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N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: A simple atmospheric systems risk indicator model: Application to fog hazards and exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 October, 2000. Eastern and South African Journal; 2000. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. No. (2003). Scope of public-private partnerships in WSS services in Kenya. Examples of public-private partnerships in developing and transition economies. Water Privatisation Revisited-Panacea or Pancake? IRC Occasional Paper Series. P66-74. .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Variation of Plant DDT uptake with age and soil type ...", J.". In: Environment International, 25 (4), (1999). Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part I: Interaction with drugs acting at the neuromuscular junction.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. I. ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI , IVAN ADDAE-MENSAH, DAVID K. NJOROGE; 1998. Abstract

Chloroquine is extensively used in the management of malaria in Kenya. It is widely available for self medication. Often it is used concurrently with other drugs. In the present paper, possible drug interactions with Chloroquine have been investigated. Isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation was used to study the effect of Chloroquine alone and in combination with several drugs on neuromuscular impulse transmission. Chloroquine in the dose range 0.025 - 0.3 vg/m1 organ bath concentration induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission blockade. The drug significantly potentiated the NMJ transmissionblockade induced by commonly used agents gallamine, succinylcholine and lignocaine. It antagonised the NMJ facilitatory action of physostigmine, calcium chloride and barium chloride. Chloraquine could. be interfering with ion conductance processes. It is suggested that Chloroquine should be used with caution in conditions characterised by muscle contractile disorders or during treatment with drugs that cause decreased skeletal muscle activity. Key Words: Chloroquine, interactions, neuromuscular junction.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Variations in LC50 in the egg hatch assay for anthelmintic resistant trichostrongylid nematode parasites in sheep. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39 (2): 167-172.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Siani, A.M., N. J. Muthama, S. Bruni, S. Giannoccolo, E. Veccia and S. Palmieri: Total ozone time series at Rome: Temporal fluctuations and trend analysis.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova, Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1996), Resource Person. 4th International conference- The role of particle characteristics in separation processes, IAWQ/IWSA joint specialist group on particle separation, Jerusalem, Israel. 28th-30th October 1996.". In: Journal of Water SRT- Aqua Vol. 46, No. 2, pp 106-116. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Mercury levels in Lake Naivasha,".". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "Strathmore College Training Manual for the course, .". In: (Journal of the Marketing Students Association). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "ESTABLISHMENT OF A BIOBANK AND PHARMACOGENETICS DATABASE OF AFRICAN POPULATIONS.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1981.
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "F.N. Were, B.O. Mukhwana, R.N. Musoke: Early perinatal mortality at Kenyatta National Hospital. J. Obstet, Gynaec.E & C. Afr. 16:15; 2003.". In: J. Obstet, Gynaec.E & C. Afr. 16:15; 2003. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract

KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. menglish@wtnairobi.mimcom.net

BACKGROUND: The district hospital is considered essential for delivering basic, cost-effective health care to children in resource poor countries. We aimed to investigate the performance of these facilities in Kenya. METHODS: Government hospitals providing first referral level care were prospectively sampled from 13 Kenyan districts. Workload statistics and data documenting the management and care of admitted children were obtained by specially trained health workers. FINDINGS: Data from 14 hospitals were surveyed with routine statistics showing considerable variation in inpatient paediatric mortality (range 4-15%) and specific case fatality rates (eg, anaemia 3-46%). The value of these routine data is seriously undermined by missing data, apparent avoidance of a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, and absence of standard definitions. Case management practices are often not in line with national or international guidelines. For malaria, signs defining severity such as the level of consciousness and degree of respiratory distress are often not documented (range per hospital 0-100% and 9-77%, respectively), loading doses of quinine are rarely given (3% of cases) and dose errors are not uncommon. Resource constraints such as a lack of nutritional supplements for malnourished children also restrict the provision of basic, effective care. INTERPRETATION: Even crude performance measures suggest there is a great need to improve care and data quality, and to identify and tackle key health system constraints at the first referral level in Kenya. Appropriate intervention might lead to more effective use of health workers' efforts in such hospitals.

