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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "New Light on East African Coastal Archaeology",Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9.". In: Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Maina DM, Kahugu M.Management of post-traumatic temporomandibular joint ankylosis in children: case report.East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):471-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jul;72(7):471-5. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Kamau L.W., Maina F.W., Sekkade-Kigondu C.B., Mati J.K.G. .". In: E.A.M.J. 67:550 (1990). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Marketing Research Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
W K, E H. "17. Anatomical features of the sternum in a kenyan population. Anatomy ." Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):229-233.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., CHINDIA, M.L., Challenges of managing gunshot injuries in developing countries. IADR, November, 1993 - (Abs).". In: IADR, November, 1993 - (Abs). Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., Njenga, L. N., Gathumbi, J. K. and Chemining.". In: 11th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 10. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2008.
W DRWAHOMEEPHRAIM. "Ephraim W. Wahome, 2003 "Xeroradiography, exchange and ceramic characterisation in the admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea Hekima.". In: Journal 11 (1) 85 - 91. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract

Ethnographic evidence and traditional methods of characterization have been frequently applied in the reconstruction of manufacture and distribution of ceramics. This article introduces the method of xeroradiography as a potential tool in the study of ceramic composition and contrasts it with attributes and attribute combinations to provide a holistic understanding of ceramic manufacture and inter-island exchange patterns in the Admiralty Islands.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W.: Improved patient care. The right to know (Editorial) Medicus; 2(8): 1-2, 1992.". In: Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Theuri, S. W. M., G. N. Chemining.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 13-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON, J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Odhiambo WA, Guthua SW, Chindia ML, Macigo FG.Pattern and clinical characteristics of firearm injuries.East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Elsevier; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA S.W., SOUTHERN J.F., DOMANOWSKI G.F. PETO C.A., DONOFF R.B.: Can the prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma be predicted using computer assisted morphometric image analysis? International Acad. of Pathol. 364, 1989 (Abs).". In: International Acad. of Pathol. 364, 1989 (Abs). Elsevier; 1989. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W MRSKARURIJANE. "Women and elections in Kenya - Seminar paper presented at the centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University, Scotland.". In: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/10/amim18147.htm. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 1993.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of total fluoride in vegetables and plants by open-flame ashing and microdiffusion: comparison with furnace ashing and oxygen-flask combustion'.". In: Analytical Chemical Acta 212 (1988) 133-143. UoN; 1988. Abstract

The sample is ashed in a nickel crucible over an open flame with calcium hydroxide as thefixative; fluoride is separated by micro-diffusion and measured with a fluoride-selective electrode.The calcium hydroxide fixative permits a temperature of 800—850°C during the final ashing, sothat insoluble silicates are decomposed and fluoride is converted to an acid-soluble form. Otheradvantages over furnace ashing at 600°C are less contamination and more rapid ashing (20 mincompared to 6 h). The interference of aluminium and silica on microdiffusion was studied: per-chloric acid was found to be preferable to sulphuric acid as medium. A new way for preparingcalcium hydroxide suspension, low in fluoride, is described. The values found by the proposedmethod generally compare well with those obtained by oxygen flask combustion. Direct diffusion(i.e. without ashing) gave much lower values than the ashing methods, except for tea leaves.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi, S.M. Njiro and G.M Mugera (2000). Biochemical and hematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128.". In: Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used.There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Maxillofacial Injuries caused by Road Traffic Accidents in Kenya. International Conference, Africa Chapter, The 25th Medic Africa Conference, Nairobi. Kenya. October 17th, 2003.". In: International Conference, Africa Chapter, The 25th Medic Africa Conference, Nairobi. Kenya. October 17th, 2003. Elsevier; 2003.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "History and Culture of Bungoma District." Bungoma Development in the 21st Century 1994; pp.71-74.". In: Bungoma Development in the 21st Century 1994; pp.71-74. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
A sacred site is a place which is considered holy, and is partially or wholly reserved for magico-religious or ceremonial functions. Because of this it is venerated and revered and is kept free from contamination by sin and evil. Sacred sites vary in size from very small places covering a few square metres to large areas covering several hectares of land. They are usually characterized by the presence of artefacts, ecofacts and features that are unique to them; they may be in the open air, or in rockshelters, caves and forests. In many cases, sacred sites have frightening tales told about them, in order to scare off those who would want to destroy or defile them. In the archaeological record, sacred sites may initially be identifiable as burial sites, ceremonial sites or butchery sites. It is on the basis of such clues that other attributes that are typical of sacred sites can be identified, isolated and studied. It is against this background that this chapter discusses the Mijikenda kaya (pi. makaya) as a sacred site.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande (1990). Essential oils of Lippia ukambensis chemotypes and Lippia somalensis in Kenya. Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417.". In: Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417. The Kenya Medical Association; 1990. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. and MACIGO, F.G. Management of cervicofacial Keloids in black population; A preliminary study. J.Dent. Res.78(5), 1093, 1999, (Abs).". In: J.Dent. Res.78(5), 1093. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Embu." Embu District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1989; pp. 1-6.". In: Embu District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1989; pp. 1-6. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W DRWAGACHAPETER. "A model for introducing and implementing E-learning for delivery of educational content within the African context, Elijah I. Omwenga, Timothy M. Waema, Peter W. Wagacha, African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI/UNESCO) 2004.". In: African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI/UNESCO). Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Potentiation of uterine stimulatory action of Adenia globosa Engl. By Oxytocin in vitro. Kipruto A. Sinei, Julius W. Mwangi, Kohath J. Achola, Rahab W. Munenge and Amos M. Mwaura. (Africa Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 1 No. 4 November, 1994).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W DRMAINASUSAN, R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Maina S.W and Lesan W.R. Dental Plaque and Gingival condition of Mentally Handicapped Children in Mathare Special Training Centre Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. International Journal of Climatology; 1988. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Mathu, E.M., Ichang.". In: International Geological Correlation Programme ( I.G.C.P.) Project 348. Proceedings of the International Geological Field Conference held in the Mazambique Orogenic Belt in East Africa. Organised by the University of Dar-es-Salaam, University of Na. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1994. Abstract
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W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of maxillofacial injuries at the primary health centres in developing countries. Conference of Association of surgeons of East and Central Africa (ASEA), Nakuru, February 1995.". In: Conference of Association of surgeons of East and Central Africa (ASEA), Nakuru, February 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Mbiti M. Orinda D.A.O.Contributor in .". In: Publishers CCAK, 1995. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

PIP: 125 black Kenyan women attending the Kenyatta National Family Welfare Clinic were randomly allocated to combined and fixed dose oral contraceptives (Eugynon: 500 mcg dl-norgestrel + 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol or Microgynon: 150 mcg levonorgestel + 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol). They were between 18-33 years of age with a mean of 25 +or- 7 years. The mean parity of this group was 3 and they had a mean education standard of 8 years. Fasting blood sampled were taken on recruitment (control cycle) and thereafter once for cycles 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 during OC use. HDL-cholesterol was estimated in the sear. The 2 OCs elicited a significant decrease in levels of HDL-cholesterol (p0.01). author's modified

W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Quality Improvement in Service Marketing. In Marketing Review, University of Nariobi.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1994.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Guthua SW, Amwayi P.Alternative technique of constructing bilateral cleft palate in late childhood: a case report and literature review.East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):687-92. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Oct;71(10):687-92. Review. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Although great advances in treatment of oro-facial clefts have been made over the past 50 years; in developing countries, due to social stigmas and unavailability of specialised medical facilities and personnel to the majority of the population, there is an increasing incidence of patients coming late for repair of oro-facial clefts. This presents a challenge to both plastic, oral surgeons and associated specialists. The aim of the present article is to demonstrate, in the form of a case report, an alternative surgical technique that has be successful in 8 cases for the late repair of severe bilateral cleft palate utilizing locally available and affordable materials. The objective of managing patients with cleft palate in developing countries is to provide the best repair and rehabilitation with as few operations and in-patient care as possible due to limited financial resources experienced by the majority of in-patients. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of oro-facial clefts is emphasised.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., Nderitu, J. H., Olubayo, F. M., Muindi, E. M, Kabira, J. N., Kiretai, S. M. and Aura, J. A. 2008. Management of aphid-transmitted virus diseases in seed potato production by use of border crops and insecticides. 8th Horticultural Associati.". In: 8th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) workshop, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, 8th-11th December 2008, Kakamega, Kenya. Horticultural Association of Kenya; 2008.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "KIMARO,. S.S., CHINDIA, M.K., GUTHUA, S.W.: Management of orofacial lesions in AIDS: An overview of current modalities. IADR, Dec 1992 (Abs).". In: IADR, Dec 1992 (Abs). Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Trends in Informatics education.". In: Higher Education Policy. 1995. Vol 8. No. 3 pp. 57 - 63. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1995. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., J. K. Ndung.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 13-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the management of abdominal trauma (extracted from M.MEd thesis). Submitted for publication to the east African Medical Journal. Authors: Dr. J. W. Githaiga, Prof. J. Adwok.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W and Waigaiyu C.K. The Average Human Tooth Lengths for Black Kenyan Population. East. Afr. Med J. 1990 Jan; 67(1):33-8.". In: East. Afr. Med J. 1990 Jan; 67(1):33-8. IBIMA Publishing; 1990. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L. A review of some policy issues in the management of impacted mandibular third molar. IADR conference, Nairobi, 1990.". In: IADR conference, Nairobi, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Mutitu, E. W. and J. W. Muthomi. 1994. Control of carnation Fusarium wilt using antibiotic culture filtrates from Streptomyces spp. African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116.". In: African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116. African Crop Science Society; 1994. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of labile fluoride in soils: An Intercomparison of Different Extracting Medias'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 3, 18 - 22. UoN; 1994. Abstract

Labile fluoride in soil samples was extracted using sodium citrate - EDTA, sodium citrate - TISAB II, ammonium lactate, IMhydrochloric acid and water. Hydrochloric acid was found to give the highest fluoride level while water gave the lowest fluoride level.Shaking time andamount of sample showed that 1 1/2 hours shaking and lgm sample gave the best results with ammonium lactateextracting media Recovery of fluoride using ammonium lactate was found to be 90-100% efficient while medium clay samples gaveless than 90% fluoride.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.Gathumbi PK, Mwangi JW, Mugera GM, Njiro SM.Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.
W DROMOLOANTHONYJ. "Hutchinson A.J., Were A.J.O, Boulton H.F., Mawer E.B., Laing I., Gokal R., Manchester Royal Infirmay, U.K. Control of hypercalcemia, phosphatemia and hyperaluminemia in CAPD by reduction in dialysate calcium concentration.". In: Presented at the International Society of Nephrology congress in Jerusalem, Israel. June 1993. In book of abstracts. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1993. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, .K., ODHIAMBO, W.A., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W., and MACIGO, F.G.: Injuries of the Maxillofacial skeleton in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med. Journal.". In: East Afri. Med. Journal. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "The Origins and Developments of Early Settlements on the East African Coast." Work-in-Progress Seminar, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1995.". In: Work-in-Progress Seminar, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.A. Sinei, J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, A.M. Mwaura and R.W. Munenge (1994). Potential of uterine stimulatory action of Adenia globosa Engl. by oxytocin in vitro. African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3.". In: African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Techniques of Pottery Manufacture Among the Mijikenda: Use and Discard, Implications for Archaeological Interpretation." Anthropology of Urban Origins in Eastern Africa Workshop, Maputo, Mozambique, 1990.". In: Anthropology of Urban Origins in Eastern Africa Workshop, Maputo, Mozambique, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Capacity building for information and communication technology higher education programmes in Africa: the case of the School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. Katherine Getao, Peter W. Wagacha, Bernard Manderick.". In: ICT and Education conference, Santa Clara, Cuba February 2006. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2006. Abstract
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W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Gardenia Jovis Tonantis. (International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1995 Vol. 33, No, 3, pp. 250 -252.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang.". In: Report and recommendations of the First Kenya Gemstone and Dealers Workshop. Geological Society of Kenya Bulletin, 1, 6 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""The Spatial Distribution of the Mijikenda Kaya Settlements on the Hinterland Kenya Coast", TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100.". In: TransAfrican Journal of History. Vol.14, 1985, pp. 78-100. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Orofacial neoplasms in children. Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21, July 1995.". In: Afr. Health; 17(5) 20-21. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Birithia, R. L., Subramanian, S., Muthomi, J., and Narla, R. D. 2010. Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya. 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tr.". In: 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. 8th - 11th December 2010, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agricult. Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK); 2011.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW, Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B.Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRGACUNOONESMUS, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):4-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., G. M. Riungu, J. K. Ndung.". In: Journal of Plant Sciences 3 (1): 52-60. Asian Network for Scientific Information; 2008.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA S.W.: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR, Dec. 1992 (Abs).". In: Florid Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia. IADR. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "The potential of group screening method in the management of AIDS crisis in Africa.". In: Proc. of the 5th scientific conference of the East, Central and Southern Africa Network of the International Biometric SociM, Mombasa Kenya 22-25 Sept. 1997; ps. 81-84. East African Orthopaedic Journal; 1997. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Otieno, P. E., Muthomi, J. W., Chemining.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 8: 305-312. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Githaiga JW, Adwok JA.Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the evaluation of abdominal trauma using the dipstick.East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
W MRWAMBUAABRAHAM. ""Some Aspects of Christian Pastoral Care and Counselling in the Contemporary Secondary Schools of Kenya: A study of selected schools in Machakos District.".". In: A paper presented at the EATWOT - E.A. Pre-Conference at Methodist Guest House on 17/5/1990. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 1989. Abstract
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W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Mwaniki DL, Guthua SW.Mandibular fractures: an appraisal of the weak regions.East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):255-60.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 Apr;68(4):255-60. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., E.-C. Oerke, H.-W. Dehne and E. W. Mutitu. 2002. Susceptibility of Kenyan wheat varieties to head blight, fungal invasion and deoxynivalenol accumulation inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Phytopathology 150: 30 .". In: Journal of Phytopathology 150: 30 . Landwirtschaftliche Fakult; 2002. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "“Determination of labile fluoride in Kenyan soils”." East African Journal of Physical Science 6 (2) (2005) 57-66.. 2005. AbstractWebsite

research theories for high school students

W PROFODHIAMBOJOHN. "Hassanali, J.; Odhiambo, J.W. Estimation of calendar age from eruption times of permanent teeth in Kenyan Africans and Asians pp. 175-177(3).". In: Proceedings of the Fifth ScientificConference of the East, Central and Southern Africa Network of the International Biometric Society Mombasa, Kenya. SITE; 1997. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

