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Ndiritu AW, Gikonyo NW. " Elearning for institutional managers: Best option for effective ICT integration in teaching and learning.". In: eLearning Africa. Kampala, Uganda; 2014.
Mogaka VM;, Mbatia OLE;, Nzuma J. " → College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (CAVS) → View Item Feasibility of Biofuel Production in Kenya: The Case of Jatropha."; 2012. Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha) as an alternative source of energy for rural households. The plant is said to have potential to diversify rural incomes, reclaim unproductive lands, reduce importation of fossil fuels, and consequently accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. A cost benefit analysis was employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing Jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock in relation to other crops in Kwale district. An IRR of 11 percent, BCR of 0.62 and a NPV of (28267.56) showed that production of Jatropha is not feasible at the moment. However we conclude that the plant has a potential to achieve its intended purpose if there is coordination in research and development along the Jatropha value chain and if technical and financial support is accorded to actors at the production level of the chain.

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Otysula RM;, and Nderitu JM, Buruchara RA. " Interaction between bean Stem Maggot and Bean Root Rot and soil fertility.". In: Crop Protection Conference, . Nairobi,; 1998.
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NZUVE SNM. Job Satisfication: Should Managers Worry About How Satisfied Their Stfaff Are?. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
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Akinkunle O, Stefan J, Ndetei D, Musau A, Mutiso V, Mudenge C, Ngirababyeyi A, Gasovia A, Mamah D. " A comparative study of psychotic and effective symptoms in Rwandan and Kenyan students.". 2016.
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Nduati R. " Accidents, Poisoning, and Child Abuse. A Primary Health Care Manual for Medical Students. East African Primary Health Care Fellowship. .". In: Primary Health Care: A manual for medical students and other health workers.; 1992.
Ndohvu JB. " African Values and Children's Rights Instruments.". In: In Jackson Wafula Muyila (Ed),African Values and the Rights of the Child: Challenges and Prospects. Saarbrucken: Editions Universitaires Europeennes; 2017.
Arimi SM;, Koroti E;, Kang'ethe EK;, Omore AO;, McDermott JJ;, Macharia JK;, Nduhiu JG;, Githua AM. " Arimi, S.M; Koroti, E; Kang'ethe, E.K; Omore, A.O; McDermott, J.J; Macharia, J.K; Nduhiu, J.G; Githua, A.M ."; 2000. Abstract

E. coli 0157:H7 is a newly recognised bacterial zoonosis that originates from the gut of infected cattle. It causes potentially fatal haemorrhagic enteritis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and kidney damage in humans. Epidemiological data on E. coli 0157:H7 infection and transmission in developing countries remain scarce but it is suspected that consumption of unpasteurised milk is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans, as milk can easily be contaminated with cattle faeces during milking. Given the high proportion of informal sales of unpasteurized milk in many tropical countries, E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of several zoonoses of concern. Between January 1999 and January 2000, survey data and raw milk samples were collected seasonally from households consuming unpasteurised milk in rural and urban locations in central Kenya. Respondents were randomly selected within production system (extensive and intensive) and human population density (urban, peri-urban and rural) strata. Laboratory samples were assessed for bacteriological quality by total and coliform counts. Selective media were used sequentially to screen for faecal coliforms and E. coli 0157:H7. Suspect E. coli 0157:H7 colonies were also serotyped and tested for production of verocytotoxins. E. coli was recovered from 91 out of 264 samples (34%) and E. coli 0157:H7 serotype identified in two samples (<1%). One of the two isolates produced verocytotoxins. As in many studies, the recovery rate of this serotype was low, but the finding is significant from a public health perspective. Our consumer studies have shown that over 95% of consumers of unpasteurised milk boil the milk before consumption and potential health risks from this zoonosis are therefore quite low. As informal milk markets without pasteurisation technology are likely to remain dominant for the foreseeable future, there is the need to further emphasise the importance of boiling raw milk before consumption, especially among pastoral communities where this practice is not common