PMID: 15194254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Okoth F, Lule GN. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(5):355-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990. Abstract
Forty one consecutive patients (24 males and 17 females) with AIDS had their blood assayed for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by Reversed Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA), Passive Haemagglutination (PHA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques respectively. 5 (12.2%) were found positive for HBsAg. 10 (24.4%) for anti-HBs and 31 (75.6%) for anti-HBc. 32 (78%) out of 41 patients with AIDS had serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prevalence of HBsAg found in this study is not different from what has been found in the Kenyan community without AIDS, while that of anti-HBs is much lower than what has been reported in the general community.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The Hypoglycoemic Effect of an Extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp", Submitted,.". In: East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
n/a
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""All Expenditures must be properly authorized." Continuing on the theme of planning and management control, this article delineates and discusses some of the most effective financial control mechanisms. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 9-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Maxwell TJ, Ameyaw MM, Pritchard S, Thornton N, Folayan G, Githang'a J, Indalo A, Tariq M, Mobarek A, Evans DA, Ofori-Adjei D, Templeton AR, McLeod HL. Int J Mol Med. 2005 Oct;16(4):573-80. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes in different .". In: Int J Mol Med. 2005 Oct;16(4):573-80. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2005. Abstract
The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is responsible for the binding of endogenous catecholamines and their exogenously administered agonists and antagonists. Three functional polymorphisms in codons 16, 27 and 164 have been described which have clinical importance for several diseases, including asthma, hypertension, heart failure, cystic fibrosis and obesity, as well as response to beta-agonist therapy. These were evaluated in 726 individuals from 8 distinct ethnic populations (Chinese, Filipino, Southwest Asian, Saudi, Ghanaian, Kenyan, Sudanese, and European from Scotland). The results show that most haplotypes are shared among all populations, yet there are marked differences in their frequency distributions geographically. The genetic distance tree is different from standard human population distance trees, implying a different mode of evolution for this locus than that for human population gene-flow history. The multilocus frequency differences between the observed clusters of populations correspond to historical haplotype groupings that have been found to be functionally different with respect to multiple medically related phenotypes. Further studies are needed to see if functional relationships are the same across populations.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Carrier status for Listreria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in free range farm and market healthy indigenous chickens and ducks. E.A.M.J.( 2004): 81:39-43.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "K. SRIVASTVA, A. OYEJIDE, P.W.N. KANYARI, T.A. NGATIA, P. MBAABU-MATHIU ( 2002). " What is your diagnosis? Oozing ostrich egg". Lab Animal 31:23-24.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Commerce and Industry," with Dr. R.O. Arunga, Director, KIRDI. Chapter 7 in Kenya, and Official Handbook, 25th Independence Anniversary.". In: Government Printer, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1989. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Akong'a J., Mungai, D.N., Muturi, H.R. and Porter, H.L., 1988. Introduction to the Kenya case study. Part II (pp. 129-148), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Socio-Economic Consequences of Kenya's Changed Formal Education Structure. A synoptic review of Kenya's Education policy and structural change to the current 8-4-4 structure: high-lighting the socio-economic consequences.". In: The Kenya Economic Association, Nairobi, (25 pages).; 1984. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga and L.C. Bebora (1988). Zoonotic human chlamydiosis of avian origin:.". In: Presented at the XVA Scientific meeting on Zoonoses, 3rd November, 1988, ILRAD, Kenya. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. WAWERU, P. W. N. KANYARI, D.M. MWANGI, T.A NGATIA and P. NANSEN (1999). " A comparison of serum biochemical changes in two breeds of sheep ( Red Masai and Dorper) experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica". Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary .". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN. Helicobacter pylori eradication in peptic dyspepsia. East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):601-2. test; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 + T cell count in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment initiation in a Kenyan population of HIV seropositive patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, HIV treatment and follow-up outpatient facility; Comprehensive Care Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and twenty five HIV Elisa positive, ARV naive patients visiting the Comprehensive Care Centre between January 2006 to March 2006. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between TLC and CD4 cell count for the whole group with a Spearman rank correlation of 0.761 (p < 0.01); and was also independently observed in the four WHO clinical stages. The classification utility of TLC 1200 cells/mm3 cut-off was suboptimal; sensitivity 37% specificity of 99% and the NPV of 56%. The receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve generated an optimal TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 cut-off to be of greatest utility with a sensitivity of 81.1%, specificity of 90.3%, PPV of 90.8% and NPV of 80.2%. This implies that a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 correctly classify eight out of ten HIV positive patients as having a CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 and only misclassify two such patients. Serial CD4 testing can then be performed on the minority of patients who despite a TLC > or = 1900 cells/mm3 are, on basis of clinical data, suspect of more advanced disease warranting ARV therapy. This would reduce the number of patients tested for and focus the application of CD4 testing and thus reduce attendant cost in care provision in CD4 resource poor settings. CONCLUSION: Our data showed a good positive correlation between TLC and CD4 cell count, however the WHO recommended TLC cuto-ff of 1200/mm3 was found to be of low sensitivity in classifying patients as having a CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3. This would result in underestimation of advanced stage of disease and to withholding ARVs treatment to persons who need treatment. We recommend a TLC cut-off of 1900 cells/mm3 for our population to classify patients as either above or below the CD4 count cut-off of 200 cells/mm3 as an indicator of when to start antiretroviral therapy.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.S. Kaminjolo, J.M. Gathuma, J.K. Omuse, F.M.K. Nderu and J.N. Gicho. Prevalence of antibodies to parainfluenza virus-3 (Pl-3) in various wildlife pecies and cattle sharing the same habitats in Kenya.Journ.Wild. Dis.17(4), 981: 605-608.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1981. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyans with mild to moderate hypertension. East Africa Med J.70: 696,199Yonga G.O OGOLA E.N. Juma F.D Metabolic effects of popranolol and hydroflumethiazide in Kenyan.". In: East Africa Med J.70: 696,1993. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Sixty newly diagnosed adult patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were assessed to determine their cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Detailed history and physical examinations were done. Resting 12-lead ECG was done and serum levels of uric acid, fasting cholesterol, and fasting glucose were determined. Twenty nine patients had hypertension and two or more cardiovascular risk factors. The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors other than hypertension were electro-cardiovascular left ventricular hypertrophy (31.7%), obesity (28.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (28.3%). About a half of these patients (48.3%) can be classified as high risk hypertensives. This calls for aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors as a whole and not just hypertension alone if we are to reduce incidence of hypertensive complications.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, J. N. CHEGE, W.K. MUNYUA, & J.NGOTHO ( 1996). Experimental infection of rabbits (Orytolagus cuniculus) with Toxocara vitulorum from calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 44: 257 - 258.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, A. J. WILSON (1986). "Goat Trypanosomiasis:Trypanotolerance and Epidemiology among goat breeds in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 34: 93 - 97.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1986. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Okoth F, Lule GN. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(5):355-8. test; 1990. Abstract

Forty one consecutive patients (24 males and 17 females) with AIDS had their blood assayed for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by Reversed Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA), Passive Haemagglutination (PHA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques respectively. 5 (12.2%) were found positive for HBsAg. 10 (24.4%) for anti-HBs and 31 (75.6%) for anti-HBc. 32 (78%) out of 41 patients with AIDS had serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prevalence of HBsAg found in this study is not different from what has been found in the Kenyan community without AIDS, while that of anti-HBs is much lower than what has been reported in the general community.

N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "Validation of a competitive chloramiphenicol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for determination of residues in Ovine tissues.". In: 12 East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. G. A MURILLA, J.O WESONGA, T. FODDEY, S. CROOKS, A.N GUANTAI, W,M KARANJA, T.E MAITHO; 2010.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, P. K. GATHUMBI and S. M. MBUGUA (1991). " Tyzzer's disease in Kenya rabbit . A case report". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 39: 115 - 116.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, April 22nd - 24th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N DRKANGETHERACHEL. "Kangethe et al. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: The African Dilemmas, in the book .". In: WPA Series, Evidence and Experience in Psychiatry Volume 8. Wiley. 2005. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2005. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Potential antitermite compounds from Juniperus Procera Extracts, J. Chemosphere, 41, 1071.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2000. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Guantai A.N and Addae-Mensah I.Chloroquine Drug Interactions Part 1I. Interactions with diuretics. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol (3. No.3, 31-35 (2000).". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol (3. No.3, 31-35 (2000). F.A. OKALEBO*, H.A. RABAHI, A.N. GUANTAII, C.K. MALTA', I.0. K1BWAGE, J.W. MWANGI AND W. MASENGO; 2000. Abstract

The in vitro antimalarial activity of the root extract in partly supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria. Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders. Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against the inulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 jig/nil). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The leaf, stein and root extracts had no bacterial or fungal inhibitory effects even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The Lll50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 jig/ml, respectively. Key Words: Clematis brachiata, Ranuneulaceae, antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and coccidial parasites and frequency distribution of some nematodes of goats on farms in four districts of Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 41: 285-290.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Pilozzi, A., A.M. Siani, Palmieri, S., N. J. Muthama, Cross-relationship between a long series of rainfall and other parallel series of various meteorological parameters.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Contemporary Climatology, Brno, August, 1994. Eastern and South African Journal; 1994. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. October 7, 1998.Performance of floc blanket clarifiers. Doctoral Dissertation, Tampere University of Technology, Publications 237. 190p. Finland.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Rice Husk Ash and its application as a cement replacement material in Kenya," J. Biochemiphysics, 2, 132.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1993. Abstract
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N MRSKIMONYEMARYW. "National Council of Women of Kenya Civic education handbook.". In: (An article in National Council of Women of Kenya). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1999. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "SELF MEDICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF MINOR HEALTH PROBLEMS IN KENYA.". In: THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. C.K. Maitai, AN Guantai, Mwangi; 1981. Abstract
A survey of proprietary pharmaceutical products used inslf-medication, in Kenya, has been undertaken. Out of 472 products covered in the survey, 32% were those used for gastrointestinal disorders and 18% for respiratory disorders. The significance and limitations of self-medication as they relate to management of minor health problems are discussed.
N MRNYUTHOEDWIN. "The Eyes of Africa - An illustrated biography on Mohamed Amin Pub.". In: Sasa Sema Publications. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Yonga GO, Ogola EN, Orinda DA.Metabolic effects of propranolol and hydroflumethiazide treatment in Kenyans with mild to moderate essential hypertension.East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Nov;70(11):696-700. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1993. Abstract
In a prospective single-blind comparative trial, sixty newly diagnosed mild to moderate hypertensives were randomly assigned to either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide monotherapy. Baseline fasting serum glucose lipid profiles, serum uric acid and potassium levels, were determined at the beginning of the trial. Repeat levels were determined at completion of twelve weeks of treatment. Propranolol treatment significantly reduced HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) and increased both VLDL and total serum triglycerides (p < 0.01). Hydroflumethiazide significantly increased total and LDL-chole-sterol, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels (p < 0.01); potassium levels were significantly lowered (p < 0.01). Treatment with either propranolol or hydroflumethiazide is associated with significant metabolic side-effects which require regular monitoring and intervention as appropriate.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Inflation Accounting Revisited. (Current Cost Accounting.) This artitle discusses inflation accounting in light of developments since publication of the first article on thetopic in July/September 1982. The Accountant:.". In: The Accountant, Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accoutants of Kenya, (pages 23-29. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Future of an Indigenous Accounting Profession for Kenya." by S. Adam, H. Grubel, J. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the past, current and necessary future efforts to establish an indigenous accoutning profession in Kenya.". In: Management, Jounal of the Kenya Institute of Management. (pages 26-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and Record Keeping" Chapter 13 in Introduction to Business:A Kenyan Perspective: Edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1996. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N., Kiteme, B. and Ong, C.K., 1999. Reflections on the Upper Ewaso Ng.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Kimeto,B.A.;Mugera,G.M.; and Nyaga, P. N.(1990). Haemorrhagic pancarditis in cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax. Vet.Parasitol.34: 295-301.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1990. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.A. Ayoade, T.P.C. Makhambera, P.N.Nyaga and Lily Caroline Bebora (1988). Contagious ecythyma in Boer goat. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric.36: 83-85.". In: KVA meeting Mombasa, 4th September, 1989. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, J. C. NGANGA ( 2000). "The African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer): gastro-intestinal parasites with special reference to Toxocara spp in Kenya. Tanzanian Veterinary Journal 20: 57-63.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, M.M. Kagiko, and J.M. Gathuma. Milk hygiene in nomadic herds in Kenya evaluated by bacterial isolation, bacterial viability trials in traditionally fermenting milk and drug sensitivity. Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol. 30(1), 1982: 19.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1982. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogola ES.Use of aspirin in preeclampsia.East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
A prospective study to determine the prevalence and profile of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients admitted into the medical wards, Kenyatta National Hospital, was carried out between July 1991 and January 1992. Two hundred and two patients over 60 years of age were admitted into the medical wards over this period. This formed seven per cent of the total medical admissions. Two of these refused to take part in the study. Of the 200 elderly patients evaluated for cardiovascular disease, 146 (73%) were between 60 and 75 years of age with only 26 (13%) being over 85 years. Fifty seven per cent were males. Clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease was present in 79 (39.5%) of the patients evaluated. There was no sex difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease as judged from clinical evaluation (37.7% males versus 41.9% females, p > 0.05). Cardiovascular diseases in our medical in-patients at Kenyatta National Hospital are common and especially so with hypertension which plays an important role in the aetiology of congestive heart failure and cerebravascular accidents. Cardiac arrhythmias are also common though not necessarily symptomatic. Rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies were uncommon in our study population. A community-based survey is needed to determine the true prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly and their contribution to morbidity in this sector of the population.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W. N. KANYARI. (1996). A comparison of the ultrastructural aspects of macrogametogenic stages of two Eimeria species of goats. Discovery and Innovation, 8:181-188.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1988). " Coccidiosis in goats and aspects of epidemiology."Australian Veterinary Journal. 65 (8):257- 258.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Conference, University of Nairobi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya, September 20th - 22nd, 1989. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Sang F, Ogutu EO.Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease in Kenya.East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1991 May;68(5):324-7. test; 1991. Abstract

Sixty six patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies for Helicobacter pylori culture. The number of H. pylori isolated increased with age reaching a peak at 51 to 60 years of age. Antral gastritis closely followed by duodenitis accounted for the highest number of H. pylori isolated, (87.5% and 85.7% respectively). In patients with duodenal ulceration only, 57% had H. pylori isolated from their antral biopsies, a result that was just slightly higher than that where no endoscopic diagnosis was made (50%).

N DRMBATIAPAUL. "Paul N. Mbatia and York W. Bradshaw. 2003. "Responding to Crisis of Health Care Utilization in Central Kenya Amid Economic Decline" in African Studies Review, 46(1): PP 69-92.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Conference, September 1990 Kabete Campus. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. In vitro cell-virus interations associated with bovine herpesvirus - and peripheral bovine blood cellular components. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of California, Davis, .". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1975. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N; Some Aspects of Dilated Cardiolomyopathy as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital with Emphasis on Echocardiographic features. M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985.". In: M.med. Dissertation, University of Nairobi, 1985. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M.GITHIGIA, MUNYUA W. K. AND KANYARI P. W. N. (1992). " Observations of the pathology of natural Eimeria infection in kids in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 50: 235 - 237.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. E. Afr Med J, 1999: 76 (8); 425-429.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J. Precipitation estimation based on satellite data.". In: Proceedings of the Pre-climate outlook Forum Capacity building, January - February 2002, Nairobi. Eastern and South African Journal; 2002. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri E.N. (2004). Kenyan Strategic Country Report and Water Scenarios. Open Prinwass Workshop. Library. Wing Seminar Room, Queen Elizabeth House (Center for Development Studies), Oxford 30th June-1July 2004.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Adsorption and detection of some phenolic compounds by rice husk ash of Kenyan origin", J. Environ. Monit., 4, 1-8.". In: Joseph M. Mwaniki and Geoffrey N. Kamau, International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol.11&12(Nos.1&2) 2003. Survey Review; 2002. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Anti-infiammatory and Anti-Diarrimeai Activities of a Steroidal indoxy.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 6. F. N. KAMAU., 1.0. KIBWAGE, A. N. GUANTAI, G. MURIUKI R. MUNENGE; 2003. Abstract

The anti-inflammatory and antidiarrhoeal activities of 3(1-Hydroxy-16. 17-seco-16- nor-5-androsten-15-(2-indoxyliden)-17-oic acid (I) are reported. After intraperitoneal administration, compound (I) gave an ED50 of 9.5 mg/kg using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema anti-inflammatory assay method. Indomethacin had an ED50 of 5.8 mg/kg in this assay. Compound (I) and indomethacin caused comparable and dose-dependent varying degrees of delay in diarrhoea and also significantly reduced net colonic water flux into the colon of rats induced by castor oil. Key words: Steroidal Indoxyl, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidiarrhoeal.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Prevalence and intensity of infection with Eimeria species in sheep in Nyandarua District of Kenya. Veterinary Research Communications 18: 19-25.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama N. J.: The threat to ozone layer, The Weatherman, No.16, pp1.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Architecture and Environmentally Sensitive, Sustainable development, Nairobi, 25-26 July 1996. Eastern and South African Journal; 1996. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (2001) Resource person. Workshop on Country Strategy Paper on the Water Supply and Sanitation Services. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. Kenya School of Monetary studies, Ruaraka, Nairobi. 15th .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Resolution of Ascorbic-Catechol-amine and Indolakaloid mixtures by pulse voltammetry at highly polished glassy carbon", Electroanalysis, 6, 445.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
n/a
N PROFGUANTAIA. "DISTRIBUTION OF CATHINONE AND D-NORPSEUDOEPHEDRINE IN CATHA EDULIS.". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNA. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1982. Abstract
he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1989). Rehabilitation of Hand-dug wells and Springs. 15th WEDC. Conference. Water Engineering and Development in Africa. 3rd .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogola ES.Use of aspirin in preeclampsia.East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):689. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1995. Abstract
One hundred and twenty consecutive patients above 12 years of age with dyspepsia were studied from June 1993 to September 1994. They underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to find the mucosal lesions which were associated with their dyspeptic symptoms. At endoscopy gastric mucosal biopsies were taken in order to identify Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) using three different techniques: culture, histology and the rapid urease test. Normal looking mucosa was the commonest single endoscopic finding, accounting for 34.2%, followed by gastritis 31.7% and duodenal ulcer 29.2%. However, when duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers were put together, then peptic ulcer was the most prevalent finding accounting for 38.4%. Peptic ulcer was the most prevalent pathological finding in both young (less than 50 years) and older patients (50 years and above). Duodenal ulcer was more prevalent than gastric ulcer in the younger age group with a ratio of 5.8:1, however, the ratio in the older age group was 1:1. