow up period suggesting either HBV exposure by subdetectable levels of HBsAg present either in blood or immunoglobulin preparation or due to passive transfer by administration of immunoglobulins.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kulmiye1 AJ, KM Mavuti and JC Groeneveld. 2006. Size at onset of maturity of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus homarus at Mambrui, Kenya.". In: African Journal of Marine Science. 2006, 28(1): 51-55. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Kulmiye, A.J.; Ntiba, M.J.and Kisia, S.M. Comparative fecundity estimates in the thumbprint emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forsskal, 1775) using volumetric and Stereological Methods.". In: Western Indian Ocean Journal. Mar.Sci.Vol.1, No :135- 144. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH. "Kulmiye, A. J., Ntiba, M. J. and Kisia, S. M. (2002). Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the thumprint emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forskall, 1775) in the Kenyan coastal waters. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Vol. 1, No. 2. pp. 135-.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2002. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
MARANDE PROFKISIASETH. "Kulmiye, A. J., Kisia, S. M. and Ntiba, M. J. (2001). Comparative fecundity estimates in the thumprint emperor, Lethrinus harak (Forskall, 1775) using volumetric and stereological methods. African Journal of Hydrobiology and Fisheries. Vol. 10, Nos. 1 and.". In: Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 8th Biennial Scientific Conference and 46th Kenya Veterinary Association annual Scientific conference, Nairobi. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2001. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
"Kukua na Kuenea kwa Kiswahili.". In: Kiswahili na Utandawazi. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, Nairobi, KENYA; 2014.
Wamitila KW. Kuku na mwewe.; 2006.Website
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "The KRISP 94 lithospheric investigation of southern Kenya - the experiments and their main results.". In: In: Fuchs, K., Altherr, R., Muller, B. and Prodehl, C. (Editors). Special Issue: Structure and Dynamic Processes in the Lithosphere of the Afro-Arabian Rift System. Tectonophysics, 278: 121-147. Wiley Interscience; 1997. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Krieger JN, Mehta SD, Bailey RC, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Parker C, Moses S.Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya.J Sex Med. 2008 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print].". In: J Sex Med. 2008 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstractadult_male_circumcision_effects_on_sexual_function_and_sexual_satisfaction_in_kisumu_kenya.pdf