Gathumbi JK, Kanja LW, Maitho TE, Mbaria JM, Nduhiu JG, Gitau FK, Ndiritu JG, Lucy MM, Maloba K. " Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation . 2013;8(3):145-150.
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and N. B. Mirza, B. B. Estambale WNKOKPIASJ. " Bacterial meningitis in children admitted in hospitals within Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 1998; 75(2):73-76.
Kibaru EG, Nduati R, Wamalwa D, Kariuki. N. " Baseline Haematological Indices among HIV-1 Infected Children at Kenyatta National Hospital ." International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare. 2014;1(1):21-26.
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AB K, Kosgei RJ, EJ C, S M, P O, NM O, JG K. " case report of breaking bad news with maternal death." AJOL . 2013;vol 25,( number 1, 2013 Abstract ISSN 1012, 8867).
co-author Nduati, R. " Childhood diseases.". In: GOK/Family Life Training Center Your Family Health Guide. Nairobi, Kenya: English Press. ; 1993.
Nduati R&WK. Communicating with adolescents about HIV/AIDS: Experience from Eastern and Southern Africa. . Ottowa, Onterio: International Development Research Centre, 1997.; 1997.
NW N, J N-M, AN K, M O, C M, T C, MJ O, JM O, S K. " Culture of Kenyan Goat (Capra hircus) Undifferentiated Spermatogonia in Feeder-Free Conditions." Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2022;9.
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Musonye MM, Ndivo L. Heart to Heart: Reflective Poetry from Kenya. . Nairobi: Centre for Research, Publications and Consultancy – Daystar University; 2012.
Ngugi RW, Murinde V, Green C. " How emerging market respond to the revitalization process: Evidence on the Nairobi Stock Exchange, in Africa Finance Journal." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002.
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Kibaru EG, Nduati R, D Wamalwa KN, Kariuki N. " Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on hematological indices among HIV-1 infected children at Kenyatta National Hospital-Kenya." AIDS Research and Therapy. 2015;(12:26). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
HIV infected children experience a range of hematological complications which show marked improvement within 6 months of initiating anti-retroviral therapy. The Objectives of the study was to describe the changes in hematological indices of HIV-1 infected children following 6 months of treatment with first line antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) regimen.

METHODS:
A retrospective study was conducted between September and November 2008. During this period medical records of children attending Comprehensive Care Clinic at Kenyatta National hospital were reviewed daily. HIV infected children aged 5-144 months were enrolled if they had received antiretroviral drugs for at least 6 months with available and complete laboratory results.

RESULTS:
Medical records of 337 children meeting enrollment criteria were included in the study. The median age was 63 months with equal male to female ratio. Following 6 months of HAART, prevalence of anemia (Hemoglobin (Hb) <10 g/dl) declined significantly from 35.9 to 16.6 % a nearly 50 % reduction in the risk of anemia RR = 0.56 [(95 % CI 0.44, 0.70) p < 0.001]. There was significant increase in Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and platelets above the baseline measurements (p < 0.0001) and a significant decline in total white blood cell counts >11,000 cell/mm(3) but a none significant decrease in red blood cells (RBC). Pre-HAART, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 and 4 was associated with a ten-fold increased likelihood of anemia. Chronic malnutrition was associated with anemia but not wasting and immunologic staging of disease.

CONCLUSION:
Hematological abnormalities changed significantly within 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with significant increase in hemoglobin level, MCV, MCH and platelet and decrease in WBC and RBC.

KEYWORDS:
Changes of hematological parameters; Hematological abnormalities; Paediatric HIV infection

Nyalwal G. " Implementing knowledge Management practices in University libraries in Kenya.". In: 1st Regional conference on Knowledge management .; Submitted.
Awiti J, Mutua J, Nyaga R, Muthaka D. " Institutions and Service Delivery: The Case of Services Funded the Constituencies Development Fund in Kenya .". In: African Economic Research Consortium.; 2011.
G Nduhiu, Gicheru MM, Gathura PB, Karanja NK, Githinji WT, Nordin A. " Internalization of enteropathogenic human bacteria in lettuce and coriander plant tissue." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences . 2018;5(3):28-32.
Munyoki JM, Nzuki PK, C.M.Gakuu. " International Marketing. An unpublished student manual, Department of Educational Studies., University of Nairobi.". University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

JA O'o, MK M, NM O'o, PM M, IK C, JW W. " Intima-media thickness of the common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Age, Gender and Geometric Factors." Glob J Hum Anat Physiol Res. 2016;3:1-7. Abstractintima-media-thickness-of-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-in-a-black-kenyan-population-correlation-with-morphological-features-2161-0940.10001631.pdf Licensee Synchro Publishe

Abstract: Femoral artery intima - media thickness is a reliable surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and is important for prediction of coronary and peripheral vascular disease, but is seldom reported among black Sub Saharan African populations. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the intima - media thickness of the femoral artery in relation with age, gender and some of its geometric factors. Materials for this study were obtained during autopsy from 208 adult black Kenyans (154 males, 54 females, mean age 36.4 years) who had died of non cardiovascular causes. Those with history of cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Femoral artery was exposed by dissection. Terminal branching pattern was recorded, and length and bifurcation angle measured. Materials for determination of intima - media thickness were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome, examined with light microscope and pictures taken. The images were digitized and intimal and medial thickness determined according to the protocol by Nakashima et al. [1]. The mean intima - media thickness was 0.76 ± 0.016 mm. It increased with age and was higher in males than females; for trifurcations (0.95 ± 0.032 mm) and also short arteries and those with wide bifurcation angles. Age and gender differences and those between arterial trifurcation and bifurcation attained statistical significance. In conclusion, the mean femoral intima-media thickness of the black Kenyan population studied is higher than those reported for Caucasian populations, increases with age and is higher in males and cases of trifurcation. This suggests that the study population is susceptible to atherosclerosis and that variant terminal branching pattern constitutes a geometric risk factor for atherosclerosis. We recommend ultrasound screening for those at risk.