W DROMOLOANTHONYJ, W DROMOLOANTHONYJ. "Kayima J.K., Mcligeyo S.O.., Were A.J.O., Luta M. : Kidney Transplantation: recent medical experiences from Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East African Medical Journal 73:9,1996.". In: East African Medical Journal 73:9,1996. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1996.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "KAIMENYI J.T., GUTHUA, S.W., KIAIRA M.K., OTIENO F: Cancrum Oris: Case report. J. of Oral Diseases (In press).". In: J. of Oral Diseases (In press). Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Tana Ware and the Settlement Archaeology of the Kenya Coastal Hinterland." AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996.". In: AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, R.W Munenge and J.W Mwangi (1995). Pharmacological activities of Gardenia jovis-tonantis. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Peasants and Self-Help Development Projects in Rural Kenya: Codebook for Project Case Studies May 1979. jointly with Drs. Joel Barkan, S.E. Migot-Adholla and Frank Holmquist.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1979. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "African Presences in Pre-Columbian America: Myth or Reality?" American Studies in East Africa, 1993; pp. 3-5.". In: American Studies in East Africa, 1993; pp. 3-5. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of lantana Trifolia on isolated Guinea pig trachea and rat Phrenic nerve diaphram. International Journal of Pharmacognosy (1996) Vol. 34 No. pp. 273-276. K.J. Achola, and Rahab W. Munenge.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ngecu, W.M. and Ichang'i, D.W. The environmental impact of landslides on the population living on the eastern footslopes of the Aberdare ranges in Kenya.". In: A case study of Maringa Village Landslide. Journal of Environmental Geology , 38, No. 3, 259-264. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Property Ownership and Inheritance." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 39-44.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 39-44. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Essentials of anatomy and physiology of jaws for nurses. Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.1st July 1994.". In: Nairobi Hospital, Kenya.1st July 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi J. W., P. E. Otieno, G. N. Chemining.". In: Journal of Entomology, 5(3): 156-163. Academic Journals; 2008. Abstract
Effectiveness of dimethoate 40 EC and copper oxychloride in the management of legume pests and diseases was tested in field experiments during 2005 growing seasons. Grain legumes used were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var GLP 2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), green gram (Vigna radiate L.), lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design in a split plot replicated thrice. The parameters observed were insect pest incidence, number of pods per plant, percent seed damage and total grain yield. Pesticides spray significantly reduced the incidence of insect pests like flower thrips, African bollworm and legume pod borer. Pod and seed damage were significantly reduced in lablab, chickpea and green gram. Only lablab, chickpea and green gram showed significant increase in number of pods per plant and total seed yield resulting from pesticide spray. In addition, the quality of yield increased through reduction of shrivelled and discoloured seed due to diseases. The study showed that the use of dimethoate and copper oxychloride is beneficial for the management of the common insect pests and diseases in legumes. However, studies on the optimum number of sprays, time of application and use of other control measures that are ecologically viable for the management of the pests ought to be done.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekkade-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W., Mati J. K. G. .". In: J. Obs. Gyn. Centr., East Africa 2;23 (1983). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Tole NM, Guthua SW, Imalingat B.Radiation dose as a factor in the choice of routine pre-operative dental radiographs.East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):297-301.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 May;70(5):297-301. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract
Radiation doses received by patients during dental x-ray examinations were measured in 95 patients referred to the X-ray Department of the Teaching Dental Hospital, University of Nairobi. The mean skin dose for single periapical films was 5.96 milligray (596 millirads) with the bitewing view recording a mean dose of 5.57 milligray (mGy). During a 14-film full-mouth periapical survey, mean doses ranged from 10.3-16.2 mGy for the upper jaw and 10.1-13.5 mGy for the lower jaw, respectively, depending on the region of dentition. In these full-mouth examinations, the distribution of skin dose over different parts of the dentition showed a characteristic pattern which may be explained by the overlap of radiation fields in the aggregated series of exposure. Orthopantomography recorded lower mean skin doses of 3.26 mGy in the molar region and 2.67 mGy at the posterior midline at the level of the 2nd cervical vertebra. The relative merits of intra-oral radiography versus orthopantomography are discussed, with radiation dosage as one of the factors to be considered. Some observations are made on measures to reduce patient dose.
W DRGETAOKATHERINE. "Getao K.W., Ayienga E. Opiyo E., Okelo- Odongo W., Manderick B., Nowe A. Using multi-agent systems for efficient quality of service guarantees in computational grids.". In: Workshop Proceeding, International ICT Workshop on Application of ICT in enhancing higher education, 28th . East African Orthopaedic Journal; 2004.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., Otieno, P. E., Chemining.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 8: 981-986. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRMAINASUSAN. "Maina S.W. The Practical Application of ART-Journal of Dental Research 14th Congress of the East and Southern Africa Division of the IADR AUGUST 30- 2 SEPTEMBER 2000. HARARE, ZIMBABWE.". In: Journal of Dental Research 14th Congress of the East and Southern Africa Division of the IADR AUGUST 30- 2 SEPTEMBER 2000. HARARE, ZIMBABWE. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
W MRWAMBUAABRAHAM. ""Traditional African and Christian Approaches to Marital Counselling".". In: A Chapter published in Amani Counselling book. J. Kenya Meteorological Soc; 2004. Abstract
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W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI, D. L., GUTHUA, S.W., Occurrence and characteristic of traumatic fractures of the mandible in Nairobi, Kenya. Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202, 1991.". In: Br. J. Oral & Maxillofac. surg; 28:200-202. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilateral impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Wagacha, J. M., E. W. Mutitu, J. W. Muthomi and F. B. Mwaura. 2003. Translocation and persistence of antibiotics produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces spp. African Crop Science Conference proceedings,6: 81-84.". In: African Crop Science Conference proceedings,6: 81-84. African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai and W. Lwande (1988). Volatile constituents of Ocimum fischeri Guerke. Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121.". In: Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1988. Abstract