Introduction. Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim. To assess adult male circumcision's effect on men's sexual function and pleasure. Methods. Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18-24 years, with a hemoglobin >/=9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures. (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was "much more sensitive," and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as "much more" at month 24. Conclusions. Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya JC, Ayieko BO, Opiyo FA, Omondi D, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Moses S.Adult male circumcision outcomes: experience in a developing country setting. Urol Int. 2007;78(3):235-40.". In: Urol Int. 2007;78(3):235-40. IBIMA Publishing; 2007. Abstract
INTRODUCTION: We examined male circumcision outcomes among young adults in an African setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were healthy, sexually active, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative males aged 18-24 years. The main outcomes measured included complications, healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities. RESULTS: Of 1,475 procedures, 26 (1.8%) were associated with 27 adverse events, most commonly wound disruption/delayed healing (0.6%), wound infection (0.4%), and bleeding (0.3%). Adverse events per clinician averaged 3.8 and 2.1% for procedures 1-100 and 101-200, respectively, and <1% for procedures 201-300, 301-400 and >400, respectively (p < 0.001). Participants resumed normal general activities after a median of 1 postoperative day and 93% with regular employment resumed working within 1 week. After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied. After 90 days, 65% reported having had sex, 45% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, 92% of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing country settings. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Krieger JN, Bailey RC, Opeya J, Ayieko B, Opiyo F, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya-Achola JO, Magoha GA, Moses S.Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya.BJU Int. 2005 Nov;96(7):1109-13.". In: BJU Int. 2005 Nov;96(7):1109-13. IBIMA Publishing; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a standard procedure for male circumcision in a resource-poor medical setting and prospectively evaluate the outcome in a randomized, controlled trial with the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the main outcome, as studies suggest that circumcision is associated with a lower incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in high-risk populations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Healthy, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative men aged 18-24 years from Kisumu District, Kenya, were offered participation in a clinical trial using a standard circumcision procedure based on "usual" medical procedures in Western Kenya. The follow-up included visits at 3, 8 and 30 days after circumcision, with additional visits if necessary. Healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities were assessed at these visits and 3 months from randomization. RESULTS: Overall, 17 (3.5%) of the 479 circumcisions were associated with adverse events judged definitely, probably or possibly related to the procedure. The most common adverse events were wound infections (1.3%), bleeding (0.8%), and delayed wound healing or suture line disruption (0.8%). After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied with the procedure; approximately 23% reported having had sex and 15% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, all of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. About 96% of the men resumed normal general activities within the first week after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing countries should male circumcision ultimately be advocated as a public-health measure.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Kreiss JK, Ngugi E, Holmes K, Ndinya-Achola J, Waiyaki P, Roberts PL, Ruminjo I, Sajabi R, Kimata J, Flemming TR, ANZALA AO, Holton D, Plummer F. Efficacy of nonoxnol-9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi pros.". In: J Amer Med Assoc 1992; 268(4): 477-82. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is indirect evidence that HIV-1 exposure does not inevitably lead to persistent infection. Heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection could be due to protective immunity. The objective of this study was to find out whether in highly HIV-1-exposed populations some individuals are resistant to infection. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of incident HIV-1 infection-among 424 initially HIV-1-seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, between 1985 and 1994. 239 women seroconverted to HIV-1 during the study period. Exponential, Weibull, and mixture survival models were used to examine the effect of the duration of follow-up on incidence of HIV-1 infection. The influence of the duration of exposure to HIV-1 through prostitution on seroconversion risk was examined by Cox proportional hazards modelling, with control for other known or suspected risk factors for incident HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PCR with env, nef, and vif gene primers was done on 43 persistently seronegative prostitutes who remained seronegative after 3 or more years of follow-up. FINDINGS: Modelling of the time to HIV-1 seroconversion showed that the incidence of HIV-1 seroconversion decreased with increasing duration of exposure, which indicates that there is heterogeneity in HIV-1 susceptibility or acquired immunity to HIV-1. Each weighted year of exposure through prostitution resulted in a 1.2-fold reduction in HIV-1 seroconversion risk (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.79-0.88], p < 0.0001). Analyses of epidemiological and laboratory data, show that persistent seronegativity is not explained by seronegative HIV-1 infection or by differences in risk factors for HIV-1 infection such as safer sexual behaviours or the incidence of other sexually transmitted infections. Interpretation: We conclude that a small proportion of highly exposed individuals, who may have natural protective immunity to HIV-1, are resistant to HIV-1. PIP: A cohort study conducted in 1985-94 among 424 prostitutes from Nairobi, Kenya, who were initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 seronegative, tended to provide support for the observation that some individuals in highly exposed populations may be resistant to infection. During the 10-year study period, 239 of these women seroconverted. The overall HIV-1 incidence was 42/100 person-years. After the first 2 years of follow up, in which the majority of seroconversions occurred, HIV-1 prevalence reached a plateau and then began a steep decline. To determine whether the risk of HIV-1 infection declined over time as a result of the selection of resistance, incidence rates among women with less than 3 years' versus more than 3 years' duration of prostitution were compared for 1989-93. An increasing protective effect for each seronegative year of exposure was observed. The estimated cumulative protective effect for women practicing prostitution from 1984-93 and remaining seronegative, compared to women who entered prostitution in 1994, was over 100-fold. To rule out the possibility that the decrease in seroconversion with duration of exposure reflected differences in sexual behavior or immunity to sexually transmitted diseases that facilitate HIV transmission, Cox proportional hazards modelling was performed. The weighted duration of prostitution was independently associated with a decreased risk of seroconversion. Each weighted year of exposure resulted in a 1.2-fold decrease in risk. Women who seroconverted were more likely to report 1 or more regular partners and to use condoms with these partners than their counterparts who remained seronegative. Elucidation of the protective mechanisms and the factors mediating the development of immunity against HIV-1 could be important to HIV-1 vaccine research.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss JK, Koech D, Plummer FA, Holmes KK, Lightfoote M, Ronald AR, Ndinya-Achola JO, D'Costa LJ, Roberts P, Ngugi EN, Quinn TC. AIDS virus infection in Nairobi Prostitutes: Spread of the epidemic to East Africa. New Engl. J. Med. Vol. 314: 414 -418,1986.". In: New Engl. J. Med. Vol. 314: 414 -418,1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J.K. Coombs R, Plummer F, Holmes KK, Nikora B, Cameron W, Ngugi E, Ndinya-Achola JO, Corey L. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes. J. Infect. Dis. 160(3): 380 - 384, 1989.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 160(3): 380 - 384, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J, Willerford DM, Hensel M, Emonyi W, Plummer F, Ndinya-Achola J, Roberts PL, Hoskyn J, Hillier S, Kiviat N.Association between cervical inflammation and cervical shedding of human immunodeficiency virus DNA.J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;170(6):1597-601.". In: J Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;170(6):1597-601. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya, to determine the prevalence and correlates of cervical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA. Ninety-two HIV-seropositive prostitutes were evaluated during 137 clinic visits. Cervical HIV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction assay in 36 (39%) women at initial visits and in 40 (44%) women at any visit. There was a significant correlation between cervical HIV and microscopic evidence of cervical inflammation (odds ratio [OR], 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-24.6). Using multivariate analysis to adjust for possible confounding, the adjusted OR for the association between cervical inflammation and cervical HIV DNA was 8.7 (95% CI, 2.0-37.2). Conditions associated with cervical inflammation are associated with the detection of HIV proviral DNA. Whether such conditions lead to increased infectivity remains to be proven.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Kreiss J, Ngugi E, Holmes K, Ndinya-Achola J, Waiyaki P, Roberts PL, Ruminjo I, Sajabi R, Kimata J, Fleming TR, et al.Efficacy of nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. JAMA. 1992 Jul 22-.". In: JAMA. 1992 Jul 22-29;268(4):477-82. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO, OLIMA PROFWASHINGTONASEMBO. "Kreibich, V. and Olima, W.H.A. (eds), Urban Land Management in Africa, Spring Research Series No. 40, Dortmund, Germany.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; 2002.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "KRAM, R., MALOIY, G.M.O., ROBERTS, T.J., BLACK, J., LANGMAN, V.A.,HEGLUND, N.C., WEBER, J.M. and TAYLOR, C.R.(1990) Are walking elephants rolling eggs? Physiologist 33, 61A.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1990. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Kovu la Moyoni. Nairobi: Bookmark; 2014.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "Koukounari A, Estambale BB, Kiambo Njagi J, Cundill B, Ajanga A, Crudder C, Otido J, Jukes MC, Clarke SE, Brooker S.Relationships between anaemia and parasitic infections in Kenyan schoolchildren: A Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach. Int J Parasito.". In: Int J Parasitol. 2008 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print]. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
Anaemia is multi-factorial in origin and disentangling its aetiology remains problematic, with surprisingly few studies investigating the relative contribution of different parasitic infections to anaemia amongst schoolchildren. We report cross-sectional data on haemoglobin, malaria parasitaemia, helminth infection and undernutrition among 1523 schoolchildren enrolled in classes 5 and 6 (aged 10-21 years) in 30 primary schools in western Kenya. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to investigate putative relationships. Children infected with Plasmodium falciparum or with a heavy Schistosoma mansoni infection, stunted children and girls were found to have lower haemoglobin concentrations. Children heavily infected with S. mansoni were also more likely to be anaemic compared with uninfected children. This study further highlights the importance of malaria and intestinal schistosomiasis as contributors to reduced haemoglobin levels among schoolchildren and helps guide the implementation of integrated school health programmes in areas of differing parasite transmission.
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R., Mutungi, G.M. and Kanja, L.W. "Organochloride pesticide residues in swine tissues from abattoir material collected in Nairobi. Kenya", Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994, Vol.53, pp.39- 45.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Jensen, N.E., "No effect of dieldrin on progesterone production in gilts", Toxicology, 1993, Vol. 81, pp.165-171.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1993. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
ROSEBELLA DRKOTONYA. "Kotonya, R. and Huddart, H. "Interaction of malathion with modulators of sarcoplasmic reticular function on tension generation in the rat uterus." Toxicological Letters Supplement. 2000.". In: East African Medical Journal. 68, 526-531. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2000. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kirimi J, Guthua SW, DIMBA EOA, OMONDI B, KOTA D. "KOTA, D. Stage IV Oral Malignant Melanoma: a case report and literature review." International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2015.
MWANGI DRISAACK. "KOSURA, W. AND MWANGI, I. K. Methods of Data Collection. In NGAU, P. AND KUMSSA, A. (2004 EDS) RESEARCH DESIGN, DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A TRAINING MANUAL. Nairobi: UNCRD Africa Office. UNCRD Textbook Series No. 12. Chapter 7.pp97-113.". In: Electroanalysis, 18(24):2441-2450. Wiley Interscience; 2004. Abstract
Vertex epidural haematomas (VEDH) are rare and difficulties are encountered in diagnosis and management. This is a case report of a patient with a vertex epidural haematoma who presented with signs of severe head injury with upper limb decerebrate posture. We discuss the challenges of radiological investigation and neurosurgical management of VEDH.
SWALEH AMIRI. Kosa la Nani? Na Hadithi Nyingine . Nairobi: Vide-Muwa; 2018.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Korir, S.C.R., Imungi, J.K. and Muroki, N.M. 1996. Proximate chemical composition of street foods and their energy and protein contribution to the nutrition of manual workers in Nairobi. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 37: 123.". In: Presented in International Conference on Traditional Foods. 6 - 8 March 1997.Mysore,India. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Jens E;. "Konstruktiv forhandling .". 2010.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Konrad L.1, Owmandho C.A.2 , von Hobe A.-K. 1, Sui C. 1, Kloeppels K1.,Hersemeyer K.1 Tinneberg H.-R 1 In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy. 1 University of Giessen, Department of Gynec.". In: In proceedings of 14th World Congress of Gynecological Endocriology, ISGE. March 4-7, 2010, Firenza, Italy.; 2010. Abstract