NZUVE SNM. Introduction to Manpower Management. New Dheli: Veena Publishers India; 1992.
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Maina AN;, Mbuthia PG, Ngatia TA;, Waruiru R;, Bebora LC. " Maina, A.N; Mbuthia, PG; Ngatia, TA; Waruiru, R; Bebora, L.C ."; 2004.
Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo F;, Kimenju JW. " Major insects of crops in Kenya.". In: 9th Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch, 31st October .; 2004.
Bwihangane A, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Tareken G, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Svitek N. " Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo." Livestock research for rural Development. 2018;30(1).
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 Mbau JS, Nyangito MM, Gachene CKK, Kathumo VM, Worden J. " Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: The Case Study of Taita Taveta County, Southern Kenya. .". In: Sustainable Land Management in Dry Lands of Kenya. Nairobi: UNDP, ISBN No. 978-9966-1805-51. Chapter 3, pp. 35-53.; 2015.
Inwani I, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, G J-S, Farquhar C. " Performance of clinical algorithms for HIV-1 diagnosis and antiretroviral initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15;50(5):492-8. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318198a8a4.. 2009. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Ninety percent of HIV-1-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, approximately 50% die before 2 years.
METHODS:
We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of clinical algorithms for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-1-exposed children aged less than 18 months. Children were identified with routine HIV-1 testing and assessed using 3 sets of criteria: (1) Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), (2) World Health Organization Presumptive Diagnosis (WHO-PD) for HIV-1 infection, and (3) CD4 T-lymphocyte cell subsets. HIV-1 infection status was determined using DNA polymerase chain reaction testing.
FINDINGS:
A total of 1418 children (median age 5.4 months) were screened for HIV-1 antibodies, of whom 144 (10.2%) were seropositive. Of these, 134 (93%) underwent HIV-1 DNA testing and 80 (60%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. Compared with HIV-1 DNA testing, sensitivity and specificity of the IMCI criteria were 19% and 96% and for WHO-PD criteria 43% and 88%, respectively. Inclusion of severe immune deficiency determined by CD4% improved sensitivity of IMCI and WHO-PD criteria to 74% and 84%, respectively; however, specificity declined to 43% and 41%, respectively.
INTERPRETATION:
Diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among exposed children less than 18 months in a high-prevalence resource-limited setting remains a challenge, and current recommended algorithms have low sensitivity. This underscores the need for rapid scale-up of viral assays for early infant diagnosis.

Mabeya JM;, and Nderitu JH, Wambua EW. " Pesticide use and implications in horticultural export crops in Kenya.". In: Proc. Of the Second horticultural Conference on Sustainable horticultural production in the tropics. Nairobi; 2002.
Surapunt S, Nyamai CM, Hino M, Itagaki K. " Phase relations and Distributions of minor elements in the Cu-Zn-S, Cu- Fe-S and Cu-Pb-S Systems at 1473K. ." Metallurgical Review of MMIJ. 1995;12(2):84-97.
Magwilu KD, Nguta JM, Mapenay I, Matara D. " Phylogeny, Phytomedicines, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological Properties, and Toxicity of Croton gratissimus Burch (Euphorbiaceae)." Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022.
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Nyakundi JO, Ombui JN, Wanyonyi WC, Mulaa FJ. " Recovery of industrially useful hair and fat from enzymatic unhairing of goatskins during leather processing." Journal of American Leather Chemists Association,. 2022;117(6):241-250.
Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Were S,; Olubayo, F.; Nderitu KKJH; D;, Nderitu JH;, Kilalo D;, Koech A;. " Resistance of potato varieties to potato tubermoth (phthorimaea opercullela (Zeller). ). .". In: UON Agro 2011. C.A.V.S; 2011.
Ngugi RW. " Response of Emerging Stock Markets in Africa to the Reform Process, in Journal of African Business." The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
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G GC, Nyaga P N. " Some biological properties of camelpox virus isolated from camels (camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. ." Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 1997;52(4):141-148. Abstractpub_25_gitao_and_nyaga_1997.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

Ndohvu JB, Miencha K. Student reference Module CPP 101: An Introduction to Philosophy. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
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NZUVE SNM. The Supervisory Function in Transition and its Dilemmas. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1987.
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Munysa; A, Kabutbei JL,.; Chemingwa GN;, Kimani PM;, and Mburu MW, Nderitu JH. " Thumbnail Evaluation of drought tolerance mechanisms in Mesoamerican dry bean genotypes .". In: agro 2011. Vol. 1.; 2011.
Muema E, Kinyanjui P, Mbaria J, Nguta J, Chepkwony S, Kamau J, Onkoba N, Nyachieo A. " Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health. 2016;4(3): 061-070.
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N. M, Mwangi I, Mbatiah M. Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima Na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbali Mbali.. nairobi: Focus Books. ISBN 9966-01-224-1; 2014.
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Opwora AS, Laving AM, Nyabola LO OJM. " Who is to blame? Perspectives of caregivers on barriers to accessing healthcare for the under-fives in Butere District, Western Kenya. ." BMC Public Health. 2011 May 3;11:272. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-272. 1.. 2011. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival.
METHODS:
Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs).
RESULTS:
Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers.