Cardiovascular activities of nitidine chloride from Zanthoxylunt chalybeum have been compared with those of 9-methoxychelerythrine. Whereas nitidinc chloride was found to show significant hypotensive activity in rabbits, 9-methoxychelerythrine chloride showed no hypotensive activity. The effect of nitidine chloride on isolated rabbit heart was also compared with those of adrenaline and acetylcholine. 9-Methoxychelerythrine, which has hitherto been regarded as an artefact formed by recrystallization of chelerythrine base from methanol, has been shown in this work to be a true natural constituent of Zanthoxylum chalybeum. Keywords: 9-inethoxychelerythrine; nitidine chloride; cardiovascular properties; hypotensive effect; Zanthoxylum chalybeum.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "OSUNDWA, M.T., CHINDIA, M.L., GUTHUA, S.W., AWANGE, D.O. AND ONYANGO, A.: Squamous Odontogenic Tumour-like Gingival proliferations Occurring with Dentigerous Cysts and Amelogenesis Imperfecta. Afr. Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2:21-22, 2004.". In: Afr. Journal of Oral Health Sciences. 2:21-22. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W: Is there a need for a Kenya Dental Association Journal? KDA Newsletter, 3(2):2,1985.". In: Trop. Dent. J: Vol VIII, 2:81-85. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry w. Mutoro, Ludeki: Chweya and Wanjala Nasongo: Political Leadership and the crisis of development in Africa: Lessons from Kenya .In good Governance issues and sustaintable development: the Indian Ocean region by Robin Ghash,Kony Gabbay and Abu Siddi.". In: the Indian Ocean region by Robin Ghash,Kony Gabbay and Abu Siddique(eds.) 1999, New Delhi: altlantic Publishers. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
There is a causal relationship between political leadership and economic development. There is evidence that the deterioration of economic conditions in African since independence is owed to poor management of public economic affairs by the incumbent state leadership. This argument implies that whereas the continent may not be very well endowed with natural resources, this may not be held solely responsible for the existing economic woes. Whatever resources exist are capable of generating economic development, indeed economic breakthrough, if they are harnessed and utilized effectively. Conversely, a country may be endowed with enormous natural and human resources, but may remain characterized by poverty and economic backwardness if it is not endowed with visionary, dedicated and rational political leadership capable of appropriating such resources for the purpose of national development and for the prosperity of the citizens.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi and R.W. Munenge (1996). Pharmacological activities of Vernonia glabra. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144. The Kenya Medical Association; 1996. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Bargaining for Technology: Some Kenyan Experience. Paper read at West Africa Technology Policy Meeting held at Njala University Campus, Sierra Lone, April 1-4.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1984. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""Kenya: Helig boplats Innanfor Muren," Popular Arkeologi, Arg. 9NR 4, 1991, p.26.". In: Popular Arkeologi, Arg. 9NR 4, 1991, p.26. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Pharmacological activities of Gutenburgia cordifolia (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy ,Vol. 35, No.1, pp. 60-62.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Assessment and initial management of faciomaxillary injuries in Emergency Room. Symposium on Emergency Medical care. Nairobi, Kenya. 3rd May 1997.". In: Symposium on Emergency Medical care. Nairobi, Kenya. 3rd May 1997. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly malignant tumour and is the most common primary neoplasm of bone; although rare, especially in the maxillofacial skeleton. This article presents 14 Kenyan cases of OS of the maxillofacial bones seen between January 1991 and July 1997: 11 in the mandible, two in the maxilla and one in the right zygomatic arch. Patients ranged in age from one week to 50 years (Mean = 29.7), with an equal gender distribution. While pain and rapid swelling were the commonest clinical features, the radiographic and histopathological characteristics were as varied as has been described elsewhere. Generally, effective management of most of the cases was poor due to late presentation for treatment.
W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "The environmental impact of landslides on the population living on the eastern footslopes of the Aberdare ranges in Kenya. A case studyof Maringa Village Landslide. Journal of Environmental Geology , 38, No. 3, 259-264.". In: African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Series, Vol. 3, No. 2, 34-51. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "History and Archaeology." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 8-16.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 8-16. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W DRBARJALINON. "Approximation Method for solving some Nonlinear Equations.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 13, No. 2, p25, December 2004. ISCTRC; 2004. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Quertin - 3 -Neohesperidoside (Rutin) and other flavonoids as the active hypoglycaemic agents of Bridela ferruginea) (Addae-Mensah, Rahab W. Munenge (Fitoterapia Vol. LX, No. 4 - 1985).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Management of Maxillofacial injuries at Primary Health Care Centers in Kenya. Proceedings of Scientific Conference of East and Central African Surgeons, Feb. 1995 (Abs).". In: Proceedings of Scientific Conference of East and Central African Surgeons, Feb. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress.  Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management.  Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse.  Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children.  Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth.  The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved.  Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy.  This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. and MacLean , W.H. The Archean Volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralisation.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, 413, 277-290. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "KAIMENYI, J.T., GUTHUA S.W., WAKIAGA J., KISUMBI, B.K.: Utilization of dental auxillaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya. E. Afr. Med. J.; 71:811-815, 1994.". In: E. Afr. Med. J.; 71:811-815. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., L. N. Njenga, J. K. Gathumbi and G. N. Chemining.". In: Plant Pathology Journal. Asian Network for Scientific Information; 2009. Abstract
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the response of grain legumes to rhizobia inoculation, farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer nitrogen. The grain legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), green gram (Vigna radiate L.) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and replicated thrice. Parameters determined were the number of nodules and nodule dry weight per plant, seed yield and yield components. Nitrogen fertilizer application significantly reduced the number of nodules in most of the legume species. In contrast, rhizobia inoculation increased number of nodules and nodule dry matter in most species but this was not translated into increase in plant growth or grain yield. Application of manure improved nodulation and grain yield only in the short rains. However, fertilizer application significantly increased dry matter in both seasons and total grain yield during short rains. The study indicated that the effect of rhizobia inoculation, farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer on grain legumes is variable depending on species, parameter being measured and other environmental factors. Keywords: Dry matter, grain legumes, grain yield, nitrogen source, nodulation.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Muraya G. N., Maina F.W., Sekkade-Kigondu C. B., Mati J. K. G. .". In: J. Obs Gyn. East Centr. Africa. 3:69 (1984). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed. PIP: Researchers followed 68 women who attended the Family Welfare Clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to determine if the low estrogen combined oral contraceptive (OC) Microgynon, a progestogen only OC, and Depo-Provera induce changes in the oral glucose test. These women did not take any steroidal contraceptives before entry into the study. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher after 60, 90 and 120 minutes than the control levels for women taking Microgynon. In addition, the mean areas under the glucose curves were substantially elevated after 1, 3, and 6 months above the control (p.002, .005, and .01 respectively). The only significant change in blood glucose levels in women taking the progestogen only OC occurred at 30 minutes after 6 months. Yet the mean areas under the curve were significantly higher than the control after ,1 2, and 3 months (p.005, .05 and .002 respectively). As for Depo-Provera, significantly lowered blood glucose levels only occurred after 1 month at 30, 50, and 90 minutes although no significant changes occurred after 1, 3, and 6 months in the mean areas under the glucose curves. Metabolic change occurred earlier and more often in Microgynon users than progestogen only OC users. This could be due to the progestogen levonorgestrel which has been shown to interrupt glucose metabolism. These changes could possible adversely effect women who are predisposed to developing diabetes, since 1 woman did develop a diabetic curve after 1 month of using Microgynon. Nevertheless no pattern towards abnormal glucose tolerance existed. Standard deviations of areas under the curves indicated that the number of women who develop glucose intolerance may increase with duration of use.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Strategies for Effective Time Management.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1990.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI D.L., CHINDIA, M.L. Reliability of clincal criteria in Diagnosing HIV: An experience from a developing country, Kenya. 2nd International Conference on Oral Manifestations of HIV infection. San Francisco, California, U.S.A. February, .". In: San Francisco, California, U.S.A. February, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., Ndung.". In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6 (4): 585-591. Asian network for Scientific Information; 2007.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Guest Speaker: Pan African Seventh-day Adventist Dentists' Conference (PASDAD). Golden Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. October 23rd to 31st, 1992.". In: Golden Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. October 23rd to 31st, 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES, N DRCHEMININGWAGEORGE. "Chemining.". In: 7th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society, 5th . African Crop Science Society; 2005. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Some Factors Affecting Urban-rural Fertility Differentials in Kenya: A Case Study of Nairobi and Central Province.". In: Published in a Journal Kenyan Geographer. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1979. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "ODHIAMBO, W.A., AYOTI O.J. AND GUTHUA, S.W.: The Burden of firearm injury in a developing country, case presentation and renew of the literature. Proceedings of the 7th World Conference in injury prevention and safety promotion, 571, Vienna, 2004.". In: Proceedings of the 7th World Conference in injury prevention and safety promotion, 571, Vienna. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W.: Les SIDA Concerne-t-ic le dentiste? Dent.pour. ent. Journal, Quebec, Vol 10:10-7, 1986.". In: Dent.pour. ent. Journal, Quebec, Vol 10:10-7. Elsevier; 1986. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES, K. NDUNGUJ, K. GATHUMBIJ, M. WAGACHAJ, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "The occurrence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins in Kenyan wheat." Crop Protection . 2008;27(8):1215-1219.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. ""Research findings on iron using communities of the Upper Tana and their environment. Ca. 1000 .". In: International Journal of arts and social Sciences, Vol.I 1999 P.P. 48-55.. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
This paper reports on work which was done on the upper Tana in Eastern Kenya. The work revealed a number of iron-using sites which included smelting areas, so-called Gumba earth works and lot of pottery, belonging to triangular incised (TIW) and Kwale Ware. It is concluded that TIW post date Kwale Ware and it is likely the TIW makers/users were responsible for the iron working in the Area.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Coordination chemistry ( Module II book for open distance learning).". In: (Director, Centre for Open &Distance Learning, University of Nairobi). UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "HIV-associated lymphoma: report of three cases.Mwangi JW.East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Structure and Safeguards for negotiations with Foreign Investors: Lessons from Kenya (with Peter Coughlin) in P. Coughlin, G.K. Ikiara (Eds.) Industrialization in Kenya: In Search of a Strategy. Heinemann Kenya, Nairobi.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1988. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
W DRKURIAMARY, M PROFNDETEIDAVID, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Mareko G M, Othieno C J, Kuria M W, Kiarie J N & Ndetei D M (2007). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a case report. East African Medical Journal. Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452.". In: East African Medical Journal, Vol. 84 no, 9 450-452. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007. Abstract
The desire for self-mutilation in the absence of any discernible psychopathology is relatively rare. Self-mutilation is most commonly a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology such as depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, transexuality, body dysmorphic disorder and factitious disorder. In this article, a case in which a 29-year-old single Kenyan lady of African origin demanded a surgical operation to modify and reduce the size of her external genitalia is presented. Although female genital mutilation is still widespread in the country, this case is of interest in that the woman did not seek the usual circumcision but sought to specifically reduce the size of her labia minora so that she could feel like a normal woman. The unique challenges in her management are discussed. Possible aetiological factors in patients who demand surgical removal or modification of parts of their bodies without an obvious cause is discussed.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MACIGO, F.G., GUTHUA, S.W., GATHECE, L.W.: Challenges in Tobacco control in Kenya. Kenya Dental Association Newsletter: September 2002.". In: A case report. East Afr. Med. Journal, 79 (1), 49-50. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular.  This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the august 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya.  A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta national Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi.  Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft and hard tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries.  Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region: 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region.  This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach.  The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Culture and Anthropology of Bungoma District." BPG Workshop '93: Theme: Bungoma, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow: Bungoma Development in the 21st century, Nairobi.". In: BPG Workshop '93: Theme: Bungoma, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow: Bungoma Development in the 21st century, Nairobi. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W O, A N, A K. "The femoral collodiaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups." Journal of Morphological Science. 2011;28(2):129-131. Abstract