Introduction: To establish  a model for investigationg endometrics in vitro, we analyzed several immortalized endometrial and endometriotic cell lines for typical biological functions. Especially transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas were investigated, because TGF-betas are increased during menstrual and endometriosis and seem to modulate effects of progesterone on endometrial cells primarily on secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).Methods: We used two stroma and one epithelial cell line from human endometrium and one stromal and three epithelial cell lines from endometrial patients. Protein secretion was quantitated with ELISAs and apoptosis determined with FACS analysis.Results: All cell lines secrete TGF-beta1, but interestingly the endometriotic cell lines secret considerably higher levels compared to normal endometrial cells. Of note,not the endometriotic cells secrete TGF-beta2. However, all cell lines only produce very slow levels of TGF-beta3. All cell lines could be stimulated by TGF-bata because they express high-affinity receptors TBR1 and TBR2. Treatment with TGF-betas reduced cell proliferation by innducing apoptosis, whereas TGF-beta1 more efficiently increased secretion of MMP2 compared to TGF0beta2. Progesterone reduced cell proliferation dose-dependent but induced secretion of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2. Interestingly TGF-beta3 was predominantly found in endothelial cells of patients with endometriosis.Conclusion: The results obtained with the endometrial and endometriotic celss lines are highly consistent with published data. For example TGF-beta1 is the predominant TGF-beta isoform in explant cultures as well as in endometriosis, followed by TGF-beta2 and very low levels of TGF-beta3. Our results convincingly demonstrate that cell lines are a suitable model for studying endometriosis.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Konji, VN., Makawiti, DW., Kiaira, JK., Omwandho, CA., Oloowokere, JO. Defects in respiration in mitochondria isolated from liver of goats infected with Trypanosoma Congolense.". In: International Journal of Biochemie Physics 2: 152 .; 1993. Abstract