CONCLUSION:
Caregivers' actions were thought to influence children's progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality.

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Kasina, M.J., Waturu C;, Nderitu J;, and Nyamasyo G, Olubayo F. "(Companion cropping as an Integrated Pest Management(IPM) component for management of thrips in French beans(Phaseolus vulgaris L.).". In: KARI Scientific Conference, Nairobi,. Nairobi; 2002.
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Getuno PM, Awino ZB, Ngugi PK, Mwaura F. ") Implementation of The Public Procurement And Disposal Act, (2005)." DBA Africa Management Review. 2015;5(1):75-93.
Njoroge(5) KD, Rading GO, Kihiu JM, Witcomb MJ, Cornish LA. ") The Impact of Interstitial Carbon on Dislocation Motion in the Alpha-Fe Lattice." , Int J Computational Engineering Research, 4 (12), . 2014:5-9.
Nyonje, O. R. & Ndunge DK. "). Factors Influencing Access to Professional development of Secondary School Managers in Kenya." Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 2 January 2011):pages 111-129; ISSN: 2074-4722.
Nicholas B, Derrick S, Dorcas C, Patrick M, Joshua O, Thomas LF. "). Food Safety & Animal Welfare in the Pork Value Chain of Nairobi.". 2021:DOI: 10.17638/datacat.liverpool.ac.uk/1441.
Muriithi JG, Nyagah G, Okoth UA. "). Influence of teachers’ communication strategies on students’ discipline in Public secondary schools in Mukurweni District." International journal of social sciences and Education (IJSSE). 2016;5(4):241-250.
Nguta, CM, WO O, Onyari, Onyiego. "). Levels of Selected Heavy Metals & Fluoride in water around Fluorspar Factory in Kerio Valley, Kenya." Kenya J Sci Tech Inn. . 2010;1:12-22.
Nyonje, KYALO DN, Itegi FM. ). Project Planning and Management: Notes for Beginners. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-337822; 2011.
KM M, K S, N T-T, M Z, S K, Y S, N I. "). Recombinant Protein from Trypanosoma Congolense a Good Diagnostic Antigen in Immunochromatographic Test." Egerton Journal of Science and Technology. 2018;16:1-21.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O. "): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;51.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O. "): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;51. Abstract
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Ng'ang 'a Ng'endo, Monica, Nzuve S. ", An Assessment of Employees' Perception of Performance Appraisal: A Case Study of the Department of Immigration - Nairobi ." An Assessment of Employees' Perception of Performance Appraisal: A Case Study of the Department of Immigration - Nairobi . 2012.
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Ndung'u K, Purity G, Martin M, Johnson K, J K, Lawrence M, Naomi M, John K, Grace M. ". A comparative study in direct cryopreservative efficacy between Triladyl® and EDTA saline glucose 10% glycerol cryopreservative media for human and non-human infective trypanosomes." J. Protozool. Res . 2009;19:22-28.
Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Gakuya DW, Gathumbi PK, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. ". Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Crude Plant Extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity using Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae)." The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. 2012;3:30-34.
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. ". Bernard N. Kimani Njoroge, William P. Ball, Robert S. Cherry .". In: Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium, Division of Environmental Chemistry, San Diego,California,. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1986. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
Ritho C, Mwololo H, Nzuma J. ". Do farmer demographic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?". In: Global Food Symposium . Gottingen University Germany; 2017.
Njuguini SK, Muchane MN, Wachira P, Okoth S, Muchane M, Saado H. ". Effect of land use on the diversity of macrofungi in Kereita forest Kikuyu escarpment, Kenya." Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology. 2018;Volume 8 (2 ):254-281.
Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
H.C. Wien, undefined, Nyankanga R. ". Low light stress influences lower abscission and yield of bell pepper cultivars." HortScience. 1996;31(4).
Kamau FN, Njogui PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugoi HN, Mwalukumb JM. ". Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae).". 2011. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. ".Omondi, L.N. (1986) Reduplication as a Linguistic Phenomenon. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. October, 1986. Schriftenreihe des Kolner Institut fur Afrikanistik.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
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Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamide protecting group for asparagines and application to N-alpha-t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase peptide synthesis of oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as Carboxamide-Protecting Group for Asparagine and Application to N-α-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) Solid-phase Peptide Synthesis of Oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2). Abstractchemistry and materials research

Description
Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in 56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Ndavi P Muia. "1. Female Genital Mutilation Across Boarders: .". In: 38th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Nyeri, Kenya; 2014.
Muriithi EM, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, K’Odhiambo AK, Wachira LN. "1. School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(8):196-203. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how school characteristics affect the usage of the PM and the consequent impact on learner achievement in physics (LAP). Data was collected using Students Achievement Tests (SAT) and questionnaire for physics teachers. Stratified Sampling was applied to select 84 schools comprising boys, girls and mixed schools from seven provinces of Kenya. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. ANOVA, chi-square and multiple-regression were used to test the hypothesis. The key findings of the study were that PM enhances the learning of physics; Single sex schools performed better than mixed schools; the type of schools in terms of gender, whether day or boarding were not factors in the usage of project method. In view of these research findings, the researchers recommend that the government come up with a policy that enhances the establishment of more single sex schools, enhance resource mobilization for the teaching of physics, review the teacher training component so as to encompass the PM as an alternative teaching strategy, and in-service physics teachers on the role of school characteristics in the study of physics.

Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya ." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

GIKONYO NAOMI, Ndiritu A. "1. Transformational Leadership in Adopting Online Learning. Kenya policy briefs .Volume 2 No. 1.". 2021. Abstract

Key messages
Effective training is a key determinant for adopting online learning in educational institutions.
Transformational leadership characteristics are important in managing change that is required in learning
institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
Modelling the way is a necessity in university management of online teaching and learning through COVID-19 Season

Ndavi PM, Wanga H KD. "1. Underutilized technology in infertility management: .". In: 37th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Eldoret, Kenya; 2013.
Muema DM, Nduati EW, Uyoga M, Bashraheil M, Scott JAG, Hammitt LL, Urban BC. "10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers." Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2015;181(2):297-305. Abstract

Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
AO Mulimba, Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong’o AO. "A 15 – YEAR RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA IN KENYA." Africa Journal Medical Practice. 1994;1(3). Abstract

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Afri J Med Prac, 1994; 1 (3): 73-7

Introduction

Osteosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of bone worldwide. It occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence. during childhood and adolescence. 1-3 A biphasic pattern is observed with this tumour. The childhood and adolescent tumour is commonly observed arising in the epiphyses of long bone during the growth spurt . A small peak occurs in the elderly which is commonly associated with paget ‘s diseases or arises in prior radiation therapy ports or associated with exposure to thorotrast.4

Apart from the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) based study by Gakuu in 1980, 5 no information is available on the clinic-epidemiological picture of asteosarcoma in East Africa. A study was therefore, designed to look into some preliminary information about osteosarcoma in Kenya.

Materials and Methods

The source if this information was the Kenya Cancer registry (January 1975 to December 1990). Details were scrutinized about histology, sex, hospital of reporting, tribe, age and involved site(s).

Results
There were a total of 271 cases of osteogenic sarcoma consisting of 151 males and 177 females (Male : Female = 1.3:1). Three cases had no gender identified. The Kikuyu predominate (42%) followed by Kamba (12%) as province, as shown in table 1. Most cases were reported from Nairobi province, as shown in table 2.

Cases were registered in all age groups (range 3 – 87 years) though the second decade accounted for 140 out of 244 (57%) of those whose ages were known (table 3). The median age was 17 years and mean age 19.5 years. Age distribution by tribes was fairly similar (table 4). The femur and tibia were most commonly involved, followed by the jaws (figure1).

Head and face involvement was then analyzed in greater details. The median age this time was 22 and mean age 27.3, only 26.5%of cases being recorded in second decade and 38.2% in third decade (Table 5). The Kikuyu were stillleading in head and facial involvement. It is however noteworthy that 40% of Luos now presented this way (table 6).

Nyong’o NA;, Mulimba AO;. A 15 – Year Retrospective Analysis Of Osteogenic Sarcoma In Kenya.; 1994. AbstractWebsite

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1976. August, The 3rd Conference of The Language Association of Eastern Africa. Kenya Science Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1976.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1978, 13-17 fevrier, UNESCO Experts Meeting on L'Affirmation De L'Identite Culturelle et La Conscience Nationale Dan L'Afrique Contemporaine. Brazaville (Congo).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1978.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September 8-10, 1st Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September, Eastern African History Conference, Nyeri.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1982. January 4-6, The International Symposium on Language and History of Nilotic Peoples., Institut fur Afrikanistik Der Universitat Zu Koln.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1983, 14-17th July The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, The University of Colleraine. N. Ireland.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984 9-12th, April Seminar on Culture and Development, Kilaguni Lodge.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984. 18-20 July, Academics - Policy Makers' Seminar on Migration, Remittances and Rural Development, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1985, February 1-4, Workshop on "The Role of The Judiciary In Plural Society", Eldoret, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1986, 5-8th August 3rd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, 23rd-27th November, Seminar on Women. Law and Development Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, April, 18th African Linguistics Conference. University of Quebec, in Montreal, Canada.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1989, August 30th to September 2nd 4th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Conference University of Bayreuth. 21st Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Georgia April, 1990.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1992. August The 5th Nilo-Saharan Colloquium Nice, France.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993, 27th-29th September. The Second International LICCA Conference Maseru, Lesotho.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993. 22nd- 24th March The International LAUD-Symposium, Duisburg University.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
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Nyamori JM. A 2- Year Retrospective Study On The Pattern Of Retinobh.storna In Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

Background: The national epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma in Kenya have not been determined. The diagnosis of this cancer is mainly clinical; histology determines tumour extent. Late diagnosis of this otherwise curable malignancy is associated with high mortality.
Aim: To determine the incidence and pattern of presentation of retinoblastoma in Kenya.
Design: A retrospective case series
Setting: All 75 eye care centres in the 8 provinces of Kenya as registered in the Ministry of health eye information system.
Methods: With permission, clinical registers at eye care centers were reviewed to identify cases of retinoblastoma that presented from 1sr January 2006 to 31st December 2007. Only centers that reported cases were visited to record patient's clinical and demographic data in a questionnaire. Cross-referred cases were analysed once to avoid double-counting.
Results: A total of 206 suspected cases presented to 46 eye care facilities but 58 cases (28.2%) were lost
after referral. Of 148 traced cases, 28.4% were self referrals and of the referred cases, most (21.6%) were
from central province. Only 63.5% of cases were finally treated at 2 teaching and referral hospitals.After
excluding 3 missing files and 13 cases that were ruled out on histology, 132 confirmed cases(166 eyes) were
subsequently analysed. The mean delay in first presentation was 6.75 months and delay after referral was
1.69 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting complaint (91.7% cases) and sign (71.1 % eyes).
There were 25.8% bilateral cases and 78.2% unilateral cases with mean ages of 26 and 35.9 months
respectively. The male to female ratio was 1.49:1. Only 4.5% had a positive family history. Most (32.6%)
cases resided in the Rift valley province. There was no association between ethnicity and bilaterality. The annual incidence of retinoblastoma in 2007 was 1:17,030 live births.
Conclusions: A significant proportion of cases were lost after referral. The late presentation was associated with advanced disease. Leukocoria was the most common finding. Most cases resided in the Rift valley province. The incidence of retinoblastoma was similar to most countries but may be an underestimate.
Recommendations: Public education ancl screening with the red reflex test by primary health care workers would ensure early detection. Quality control measures in record keeping would ensure accuracy. A retinoblastoma registry would provide accurate estimates through register-based studies. Further research is necessary to investigate the lost cases after referral, delays in presentation and barriers to uptake of services.

Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "2. Mary T. Simiyu, Francis W. NyongesaApplication of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania,; 2019.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "2003. Pastoralism and global climate change: towards realistic mitigation. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Villinger J, Muthomi J, Narla RD, Pappu HR. "2012. First report of tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya." Plant Disease. 2012;96:1384.Website
Judith Mbau, Nyangito M, Gachene C. 2013. Land use and land cover changes analysis: Linking local communities to land use and land cover changes using participatory geographic information systems (PGIS).. Lambert Academic Publishers.; 2013. Abstract

Land use and land cover changes are important processes that influence the dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. Effective management of human-wildlife conflicts requires the participation of local communities and other stakeholders. However, local communities need to identify and understand resource use change and their role in the process, so as to facilitate uptake of appropriate land resource management strategies aimed at counteracting human-wildlife conflicts. Approaches aimed at changing local community behavior towards natural resource use require appropriate technologies that bridge the technology and knowledge gaps between policy makers and local communities. PGIS was used to assess and educate local communities on land use and land cover changes as well as visualize the problems associated with resource changes. Local communities were found to be significantly knowledgeable about resource changes and their causes. PGIS compared well to conventional GIS analysis and therefore an appropriate technology for analysing and monitoring landuse and land cover changes.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

was the lead consultant National Economic and Social Council(NESC). 24-Hour Economy. and Council NES, ed. Nairobi; 2010.
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Yenesew A, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich, Ndakala A, Hoseah M, Akala, M Kamau E. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;10:28-31. Abstractpaper_73_atilaw_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The stem bark extract of Schizozygia coffaeoides (Apocynaceae) showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 8–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new schizozygane indoline alkaloid, named 3-oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine. In addition, two dimeric anthraquinones, cassiamin A and cassiamin B, were identified for the first time in the family Apocynaceae. The structures of the isolated compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The schizozygane indole alkaloids showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–52 μМ).

Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
Ndungu MN. "3. Kiswahili na Uzalishaji Chakula.". In: CHAKITA Conference 2012 on Kiswahili, Cohesion, Intergration and Development . Kenyatta University; 2012.
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Keiyoro, P.N., Kinuthia, Ngunjiri. 7th International conference on ICT for Development, Education and Training in Africa. Cotonou Benin; 2012.
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Yenesew A, N A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Majer Z, Neumann B, Stammler H-G, Sewald N. "8-Hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid and 6',8-O-dimethylknipholone from the roots of Bulbine frutescens." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;9:67-73. Abstractpaper_70_abdissa_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

Phytochemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extract of the roots of Bulbine frutescens led to the isolation of a new xanthone, 8-hydroxy-6-methylxanthone-1-carboxylic acid (1) and a new phenylanthraquinone, 6′,8-O-dimethylknipholone (2) along with six known compounds. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analyses. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed through X-ray crystallography which was then used as a reference to propose the revision of the structures of six seco-anthraquinones into xanthones. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cells with the phenylanthraquinone knipholone being the most active (IC50 = 0.43 μM). Two semi-synthetic knipholone derivatives, knipholone Mannich base and knipholone-1,3-oxazine, were prepared and tested for cytotoxic activity; both showed moderate activities (IC50 value of 1.89 and 2.50 μM, respectively).

NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "8-Methoxyneorautenol and Radical Scavenging flavonoids from Erythrina abyssinica.". In: Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 23(2), 001-006.; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACT. A new pterocarpan (named 8-methoxyneorautenol) was isolated from the acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. In addition, the known isoflavonoid derivatives eryvarin L, erycristagallin and shinpterocarpin were identified for the first time from the roots of this plant. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compound showed selective antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The acetone extract of the root bark of E. abyssinica showed radical scavengingactivity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). The pterocarpenes, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3- dimethylallyl)pterocarpene and erycristagallin, were the most active constituents of the roots of this plant and showing dose-dependent activities similar to that of the standard quercetin.
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Mweha F, Mwangi N, Ngola S. "9. `Real Interest Rates and the Mobilization of Private Savings in Africa: The Case of Kenya'." Ile Ife Journal of Economics and Finance. 1991;1(1).
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Okello RO, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL, Kipsengeret B Koros, M.Oguna M. "9.131 Evaluation of resistance development to three anthelmintics and efficacy of plant extracts against nematodes of sheep in Samburu District, Kenya .". In: KVA Scientific Seminar.; 2008.
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Noordin R, Whitbrodt M, Waris A. ": Law and Economics: A New Dimension in Market Regulation (co-authored with and )." International Business Management. 2012.
Wambugu, M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. ": Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Land Use Practices on Rivers in Tropical Regions: A case Study of Ruiru and Ndarugu Basins, Kiambu County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;11(8):426-437.
Njoroge HG. : “Mwingilianomatini katika Fasihi ya Kiswahili: Tata za Asumini Na Rosa Mistika. E.M. DM, Olali DT, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Nyonje. : “Mwono Ulimwengu wa Waswahili” . E.M. DM, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
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NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A New simplified and Reliable HEMT Modelling Approach Using Pinched Cold FET S-Paramcters", IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Boston, June 2000 (main author).". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2000. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. ""A Spectral Subtraction Method for Noise Reduction in Speech Signals", IEEE African Conference, May 1996 (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 1996. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "A. OMEGA and P.W.N. KANYARI and others (1997). Suitability of the faecal egg sedimentation (FEST) as a quantitative diagnostic technique for fasciolosis in sheep.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th - 31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
Nansen P, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO. "An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

Ngeranwa JJ. "The ability of Stomoxys calcitrans and mechanical means to transmitTrypanosoma (brucei) evansi from goats to camels in Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Stomoxys calcitrans failed to transmitTrypanosoma (b.) evansi from infected goats to other goats or camels, but the trypanosomal infection was transmitted by needle prick from infected goats to camels.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON, Kinyamario JI, Karue CN. "Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract

A two-year study was conducted with an overall objective of characterising the structure and function of an arid rangeland in Kenya. A plot measuring 100 x 100m was used for this study. Data on rainfall and temperature were recorded at the plot site whereas data on evaporation rates and relative humidity were obtained from the meteorological office near the study site. Herbaceous aboveground material was sampled at monthly intervals using a rectangular 0.25m2 quadrat frame. Clipped material was separated by species and classified dead or live by physical examination. A 5cm diameter metal soil corer was used to sample belowground plant material, at monthly intervals. The sampled material was washed with running water over 2mm sieves and classified dead or live using the vital staining technique. All weights and calculations were based on organic weight. Total aboveground standing crop ranged from 84.6g m-2 to 295.4g m-2, with a mean of 162.3 60.6g m-2. Mean monthly aboveground standing crop for 1992 and 1993 was 142.8 53.8 and 178.5 63.3g m-2 respectively. The two values were significantly different (p<0.10). Aboveground biomass yield ranged from 17.7g m-2 to 242.7g m-2, with a mean of 104.3 58g m-2 and a coefficient of variation of 58%. Mean aboveground standing crop was 59 24g m-2. Monthly values ranged from 28.8g m-2 to 120g m-2, with a 38% coefficient of variation. The range for total belowground standing crop was from 83.3g m-2 to 232.7g m-2, and a mean of 155.2 46g m-2. The values had a coefficient of variation of 30%. Mean total monthly belowground plant material yield for 1992 and 1993 was 137.6 41g m-2 and 169.9 46g m-2. The coefficients of variation were 59% and 28% respectively. The mean monthly belowground biomass yield was 51.6 33g m-2 with a coefficient of variation of 64%. Mean monthly yield for belowground dead material was 103.7 32g m-2, with a coefficient of variation of 31%. There was no significant difference (p>0.01) in the mean belowground dead material yield between 1992 and 1993. In 1992, annual NPP was 439.2g m-2, giving a net primary productivity of 1.22g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP ranged from 17.2g m-2 to 90.1g m-2. In 1993, annual NPP was 944.5g m-2, equivalent to a net primary productivity of 2.62g m-2day-1. Monthly NPP was between 27.4g m-2 and 548.6g m-2. Over the 19921993 period, NPP was 1 383.7g m-2, equivalent to a productivity of 1.92g m-2day-1. Trends in monthly NPP closely followed the trend in rainfall. On the whole, herbaceous vegetation production and productivity were episodic in nature and closely linked to rainfall. The high primary productivity puts arid and semi-arid rangelands under sharp focus as CO2 sinks, whose role in the amelioration of greenhouse effect could be more important than is currently appreciated.