The femoral collodiaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups
Otsianyi, WK.*, Naipanoi, AP. and Koech, A.
University of Nairobi (Human Anatomy), Nairobi, Quénia *E-mail: wyksa2000@uonbi.ac.ke
Background: There is evidence suggesting that there is inter-populational differences of the femoral neck- shaft angle which has been attributed to disparity in the economic and physical activity levels. As knowledge of the collodiaphyseal angle (CDA) is important to orthopaedic surgeons, there is need to elucidate whether there is significant variation of this angle among the diverse ethnic groups in Kenya. Objectives: Describe the variability of the CDA among the different ethnic groups (whose economic and physical activity differ) in the Kenyan population. Setting: The study was conducted at the radiology department of Kenyatta National Hospital. Materials and methods: Normal pelvic radiographs of patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital were grouped into five major ethnic groups and were used in this study. Three readings of the CDA were then measured using goniometry and the average recorded. Results: Four hundred and thirty-two femora were studied, 133 were female while 299 were male, and the age ranged from 16-95 years. The average CDA angle was found to be 127.56° + 3.75 (the range being 104-145°, the mode 130°). The CDA was 126.11° + 3.22 and 128.21 + 3.79 in females and males respectively. This angle was largest among the nomadic group (129.72 + 4.76) and smallest (127.25 + 4.15) among the highland Bantu (ANOVA revealed an F of 2.022, level of significance of 0.09). Conclusions: The average CDA described here is lower compared to what has been presented in other populations. Interethnic differences were observed and these differences could be explained by the varying activities of the different groups in their day to day life.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Activity of Ageratum Conyzoides extract on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphram and blood pressure on anaesthetised rats. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1996. Vol. 35, No. 1 Jan. 1997 pp. 31.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., Challenges of Reconstructing Acquired mandibular defects. Journal of Surgeons of Eastern Africa. Proceedings of the 50th Scientific Conference of A.S.E.A. December 1999 (Abs).". In: Conference of A.S.E.A. December 1999 (Abs). Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with F. Masao). "East Africa and the Comoro Islands." UNESCO General History of Africa. Vol. 3, 1988, pp. 285-296.". In: UNESCO General History of Africa. Vol. 3, 1988, pp. 285-296. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Acitivity of Gardenia Jovis Tonantis on isolated rabbit ileum and rat phrenic nerve diaphram. K.J. Achola. J.W. Mwangi and Rahab W. Munenge. (1993).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Vastardis H, Karimbux N, Guthua SW, Seidman JG, Seidman CE.A human MSX1 homeodomain missense mutation causes selective tooth agenesis.Nat Genet. 1996 Aug;13(4):417-21.". In: Nat Genet. 1996 Aug;13(4):417-21. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
We demonstrate that a mutation in the homeobox gene, MSX1, causes a common developmental anomaly, familial tooth agenesis. Genetic linkage analyses in a family with autosomal dominant agenesis of second premolars and third molars identified a locus on chromosome 4p, where the MSX1 gene resides. Sequence analyses demonstrated an Arg31Pro missense mutation in the homeodomain of MSX1 in all affected family members. Arg 31 is a highly conserved homeodomain residue that interacts with the ribose phosphate backbone of target DNA. We propose that the Arg31 Pro mutatrion comprises MSX1 interactions, and suggest that MSX1 functions are critical for normal development of specific human teeth.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi J. W., Mureithi B. K., Chemining.". In: International Journal of AgriScience. International Academic Journals; 2012.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Locally made ceramics from the Coastal Site of Takwa", MILA, A Journal of Cultural Research Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Vol.7 Nos. 1 and 2; 1978; pp. 44-61.". In: MILA, A Journal of Cultural Research Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Vol.7 Nos. 1 and 2; 1978; pp. 44-61. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L., MAINA, D.M. Replacement rehabilitation Therapy utilizing auto-transplanted wisdom teeth. East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994.". In: East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994East Afr. Med. J; 71(1):35-38, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is a distressing affliction that denies the victim the benefit of normal diet, careers that require normal speech and causes severe facial disfigurement that aggravates psychological stress. Opinions in current literature portray controversy in its management. Hurried clinicians take shortcuts and partially treat symptoms and often make the condition worse. Others ignore shortcomings and erroneously prescribe their preferred techniques as absolute indication to the peril of the affected children. Gap arthroplasty if applied in a growing maxillofacial skeleton as in children, causes iatrogenic arrest of facial growth. The intended correction of facial disfigurement is therefore not achieved. Early detection and immediate psychological support by excision and reconstruction of ankylosed TMJ with a costochondral graft, improves patient comfort and rehabilitation when used as a planned part of a comprehensive therapy. This paper questions prior varied opinions and discusses scientific baseline considerations in management of long standing TMJ ankylosis in children in relatively affordable circumstances.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., Nyaga, J. N., Olubayo, F. M., Nderitu, J. H., Kabira, J. N., Kiretai, S. M., Aura, J. A. and Wakahiu, M. 2009. Incidence of aphid-transmitted viruses in farmer-based seed potato production in Kenya. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 8(2): 16.". In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 8(2): 166-171. 12th KARI Biennial Conference Proceedings; 2009. Abstract
Field studies were carried out in farmer-based seed potato production to determine the incidence of potato aphids and potato aphid-transmitted viruses in two potato-producing areas of Kenya. Parameters determined included aphid population, virus disease incidence and tuber yield. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and in water-pan traps. Virus infection was determined based on symptoms and the viruses were identified in tubers sprouts by DAS-ELISA. Tuber yield was determined for plants showing virus symptoms and healthy-looking plants. Five aphid species were identified, with the most abundant being M. euphorbiae and A. gossypii on leaves and M. persicae and A. gossypii in water traps. The average aphid population was between 1.4 and 4.2 aphids per three leaves and 4.68 and 9.64 aphids per water. Farms with higher population of M. persicae had higher virus disease incidence. The most prevalent viruses were PVS, PLRV and PVM. Healthy looking plants had a latent infection rate 57.2% compared to 76.6% for symptomatic plants. Virus infection reduced the number and weight of tubers by 74% and 62.7%, respectively. However, virus infection increased the number and weight of the chats grade. The results indicated that aphid infestation and virus disease incidence were higher than the recommended for seed potato production. Therefore, there is need to create awareness among the farmers on aphid and virus symptom recognition and use of clean certified seed potato.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Kamau RK, Maina FW, Kigondu C, Mati JK.The effect of low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test.East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):550-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 Aug;67(8):550-5. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed. PIP: Researchers followed 68 women who attended the Family Welfare Clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to determine if the low estrogen combined oral contraceptive (OC) Microgynon, a progestogen only OC, and Depo-Provera induce changes in the oral glucose test. These women did not take any steroidal contraceptives before entry into the study. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher after 60, 90 and 120 minutes than the control levels for women taking Microgynon. In addition, the mean areas under the glucose curves were substantially elevated after 1, 3, and 6 months above the control (p.002, .005, and .01 respectively). The only significant change in blood glucose levels in women taking the progestogen only OC occurred at 30 minutes after 6 months. Yet the mean areas under the curve were significantly higher than the control after ,1 2, and 3 months (p.005, .05 and .002 respectively). As for Depo-Provera, significantly lowered blood glucose levels only occurred after 1 month at 30, 50, and 90 minutes although no significant changes occurred after 1, 3, and 6 months in the mean areas under the glucose curves. Metabolic change occurred earlier and more often in Microgynon users than progestogen only OC users. This could be due to the progestogen levonorgestrel which has been shown to interrupt glucose metabolism. These changes could possible adversely effect women who are predisposed to developing diabetes, since 1 woman did develop a diabetic curve after 1 month of using Microgynon. Nevertheless no pattern towards abnormal glucose tolerance existed. Standard deviations of areas under the curves indicated that the number of women who develop glucose intolerance may increase with duration of use.
W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Personnel Management Teaching Manual and Audio Cassettes.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1991.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "CHINDIA, ML., AWANGE, D.O., GUTHUA, S.W., MWANIKI, D.L, Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in Kenyan African Girls. Case reports. East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596, 1993.". In: East Afr. Med. J.: 70(9): 595-596. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Loss of 1st and 2nd molars among adolescents due to dental caries is not uncommon in developing countries. Whilst their replacement is indicated, conventional methods of treatment, namely, bridging and dentures are in most cases inaccessible because of prohibitive cost. Given that it is in the same age group that diagnosis of unfavourably embedded wisdom teeth becomes feasible, autotransplantation of the latter to replace the unsalvageable 1st and 2nd molars could be an alternative treatment. Available literature suggests a success rate of over 82% based on follow-up studies of over ten years. Observations at the Dental School Clinic of the University of Nairobi, Kenya, indicate that the time it takes the transplant to 'take' and assume its functional position is 4 to 8 weeks and 2.5 to 3.5 months respectively. Since the method is relatively straightforward, we are of the view that training undergraduates and practising dental surgeons in this technique should enhance utilisation of otherwise "useless" teeth to replace the lost 1st and 2nd molars in occlusal rehabilitation.