Immunoglobulins were eluted from ovine placentae and characterized by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, western blotting and ELISA.IgG was shown to comprise the bulk of placental-bound immunoglobulins while smaller amounts of IgM and only trace amounts of IgA were demonstrated.Results suggest that ovine placental IgG eluted by surgical cannulation of the uterine blood vessels in situ is similar to that eluted from postpartum placentae in vitro, implying that there may be some transfer of antibodies across the maternal side of the placental barrier to the trophoblast.These antibodies are rich in IgG1 and IgG2, have a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa, and bind to an 80 kDa peptide prepared from pre-acidified ovine placental cotyledons.We propose that the binding of placental IgG to the 80 kDa antigen may prevent immunological rejection of the foetus by competitively excluding cytotoxic cells of maternal origin such as NK cells.Also, given that a similar antigen (80 kDa) has been reported in humans and equines, and shown to be saturated with IgG in term placentae, we propose that this antigen may be conserved in several mammalian species for reproductive purpose.Consequently, we suggest that the ovine placental IgG and the 80 kDa antigen may be suitable as models for the study of maternal-foetal interactions in mammalian pregnancies.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Kones, J., Soetaert, K., Van Oevelen, D., Owino, J.O., Mavuti, K. 2006. Gaining insight into aquatic food webs reconstructed by the inverse method: A factor analysis approach.". In: Journal of Marine Systems 60 (2006) 153. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
B PROFMBAYAVERTISTINE. "Kondi, A., H. Foy and V.B. Mbaya, Erythroid Aplasia in Kwashiorkor, Brit. Med. J. 1:725 1962.". In: Med. J. 1:725. Wangari Veronica Wanjiru; 1962. Abstract
As the number of fatalities from cardiovascular diseases declines in western industrial nations, an opposite trend is observed in the East African region. Inter-regional variations in the prevalence of vascular disorders have been attributed to socioeconomic, psychosocial and heritable physiological parameters. Although faulty mineralocorticoid metabolism and the dysfunctional kidney are prominent features of circulatory problems, many current studies are focused on membrane receptors, transmembrane ion transport mechanisms, ion channels and the possible genetic polymorphisms that determine the characteristics of those molecular structures in the vascular system of normal or hypertensive persons. In this review, a composite of the data available on each of the above parameters and its significance in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the industrial West and transforming economies of East Africa is presented.
B PROFMBAYAVERTISTINE. "KONDI A, MACDOUGALL L, FOY H, MEHTA S, MBAYA V.Anaemias of marasmus and kwashiorkor in Kenya.Arch Dis Child. 1963 Jun;38:267-75.". In: Arch Dis Child. 1963 Jun;38:267-75. Wangari Veronica Wanjiru; 1963. Abstract
As the number of fatalities from cardiovascular diseases declines in western industrial nations, an opposite trend is observed in the East African region. Inter-regional variations in the prevalence of vascular disorders have been attributed to socioeconomic, psychosocial and heritable physiological parameters. Although faulty mineralocorticoid metabolism and the dysfunctional kidney are prominent features of circulatory problems, many current studies are focused on membrane receptors, transmembrane ion transport mechanisms, ion channels and the possible genetic polymorphisms that determine the characteristics of those molecular structures in the vascular system of normal or hypertensive persons. In this review, a composite of the data available on each of the above parameters and its significance in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the industrial West and transforming economies of East Africa is presented.
GICHOVI PROFMBOGOHSTEPHEN. "Komen's M.Sc. Research and Thesis on the Potential Impact of Livestock Information Systems on Pastoral Cattle Marketing in Kenya: Student expected to graduate with an M.Sc. Degree in 2006.". In: Nairobi, Catholic University in Eastern Africa, 2002. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2006. Abstract
Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Red blood cells and lysate products (erythrolysate) are observed consistently in lymph draining acute and chronic inflammatory reactions and from tissues subjected to trauma or surgical procedures. Using hemoglobin as a marker for erythrolysate, we have measured hemoglobin in lymph up to the 10(-6) M range in a number of pathophysiological states. Data demonstrate that erythrolysate alters the pumping characteristics of lymphatic vessels. To test the effects of erythrolysate on lymphatic pumping, bovine lymphatics were suspended in an organ bath preparation with the vessels cannulated at both inflow and outflow ends. By raising the heights of the Krebs reservoir and the outflow catheters appropriately, a transmural pressure that stimulated pumping activity could be applied to the vessels. With a fixed transmural pressure of 6 cm H2O applied to the ducts, sheep erythrolysate depressed pumping activity between 40% and 100%, with dilutions containing between 10(-8) and 10(-5) M hemoglobin. Although the active principle in the red blood cells has not been characterized, evidence from precipitation purification experiments suggests that hemoglobin is an important component. Once suppressed, pumping could be restored in many but not all vessels (often to control levels) by elevating the distending pressure above 6 cm H2O. The relation between transmural pressure and fluid pumping is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, with pumping increasing up to a peak pressure (usually 8 cm H2O) and declining at pressures above this level. By comparing pressure/flow curves, we were able to ascertain that hemoglobin shifted the lymphatic function curve to the right and, on average, reduced the maximum pumping capability of the vessels. We speculate that the presence of erythrolysate/hemoglobin in lymph may modulate the ability of lymphatic vessels to drain liquid and protein from the tissue spaces.
O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Kokwaro GO, Kwasa TO, Indalo AA, Kibwage IO.Steady-state anticonvulsant drug levels in epileptic patients. East Afr Med J. 1996 Oct;73(10):679-82.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):323-6. uon; 1996. Abstract
Steady state concentrations of three anticonvulsant drugs (phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine) were measured in plasma samples from fifteen patients (eight males and seven females; ages: 13-49 years; body weights: 44-70 kg), attending the outpatient Neurology Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. In addition, total protein and albumin levels were measured in plasma from patients taking phenytoin. Total protein levels were normal (range: 6.3-7.6 g/dl) in all patients except in one patient (10.7 g/dl). Albumin levels were also normal (range: 3.7-4.1 g/dl) in all patients except one (25.4 g/dl). One patient on phenobarbitone and three patients on phenytoin had no detectable drug levels in their plasma. In the remainder, phenobarbitone, phenytoin and carbamazepine steady state concentrations were 8.7-21.1 mg/L (N = 8), 9.3-27.3 mg/L (N = 6) and 10-19.7 mg/L (N = 5), respectively. The unbound fraction of phenytoin in plasma (fu) was normal(approximately 0.1) in six patients, but relatively high (0.2) in one patient. Most patients in the study complied with the prescribed treatment and their epilepsy was controlled. Cases where drug levels were undetectable probably arose from a lack of money to purchase all prescribed medicines rather than deliberate non-compliance. Routine monitoring of anticonvulsant drug levels may improve management of epileptic patients.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Oxamniquine inhibits metabolism of caffeine, hexobarbitone and antipyrine in vivo in mice. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Aug;3(3):105-8.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
Inhibition of hepatic metabolism of caffeine (as assessed from expiration of (14)CO(2) resulting from N-demethylation of (14)C-labelled caffeine), hexobarbitone (as assessed from sleeping times) and antipyrine (as assessed from expiration of I4CO2 resulting from the oxidation of "C-labelled antipyrine) was studied in male GB-1 mice administered a single SO mg kg-1 oral dose of the schistosomicidal drug oxamniquine. Metabolism of caffeine, catalysed by cytochrome P-4S0 1A2(CYP1A2), was inhibited most, while hexobarbitone and antipyrine metabolism were inhibited to a lesser, though significant, degree. These results indicate a need for further studies to investigate possible clinically relevant inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism by oxamniquine.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Metabolism of Diazepam and Ethosuximide in rats with malaria and endotoxin-induced fever. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Feb;3(1):22-6.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
We have investigated the effects of malaria infection with rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei and fever induced by Escherischia coli endotoxin on the metabolism of diazepam to temazepam by rat liver microsomes, and on the clearance of ethosuximide in vivo in the rat. Livers from malaria-infected (parasitaemia =36.8+/- 7.6% endotoxin-treated or saline-treated (control) rats (N=5 per treatment) were used to prepare microsomes. These were incubated with diazepam (10-600ū M) for 10 minutes in an NADPH-generating system. V( max), K(m ) and the intrinsic clearance V(max )/K(m ) for the production of temazepam were determined. In separate experiments, ethosuximide (5mg/kg) was administered via the tail vein to control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats (parasitaemia=43.8+/- 5 %) under light ether anesthesia (N=5 per treatment). Total clearance of ethosuximmide was estimated form a single blood sample obtained 24h after drug administration. Diazepam metabolism was not affected by malaria infection or fever (V(max ):1.31+/- 0.34,0.73+/- 0.27 and 1.07+/- 0.78 nmol/min/mg protein; K( m): 158.7 +/- 63.7, 175.3+/- 44.9 and 190.0+/- 81.8ūM; Intrinsic clearance/whole liver: 0.31+/- 0.16, 0.26+/- 0.1 and 0.29+/- 0.1ml/min in livers from control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats respectively; P>0.05). Similarly, clearance of ethosuximide in vivo was not affected by malaria infection or fever (1.3+/- 0.2, 1.3+/- 0.01 and 1.4+/- 0.4 ml/min/kg in control, malaria-infected and endotoxin-treated rats respectively; p>0.05). These results suggest that malaria infection and fever have no effect on the activities of the CYP3A isozymes thought to be involved in the metabolism of diazepam and ethosuximide.
A DRINDALOANNE. "Kokwaro GO, Indalo AA.Effect of route of administration on systematic availability of oxamniquine in the rabbit. Afr J Health Sci. 1996 Aug;3(3):101-4.". In: 1: Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):13-6. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1996. Abstract
Eight New Zealand white rabbits (4 females, 4 males) each received oxamniquine (15 mg kg(-1)) orally, rectally, intravenously and via the hepatic portal vein in a random cross-over study. Serial plasma samples were obtained for up to 10 hours post drug administration and the bioavailable fraction was calculated, with reference to the intravenous route, from areas under plasma drug concentration-time profiles. Estimated fractions available were approximately 1.0, 0.45 and 0.46 respectively, for portal vein, oral and rectal routes. Hepatic "first-pass" metabolism appeared to be negligible. Low oral availability suggested incomplete absorption and/or metabolism within gastrointestinal wall. Rectal administration resulted in comparable availability to oral administration. These results suggest that if a suitable formulation can be developed, then rectal administration of oxamniquine may provide an alternative to oral administration in patients who cannot take drug orally.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Kokonya DA, Sinei SK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Morrison CS, Kwok C, Weiner DH. Experience with IUCD insertion outside of menses in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kokonya DA, Sinei SK, Sekadde-Kigondu CB, Morrison CS, Kwok C, Weiner DH. Experience with IUCD insertion outside of menses in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2000 Jul;77(7):369-73.". In: Int. J. of STDs and AIDS 11 257, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women receiving intrauterine devices (IUCDs) outside of menses have an acceptable rate of insertion problems and subsequent IUCD-related complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of insertions at times other than during menses. SETTING: The study was carried out in two government family planning (FP) clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: After appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counselling, 1686 women requesting IUCDs at two FP clinics between 1994 and 1995 in Nairobi were enrolled at baseline into a study examining the effect of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection on IUCD-related complications. Six hundred and forty nine women (156 HIV-infected and 493 HIV-uninfected) were selected for the four month follow up study. They were classified according to their menstrual cycle status at time of IUCD insertion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Problems at the time of insertion (pain, bleeding, immediate expulsion) and IUCD-related complications through four months. RESULTS: Rates of immediate insertion problems were low in the women who had insertions during menses (7.0%), outside of menses (4.0%) or had oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (2.6%). The adjusted odds ratios for IUCD insertion problems outside of menses and in oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (versus women with insertion during menses) were 0.54 (95 % CI 0.18-1.59) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29) respectively. IUCD-related complications were higher in the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (11.5%) or insertion outside of menses (6.9%), than the within menses (4.3%) groups. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratios for IUCD outside of menses and oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhea groups were 1.65 (95% CI 0.21-12.91) and 2.72 (95% CI 0.34-21.71) respectively. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that the IUCD can be safely inserted outside of menses with minimal insertion difficulties and subsequent complications. Availability of IUCDs outside of menses may enhance IUCD acceptance in Kenya and create better opportunity for visual screening of the cervix for sexually transmitted infections.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Kokonya D.A., Sinei S.K.A., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Morrison C.S., Kwok C, and Waner D.H. Experience with IUCD insertion outside Of menses in Kenya, E.A. Med J. 77 (7) 369, 2000.". In: E.A. Med J. 77 (7) 369, 2000. uon press; 2000. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Letting PK, Kiarie JN. Perceptions and practices of vaginal delivery after cesarean among privately practicing obstetricians in Kenya. East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Kimani, R, Ndirangu, NW. Guidelines on Antenatal HIV Testing. The Nairobi Hospital, 2004.". In: East Afr Med J 2005; 82: 641-46. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Koigi-Kamau R, Kimani, R, Ndirangu, NW. Guidelines on Antenatal HIV Testing. The Nairobi Hospital, 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Jan;82. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Obonyo" "CO-, Karanja" "JG, Bashir" "I, Odawa" "F, Beatrice" "KA-. "KOGS - Legal and policy reform for safe abortion.". In: Kenya Obstetrics and Gynecology Society 36th Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi; 2012.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Tibaijuka, G. Mtawali, G. and Mapunda, R. Study on the impact of an innovative training strategy on reproductive and child health service performance of health attendants in Tanzania. For Program for International Training in Health (INTRA.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1999. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Project Evaluation Report, Middle Juba PHC-Somalia.". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muroki, N.M. & Kielmann, A.A. (1991). The Role of Traditional birth attendants in influencing the behaviour of pregnant and lactating Samburu women in Kenya.". In: Presented at the Sixth European Nutrition Conference, Athens, 25-28 May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1991. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muroki N.M. and Kielmann A.A., "Role of Traditional Birth Attendants in Dissemination of Advice on Nutrition". World Health Forum Vol. 13, No.2/3: 197-99.". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., Muita J.W and Mboganie, A.M. (1992). Knowledge, attitude and needs assessment study of traditional birth attendants in Kibera, Nairobi.". In: Presented at the National Capacity Building for Child Survival and Development Project of University of Nairobi/UNICEF. Planning Workshop at Kabarnet, 23-27, November. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W., "Risk Indicators of Nutritional Status of Households of a Kenyan Semi-arid Population", East African Medical Journal, Vol 69, No 10: 560-62.". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1992. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Women, Nutrition and Community Development. In: WOMEN Basic Education, Community Health and Sustainable Development. Monograph of Papers Presented at a Strategic Planning Workshop, University of Nairobi/UNESCO: 57-60.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2002. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Report on Review of Food and Nutrition Security Technical Papers. For Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2006. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. and Muthoka, S. Food Security of a Population Living in a fragile environment. International Conference on Nutrition, Tuskegee, Alabama, USA.". In: Paper presented at the Inaugural National Nutrition Congress. 21st-23rd February 2005. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2000. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. Adolescent Health in Programmatic Evaluation of the Area of Work- Child and Adolescent Health in Tanzania. World Health Organization, Geneva (WHO).". In: A paper presented at the 2nd International Food and Nutrition Conference (IFNC), Tuskegee, Alabama, USA: 8-10th October 2006. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2005. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1994). Diets and Lifestyles. A comparison of traditional diets with modern ones.". In: Presented at a Seminar on diets and Lifestyles for Executives. Vee Nutrition and Health Associates, Nairobi. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1994. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1993). Nutritional and health status among the Samburu".". In: Presented at the Gessllschaft Fur Agrarprojekte (GFA) Planning Workshop for the Samburu District Development Project. Narumoro; 3-8th May. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1993. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI PROFKOGIMAKAU-. "Kogi-Makau, W. (1989). Determination of nutritional status of households of a Kenyan Semi-arid Population.". In: Presented at the 14th International Congress of Nutrition, Seoul, Korea, 20-25th August. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1989. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kogi, J.K., Taylor, J.F., Ruvuna, F., Davis, S.K., Bhebhe, E., Chen, C., Waruiru, R.M. Rurangirwa, F., Mkuu, S. & King'oku, J., 1994. Genetic markers: Associations with H. contortus and growth traits in goats.". In: In: Proc. of the 12th SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 38-43 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Koesters SA, Matu L, Kiama P, ANZALA O, Embree j, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR. Elevation of immune activation in Kenyan women is associated with alterations in immune function: implications for vaccine development. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9.". In: J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov;24(6):702-9. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HCV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection among voluntary blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre and clients at the Kenyatta National Hospital HIV-Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) Centre. DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral and teaching hospital and the National Blood Transfusion Services Centre, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Volunteer blood donors and VCT attendants. RESULTS: The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among 6154 blood donors in the NBTSC was very low, at 0.02. The HIV prevalence among the 353 KNH HIV-VCT clients was 9.3%, none of the clients tested positive for HCV. The incidence of risk factors in the persons with HCV and/or HIV infection(s) was low. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HCV infection among pre-screened volunteer blood donors was low. However the current practice of screening all donated blood for HCV remains indispensable to prevent its transmission to blood recipients.
O. PROFANZALAAGGREY. "Koesters SA, Alimonti JB, Wachihi C, Matu L, ANZALA OA, Kimani J, Embree JE, Plummer FA, Fowke KR. IL-7Ralpha expression on DC4+ T lymphocytes decreases with HIV disease progression and inversely correlates with immune activation. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;.". In: Eur J Immunol. 2006 Feb;36(2):336-44. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2006. Abstract
HIV diversity may limit the breadth of vaccine coverage due to epitope sequence differences between strains. Although amino acid substitutions within CD8(+) T cell HIV epitopes can result in complete or partial abrogation of responses, this has primarily been demonstrated in effector CD8(+) T cells. In an HIV-infected Kenyan cohort, we demonstrate that the cross-reactivity of HIV epitope variants differs dramatically between overnight IFN-gamma and longer-term proliferation assays. For most epitopes, particular variants (not the index peptide) were preferred in proliferation in the absence of corresponding overnight IFN-gamma responses and in the absence of the variant in the HIV quasispecies. Most proliferating CD8(+) T cells were polyfunctional via cytokine analyses. A trend to positive correlation was observed between proliferation (but not IFN-gamma) and CD4 counts. We present findings relevant to the assessment of HIV vaccine candidates and toward a better understanding of how viral diversity is tolerated by central and effector memory CD8(+) T cells.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Hekima III (1) 27-42; Submitted. Abstract
Savanna ecosystems and origins of modern human behavior Hekima III (1) 27-42: (Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi).
J PROFCHINDIAMARK, KAVIN DRWAKOLI. "Koech KJ, Chindia ML, Wakoli KA, Gathece LW. Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV infection and their relationship with CD4 count at a Nairobi centre. African journal of oral health sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9.". In: African Journal of Oral Health Sciences,Vol 5 no2, 4-9. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental caries experience and knowledge on the causes and preventive measures for dental diseases. DESIGN: A community based cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Elwak sub-district hospital, North Eastern Province, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty one adults who presented themselves during a dental check up at a sub-district hospital and gave written consent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries status and knowledge on its causes and preventive measures. The importance of outreach programmes in obtaining information as well as helping to alleviate the pain and suffering caused by dental diseases among communities living in remote areas is also revealed. RESULTS: Of the one hundred and forty one individuals, who were included in the study, 63.1% were women and 36.9% were men. Their ages ranged between 18 and over 65 years. 41.1% were in the 18-24-year age bracket. Regarding the oral health knowledge, 43% did not know any causes of dental diseases while 36%, 17% and 12% knew that diet, "dirt" on teeth and bacteria were possible causes, respectively. Fifty percent did not know any preventive measures for dental diseases while the rest indicated abstention from the consumption of sugary foods; and only 0.8% mentioned use of fluoridated toothpaste as a preventive measure for dental caries. 56.7% of the subjects were caries free. The mean DMFT for all ages was 3.4. Of those with caries 72.1% were women. CONCLUSION: There is a low level of oral health awareness and a moderately high level of dental caries experience in this community with women apparently carrying the biggest burden of dental caries.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Treatment of HIV infections and AIDS: new horizons. East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS77-81. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Treatment of HIV infections has involved the use of antiviral drugs as well as those drugs that act against opportunistic infections. Immune modulators have also been used. A review of these drugs is reported emphasizing on those which have great promise in the clinical management of HIV infections in the light of our present knowledge on immunopathology of the disease.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and ninety nine symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were treated with KEMRON, a natural human interferon alpha (nHIF alpha) stabilized in a complex polysacchariche carrier. Treatment was given for at least 10 weeks at a daily oral dose of approximately 2.0 IU of nHIF alpha per kg body weight. Karnofsky performance score increased from an average of 60.5 on entry into the study to 100 by the 10th week after treatment. Similarly, common clinical complaints associated with HIV-1 infection rapidly reduced per patient from an average of 3.8 to 0.05 and 0 by week 8 and 10 of treatment. Eighteen of the patients serodeconverted by both ELISA and western blot assays during the study period. These observations suggest that KEMRON used as recommended is beneficial in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO. Efficacy of Kemron (low dose oral natural human interferon alpha) in the management of HIV-1 infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Jul;67(7 Suppl 2):SS64-70. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