Obel OA, d'Avila A, Neuzil P, Saad EB, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. "Ablation of left ventricular epicardial outflow tract tachycardia from the distal great cardiac vein.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular tachycardia (OTVT) from the distal ramifications of the coronary sinus (CS).
A significant minority of patients presenting with idiopathic OTVT have an epicardial focus, the standard approach to which involves ablation from within one of the aortic valve cusps (AVCs). We describe the successful ablation of idiopathic epicardial OTVT from within the CS in the distal great cardiac vein (GCV).

Ablation from the distal GCV was performed in 5 patients with idiopathic OTVT who had unfavorable mapping, in some cases unsuccessful ablation from various endocardial and epicardial sites including the AVCs, and in 1 patient via the direct epicardial approach. An electroanatomic mapping system (Carto) was used in 3 patients, and conventional mapping was performed in 2 patients, and in 3 patients cryothermal ablation was performed.
In all patients, the first ablation lesion in the GCV successfully eliminated the arrhythmia. All patients have remained free of VT after a mean follow-up of 24 (7 to 44) months. There were no immediate or long-term complications.
Idiopathic epicardial OTVT can be successfully ablated from the distal GCV, and should be seen as an alternative to ablation from the aortic valve cusps.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. Mutungi AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):541-6. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996. SETTING: Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. Mutungi AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO. East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Oct;76(10):556-61. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1999. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996. SETTING: An urban and a rural district in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues. DATA COLLECTION: One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers. CONCLUSION: Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

Kinuthia RK, Mureithi SM, Young TP, Njoka TJ, Otieno SG. "Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species.". 2009. Abstract

The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studi es in the last few decades prompted our investigati on to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisatio n hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is rea l. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional g roups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savan na. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, wild herbivores with and without mega herbi vores and combinations of cattle and wild herbivores also wit h and without mega herbivores. The findings reveale d that at herbage level, most grazed treatments (four out of five) had higher productivity than the ungrazed con trol and three showed grazing optimisation curve at sixth po lynomial degree between monthly productivity and gr azing intensity (1-g/ng). At functional group level forbs productivity was higher in the ungrazed control th an in any of the grazed treatments while at individual grass spe cies level Themeda triandra productivity was higher in all grazed treatments than in ungrazed control. We conc lude against presence of herbivore optimisation hyp othesis at herbage, functional group and species level beca use of lack of attributable grazing effect in graze d treatments that matches complex ecological effects in the ungr azed treatment.

Juma FD, Nganga JN, Mathenge SG, Kato A, Ichimaru M, Moriyasu M, Nishiyama Y. "Absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids from Ekebergia capensis.". 1999. Abstract

The absolute configurations of two acyclic triterpenoids 1 and 2, previously isolated from the bark of Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae) have been determined by the modified Mosher's method.

Mumenya SW, Nganga G. Abstracts of past research in the department of civil and construction engineering from 1971 to 2015. Nairobi, Kenya: Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, University of Nairobi; 2015.
Ndiema G. "The abundance, efficacy, and diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba soils.". 2002. AbstractWebsite

Innoculation of field pea is necessary in the absence of compatible rhizobial strains, when the rhizobial populations are low or symbiotically ineffective. The prevalence and efficacy of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (the pea microsymbiont) in southern Manitoba soils is not known. Field experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 in multiple sites in southern Manitoba to characterize the abundance, efficacy, and diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. Uninoculated and inoculated (with and without N fertilizer) treatments of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates in five sites (1999/2000). Pea was established in 21 sites in 1998 to trap indigenous rhizobia. Uninoculated and inoculated plants were evaluated for relative nodulation and growth. Pea and Lathyrus sp. isolates and commercial strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae were characterized by plasmid profile and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic space analyses. Uninoculated plants were were nodulated in cultivated soils, but not in virgin soils. Inoculation had no effect on nodulation in all sites but one. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more biomass than uninoculated plants in 1998 and in four of five sites in 2000. Out of 230 strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae typed, 77 distinct plasmid profiles were established. Plasmid profile diversity index (number of distinct profiles/number of isolates typed) varied from 0.2 to 0.83 in sites with 10 or more isolates. Few pea isolates from previously inoculated sites had profiles that matches those of the inoculants. Each site shared at least one profile with 3 to 18 other sites, but the number of profiles shared was independent of proximity... This research has shown that R. leguminosarum bv. viciae populations in southern Manitoba are abundant, diverse and competitive in nodulation, but may be less effective nitrogen fixers than commercial strains.

Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ, SK M, Kyalo G. "Academia & Practise: A Case Study of Retrofitting reinforced Concrete Columns with Carbon Fiber reinforced Polymer Wrap.". In: 27th IEK Conference. Pride Inn Paradise Beach Resort Mombasa, Kenya; 2020.

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