W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 6(7):1113-1118. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2007.
W DRWAHOMEEPHRAIM. "Wahome, E.W. 1997, "Continuity and Change in Lapita and post-Lapita ceramics: a review of the evidence from the Admiralty Islands and New Ireland, Papua New Guinea".". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., KIMARO, S.S., MWANIKI, D.L., Combined Modality Approach in the management of Circumoral Haemangiomas. IADR Conference, Harare,Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992.". In: IADR Conference, Harare,Zimbabwe, Dec. 1992. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Chemining.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 113-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRKIRIMIMARGARET. "Population Geography (1991): A book.". In: Published by University of Nairobi Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA MK, CHINDIA ML, MACIGO FG, GUTHUA SW. Pattern of Maxillofacial associated injuries in road traffic accidents. East African Medical Journal 2007; 84: 287-295.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):107-12. Elsevier; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W., M.MED.Sc. Thesis at Harvard School of Dental medicine Can the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma be predicted using computer-assisted Morphometric Image Analysis? Accepted and published, March 1988 (Harvard Countway Library, Harvard M.". In: Harvard Countway Library, Harvard Medical School. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W MRSKARURIJANE. "Changing kinship and Gender relationships in Kenya: the influence of structural adjustment programes. Seminar paper presented in sociology Departmetn, Glasgow University.". In: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/10/amim18147.htm. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 1993.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Dietary sources of fluoride in Kenya.". In: Fluorosis Research Strategies', Proceedings of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya; S.Likimani, (Ed.) , 32-6 (1983). UoN; 1983. Abstract

Analysis offluoride concentrations in Kenyan waters have been carried out using two methods: the fluoride ion selective electrode method and colorimetric method. Water samplesanalysed were taken from boreholes and rivers in Nairobi. Central and Rift Valley Provincesand from the Rift Valley lakes. The high levels of fluoride content present in the Rift Valley lakes and boreholes would pose a threat if the water is used for drinking or for irrigation purposes. However the fluoride concentrations for most potable waters (especially those derived from rivers) is less than the accepted limits of 0.7-1.8 ppm. In order to account for the high incidence of dental fluorosis in Kenya, it is necessary to determine the fluoride intakefrom the total diet. A method suitable for analyzing fluoride content in foods and plant materials is discussed. Preliminary survey of fluoride concentrations for various foods showed: bananas, 4.2ppm; potatoes, 5.6 ppm; cabbages, 0.3ppm; maize 0.7ppm. High levels of fluoride were found in tea leaves in the range 229-340 ppm per kg. which is quite equivalent to 4.4-7.3 ppm F per 125 c.c. cup of tea. Fluoride concentration in coffee beans is quite low – 6.6 ppm per kg. and sodas, beer, cow’s milk have less than 0.01 ppm.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "A new antiplasmodial coumarin from Toddalia asiatica roots.Oketch-Rabah HA, Mwangi JW, Lisgarten J, Mberu EK.Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40.". In: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract

A new antiplasmodial coumarin, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3'-hydroxy-3'methyl-1'-butene)-coumarin (1), has been isolated from the roots of Toddalia asiatica. This finding supports the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

W DRGACHUKIDAVID. "Goals and Use of Information in managing Negotiations. In P. Coughlin (Ed.) Negotiations Management Preparation, Strategy and Tactics. Commonwealth Secretariat.". In: J. Social Med. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1989. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. .". In: My emphasis was in archaeology and environment in the region, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
A sacred site is a place which is considered holy, and is partially or wholly reserved for magico-religious or ceremonial functions. Because of this it is venerated and revered and is kept free from contamination by sin and evil. Sacred sites vary in size from very small places covering a few square metres to large areas covering several hectares of land. They are usually characterized by the presence of artefacts, ecofacts and features that are unique to them; they may be in the open air, or in rockshelters, caves and forests. In many cases, sacred sites have frightening tales told about them, in order to scare off those who would want to destroy or defile them. In the archaeological record, sacred sites may initially be identifiable as burial sites, ceremonial sites or butchery sites. It is on the basis of such clues that other attributes that are typical of sacred sites can be identified, isolated and studied. It is against this background that this chapter discusses the Mijikenda kaya (pi. makaya) as a sacred site.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai and W. Lwande (1988). Volatile constituents of Ocimum fischeri Guerke. Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121.". In: Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121. The Kenya Medical Association; 1988. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "AKAMA, M.K. and GUTHUA, S.W., Management of Complex orofacial soft tissueinjuries; J. Dent. res 78(5), 1092, 1999 (Abs).". In: J. Dent. res 78(5), 1092. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
S.W. Guthua , D.L. Mwaniki and F.G. Macigo. Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi , Kenya J. of Dental Research 1999, Vol. 78 Keloids are soft tissues growths which develop as a complication in later stages of wound healing. They occur more commonly in blacks in comparison to other racial groups. Although hereditary factors are implicated in individual selection and pathogenesis of keloids, the aetiology is unknown. The individuals who succumb to this disfiguring condition are usually psychologically traumatized thereby influencing their self-esteem. The management of these lesions is challenging and surgery alone without adjuvant radiotherapy shows high recurrence rate. 10 patients with keloids in the cervicofacial region are presented. The patients were divided in two categories. Category I patients (N=5) were managed with surgery and local steroid therapy. Category II patients (N=5) Received adjuvant superficial radiotherapy treatment (SXRT) after surgery. In two of the patients, in Category I, there was recurrence whereas in Category II, there was none. Complications observed in category I patients included; hypopigmentation and lipotrophy while in Category II patients, localized dermatitis, sloughing of the skin and local tissue necrosis (N=1) were observed. The complications related to SXRT improved and no invasive intervention was required. SXRT if meticulously fractionated and monitored seems to be the most favourable adjuvant modality in the management of keloids among the black population .
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Theory and Practice: A Case of Coastal Hinterland Settlements on Kenya Coastal Hinterland." Urban Origins Workshop, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 1989.". In: Urban Origins Workshop, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 1989. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Computer-based medical Diagnostic decision assistant, Chepken K. Christopher, Elisha Opiyo, Peter Waiganjo Wagacha.". In: International ICT Workshop: Application of ICT in enhancing eucation higher learning education, April 28-30, 2004, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2004. Abstract
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W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "The oxytocin action of Adenia globosa Engl. Is synergistic with that of oxytocin, prostaglandin f2 - alpha and ergometrine. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. K.A. Sinei, J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, A,M. Mwaura and Rahab W. Munenge.(1994).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W BJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Place F; E, Adholla M-. "Security of tenure and land productivity in Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

The chapter examines the theory that security of tenure leads to higher yields through its effects on credit, inputs, and land improvements. A survey of 406 households in the densely populated Nyeri and Kakanega districts of Kenya was conducted during 1988. The chapter provides an overview of the prevailing land tenure systems in Kenya; describes the patterns of land holdings, modes of acquisition, and land transactions in the study area; examines security of tenure and its relationship to credit, investment in land improvement and land productivity; and examines policy implications. The hypothesis that security of tenure leads to higher yields through its effect on credit, inputs and land improvements was not supported by the evidence. This situation is probably explained by the limited use of land titles in obtaining formal credit: farmers are reluctant to apply for credit because they lack confidence in their ability to repay the loans and fear losing their land.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Overview of Maxillofacial injuries in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya, 14th June, 1996.". In: Nairobi, Kenya, 14th June, 1996. Elsevier; 1996.
W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. Proposal for the formation of a working group to revise the stratigraphic nomenclature applied to the Archaean terrane of western Kenya. In:.". In: Geology for Sustainable Development (Edited by N. Opiyo - Akech), Proceedings, Geological Society of Kenya 5th. Conference, 122-129. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Stage-wise reconstruction of mandible following radical resection of advanced benign tumours affecting the mandible (Case presentation) Davos, Switzerland, Dec. 1995.". In: (Case presentation) Davos, Switzerland, Dec. 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
FG Macigo, DL Mwaniki and SW Guthua East Afr. Med. Journal 1995, 72: 778 - 782 SUMMARY: The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and related lesions in a Kenyan rural population was determined in a systematic house to house survey of individuals aged 15 years and above. Among the 803 individual examined, the following prevalence of lesions was observed: leukoedema (26%), melanosis (12.7%), leukoplakia (10.6%), palatal keratosis (6.4%), frictional keratosis (5.5%), pre-leukoplakia (4.1%), borderline leukoplakia (2.4%), cheek/lip biting (1.3%), and snuff dippers lesion (0.4%), 48.6% of the subjects had at least one of these lesions. Statistically significant preponderance was demonstrated for oral leukoplakia, palatal keratosis, leukoedema and frictional keratosis among males and melanosis among females. With regard to clinical classification of oral leukoplakia, the prevalence was 10% for homogeneous and 0.6% for non-homogeneous lesions. On the basis of aetiological classification, the prevalence was 8.3% for tobacco associated and 2.2% for idiopathic leukoplakia, 22.5% of leukoplakia lesions biopsied had evidence of epithelial dysplasia. In view of the premalignant potential of oral leukoplakia, our findings suggest a need for greater attention towards prevention and control of this lesion in the study community.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Kirumbi L.W., Maina F.W., Sekkade-Kigondu S.C., Mati J.K.G. .". In: J. Obs. Gyn. East. Centr. Afr. 23,9 (1991). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

W MSNGAHUCATHERINE. "Promotion of Entreprenuership in Africa.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 1992.
W M. "Discourse as Graduated from the Word." Reyono Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies. 2014;3(2):42-53.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW.Residual facial deformity resulting from cancrum oris: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Cancrum oris cases are occasionally treated in various hospitals in Kenya. Despite this, only one case has been reported in literature. Besides, no epidemiological or treatment studies of cancrum oris has been carried out in Kenya. We report an unusual case of a 17 year old Kenyan female with oral cutaneous fistula and tissue atrophy on the left cheek following cancrum oris infection in childhood. Since most cancrum oris cases are a sequela of acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG), prevention of cancrum oris can be achieved by early and prompt remedial measures once a diagnosis of ANG is established. Failure to do this might lead to cancrum oris with its attendant disfiguring complications some of which might be impossible to treat in developing countries where the requisite personnel is lacking or inadequate.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Maina F.W., Mati J.K.G., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B. .". In: J. Obs/Gyn. East Central Africa 1:126(1982). uon press; 1982. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "MWANIKI D.L., GUTHUA, S.W.: Occupational exposure to Glutaraldehyde in tropical climates. Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477, 1992.". In: Lancet. Vol. 340:1476 -1477. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
S.W. Guthua* and D.L. Mwaniki** Afr. Dental Journal 1992, 6: 30-33 SUMMARY: Analysis of 110 records of patients who presented with impacted mandibular 3 rd molars was carried out to determine the frequency of occurrence of unilateral and bilateral impactions and their characteristics. 68.2% of the patients had bilaterial impactions. Among the patients with bilateral impactions, 72% had mesioangular impaction occurring either bilaterally or in combination with other types of impaction. Furthermore, 38.7% mesioangular impactions were observed on the right and left sides in the patients with bilateral impactions. Among the patients with unilateral impactions, 40.2% presented with mesioangular impaction, while 25.7% presented with distoangular impactions. While these observations support the general consensus regarding aetiology of mandibular 3 rd molar impactions as being tooth-tissue discrepancy, the possible influence of other factors is suggested.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Muthomi, J. W., P. E. Otieno and G. N. Chemining.". In: 10th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, 113-17 November 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute; 2006. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Wandering spleen: a case report .". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
W DRMAINASUSAN, R PROFLESANWILFRED. "Maina S.W and Lesan W.R. Dental Plaque and Gingival condition of Mentally Handicapped Children in Mathare Special Training Centre Nairobi, Kenya. East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "GUTHUA, S.W. Diagnosis and Management of oral and maxillofacial infections. State-of-the art. KDA Seminar, September 1990.". In: KDA Seminar, September 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract
There is no uniformity in the role of different aetiologic factors in mandibular fractures in different cities of the world. Cultural and socioeconomic factors appear to have important contribution to the aetiologies. The condyle and the angle-body regions are most commonly fractured. There is no obvious relationship between aetiology and the site of fracture. Structural considerations suggest that differences between dentate (open section structure) and non dentate (closed section structure) regions are important determinants of fracture sites. Some modifications of standard teaching materials are recommended.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Accumulation of fluoride in plants and vegetables'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 3, 23 - 25. UoN; 1994. Abstract

Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has beendetermined using the ion selective electrode.The analysis was carried out after ashingthe samples onan open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into a sodium hydroxide layer. The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoridewhile plants were found to accumulate upto 100 ug/g fluoride when exposed to high levels of fluoride in water or soil.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae). Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
W DROMOLOANTHONYJ. "Were A.J.O, Marden A., Tooth A., Ramsden R., Mistry C.D.,peritonitis in CAPD patients. Clinical Nephrology 37:4, 1992.". In: Presented at the International Society of Nephrology congress in Jerusalem, Israel. June 1993. In book of abstracts. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1992. Abstract
End stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy is a common complication of several renal diseases that are seen in the tropics. World over, the costs of the various modalities of therapy that constitute renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation, is prohibitive. All the above modes of therapy are provided in Kenya, unlike most countries with similar level of socioeconomic development. This article analyses the factors behind the limited success that renal replacement therapy enjoys in Kenya, which is faced with more pressing basic problems of malnutrition and infection.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "JAMES, R.M., CHINDIA, M.L., and GUTHUA, S.W: Postoperative rehabilitation of Maxillofacial Structures using prostheses Therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr. Medi. Journal.". In: East Afr. Medi. Journal. Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
W GS, Macigo FG, Chindia ML, Akama MK. "Pattern of Maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.". 2007. Abstract

Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by pdssenger service vehicles. Objective: To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Subjects: All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. Results: Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively, Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (5TIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1 %) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37}% of the cases followed by head and chest injuries combined which were responsible for 13% of the cases. Conclusion: Injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton appear to be uncommon in this series. Pedestrians in their third decade of life are most affected with passenger service vehicles being responsible in the majority of the cases. Recommendations: Interventional programmes targeting pedestrians and those in the third and fourth decades of life should be enacted.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Human Responses to Environmental Change in the Upper Tana During the Holocene." Work-in-Progress Seminar,Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra,1995.". In: Work-in-Progress Seminar,Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra,1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "W. Lwande, A. Hassanali, O.B. Wanyama, S. Ngola and J.W. Mwangi (1993). Constituents of the essential oil of Helichrysum odoratissimum. J. Ess. Oil Research 5: 93-95.". In: J. Ess. Oil Research 5: 93-95. The Kenya Medical Association; 1993. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

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