One hundred and ninety nine symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were treated with KEMRON, a natural human interferon alpha (nHIF alpha) stabilized in a complex polysacchariche carrier. Treatment was given for at least 10 weeks at a daily oral dose of approximately 2.0 IU of nHIF alpha per kg body weight. Karnofsky performance score increased from an average of 60.5 on entry into the study to 100 by the 10th week after treatment. Similarly, common clinical complaints associated with HIV-1 infection rapidly reduced per patient from an average of 3.8 to 0.05 and 0 by week 8 and 10 of treatment. Eighteen of the patients serodeconverted by both ELISA and western blot assays during the study period. These observations suggest that KEMRON used as recommended is beneficial in HIV-1 seropositive individuals.

O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO, Minowada J, Hutchinson VA, Cummins JM. Low dose oral alpha-interferon therapy for patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5.". In: Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract
Thirty eight symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) were treated with a natural human interferon alpha (HuIFN alpha). Patients were given 2 IU/kg HuIFN alpha orally once daily in powdered maltose held in the mouth to promote mucosal absorption. This oral immunomodulating HuIFN alpha therapy resulted in an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes, an increase in weight, and a dramatic alleviation of clinical symptoms related to HIV-1 infection.
O PROFOBELARTHUR. "Koech DK, Obel AO, Minowada J, Hutchinson VA, Cummins JM. Low dose oral alpha-interferon therapy for patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5.". In: Mol Biother. 1990 Jun;2(2):91-5. E Afr Med J; 1990. Abstract

Thirty eight symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) were treated with a natural human interferon alpha (HuIFN alpha). Patients were given 2 IU/kg HuIFN alpha orally once daily in powdered maltose held in the mouth to promote mucosal absorption. This oral immunomodulating HuIFN alpha therapy resulted in an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes, an increase in weight, and a dramatic alleviation of clinical symptoms related to HIV-1 infection.

Pauw GD, Anyango Maajabu NJ, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "A Knowledge-Light Approach to Luo Machine Translation and Part-of-Speech Tagging." In: Pauw GD, H. Groenewald, de Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010). Valetta, Malta: European Language Resources Association (ELRA); 2010:. Abstract
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Gwendo JO, Muchemi L. "A Knowledge-based System for Selection of Trees for Urban Environments." Journal of Artificial Intelligence. 2012;5(1):37-46.gwedo_muchemi_jai_2012_37-46.pdf
Munene DM, Mutave RJ, BK K. "Knowledge, selection and use of bonding agents by dentists in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2015;6(2):281-294.
Njomo D, Karimurio J, Odhiambo G, Mukiri M, Barasa E, Rono H, et al. "Knowledge, practices and perceptions of trachoma and its control among communities of Narok County, Kenya." Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2016;2(13):3-10.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Knowledge, practices and attitudes of clinical year dental students at the University of Nairobi towards HIV/AIDS patients.". In: Journal of Kenya Dental Assiciation , June 2010. Gakonyo J, Mutave RJ, Matu NK, Gathece LW.; 2010. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
Osiro OA, Macigo FG, Kisumbi BK, Dienya TM. "Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment among Nairobi-based dentists ." Journal of Dental Research. 2006;85(Special Issue C, East and Southern Africa Division).
Osiro OA, Macigo FG, Kisumbi BK, Dienya TM. "Knowledge, perception and practice of atraumatic restorative treatment among dentists in Nairobi." Journal of the Kenya Dental. 2011;2:145-150. Abstract
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JAMES PROFODEK. "Knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities which are often held collectively and inextricably linked to traditional resources and territories; including the diversity of genes, varieties, species and ecosystems; cultu.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2011. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
G PROFKARANJAJOSEPH. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.1: Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6.". In: Contraception. 1999 Apr;59(4):253-6. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students. PIP: A descriptive research study on knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to emergency contraception (EC) was conducted using a questionnaire among 167 nurses and 63 nursing students in Nairobi, Kenya. Results revealed that 95% recorded at least one regular contraceptive method. About 48% of the respondents had heard about EC, but only 2.6% had used it. More nursing students than qualified nurses were aware of EC. There was poor knowledge about the types, applications and side effects of EC. Some 49% of the subjects regarded EC as an abortifacient. About 77% of those knowledgeable about EC approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only about 3.5% had personally used it. Some 23% of those aware of EC intended to use it in the future. About 53% planned to provide or promote it. The perception that EC is abortifacient affected the decision whether to use or provide it. The data imply that there is potential for effective promotion of EC among nurses and nursing students in Kenya
Gichangi PB, Karanja JG, Kigondu CS, Fonck K, Temmerman M. "Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding emergency contraception among nurses and nursing students in two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya." Contraception. 1999;59(4):253-6. Abstract

A cross-sectional descriptive study on knowledge, attitudes, and practice about emergency contraception (EC) was conducted among nurses and nursing students using a self-administered questionnaire. One-hundred-sixty-seven qualified nurses and 63 nursing students completed the questionnaire. Over 95% listed at least one regular contraceptive method but only 2.6% spontaneously listed EC as a contraceptive method, whereas 48% of the respondents had heard of EC. Significantly more nursing students than qualified nurses were familiar with EC. Knowledge about the types of EC, applications, and side effects was poor and 49% of the respondents considered EC as an abortifacient. Of those familiar with EC, 77% approved its use for rape victims and 21% for adolescents and schoolgirls. Only 3.5% of all respondents had personally used EC in the past, 23% of those familiar with EC intend to use it in the future, whereas 53% intend to provide or promote it. The view that EC was abortifacient negatively influenced the decision to use or provide EC in the future. The present findings suggest that the level of knowledge of EC is poor and more information is needed. These findings indicate the potential to popularize emergency contraception in Kenya among nurses and nursing students.

Nyamu E, Mutara LN, Masiga MA. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the oral health of children.". In: JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH. Vol. 82. INT AMER ASSOC DENTAL RESEARCHI ADR/AADR 1619 DUKE ST, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2003:. Abstract
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Ndereeh D, Muchemi G, Thaiyah A. "Knowledge, attitudes and Practices towards Spotted Fever Group rickettiosis and Q-Fever in Laikipia and Maasai Mara." Journal of Public Health Africa. 2016;7:545.
Gathumbi JK, Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Tukei M. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and its control among dog owners in Kigali city, Rwanda." BioRxiv 2018. 2018:500-595.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients on plaque and calculus as causative agents of periodontal disease.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Oganda C, Wagaiyu E, Gathece L.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord." East Afr Med J. 1999;76(8):425-9. Abstract

To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord.

Wahome MW, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Bwana MO. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices of indigenous chicken value chain actors in relation to infectious bursal disease transmission in Kenya." Ruforum working Document Series . 2018;17(2):511-518.
M.M. G. Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital.. M.M. K, S.A. M, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Glaucoma is often diagnosed late and accompanied by poor patient compliance and follow-up as it is very slowly progressive and commonly asymptomatic until a very advanced stage of the disease is reached.
Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47 were male and 31 were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Seventy nine percent of patients presented with normal visual acuity but 5 (6.4%) presented with bilateral blindness. Mean IOP at presentation was 23.85mmHg with a wide range of 9-60mmHg. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system, having poor knowledge of risk factors and treatment options. On compliance to medication, 62 (78.7%) patients reported compliance while 54 (69.2%) reported compliance to all clinic visits. The most common challenges reported with drug use were drops falling on cheeks (41%), cost of drugs (23.1%), and side effects of drugs used (19.2%).The most common impediments to clinic attendance were forgetting (16.7%) and other incidental events (62.5%). Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively. Compliance to glaucoma medication was perceived to be very important in 88.5% of patients, while 89.7% of patients perceived compliance to follow-up clinics as being very important.
Conclusion: Forty four (56.4%) patients presented late with advanced disc damage and 40 (51.3%) had undergone surgery, the most common being trabeculectomy. There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counseling and further patient education. Self-reported compliance was high and patients had good attitudes towards treatment and follow-up of glaucoma.

M.M. G, M.M K, S.A. M. "Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Of Glaucoma Patients Attending Clinic At Kenyatta National Hospital.". In: Ophthalmology Society of East Africa Annual Scientific Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2011. Abstract

Background: Glaucoma is a characteristic optic neuropathy which typically results in specific patterns of progressive visual field loss and who’s most important risk factor is raised intraocular pressure (IOP). It is second to cataract as a leading cause of global blindness and is the leading cause of irreversible visual loss. In Kenya it is ranked third after cataract and trachoma. Glaucoma is often diagnosed late and accompanied by poor patient compliance and follow-up as it is very slowly progressive and commonly asymptomatic until a very advanced stage of the disease is reached.
Results: We interviewed 78 patients, 47 were male and 31 were female. Age ranged from 19-89 years with a mean age of 61.1 (SD +11.5) years. Seventy nine percent of patients presented with normal visual acuity but 5 (6.4%) presented with bilateral blindness. Mean IOP at presentation was 23.85mmHg with a wide range of 9-60mmHg. Fifty three (67.9%) patients were classified as having some knowledge using a predefined classification system, having poor knowledge of risk factors and treatment options. On compliance to medication, 62 (78.7%) patients reported compliance while 54 (69.2%) reported compliance to all clinic visits. The most common challenges reported with drug use were drops falling on cheeks (41%), cost of drugs (23.1%), and side effects of drugs used (19.2%).The most common impediments to clinic attendance were forgetting (16.7%) and other incidental events (62.5%). Patients had wrong expectation of both treatment and surgery with 29.5% and 32.5% expecting cure from medical and surgical treatment respectively. Compliance to glaucoma medication was perceived to be very important in 88.5% of patients, while 89.7% of patients perceived compliance to follow-up clinics as being very important.
Conclusion: Forty four (56.4%) patients presented late with advanced disc damage and 40 (51.3%) had undergone surgery, the most common being trabeculectomy. There is still a wide gap in knowledge that exists and that needs to be addressed through counselling and further patient education. Self-reported compliance was high and patients had good attitudes towards treatment and follow-up of glaucoma.

WANJIRU DRWANGARIVERONICA. "KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN AGED 3-12 ON ASSOCIATION OF THUMB SUCKING, TONGUE THRUSTING AND ANTERIOR OPEN BITE.". In: oral health sciences journal. Wangari Veronica Wanjiru; 2009.

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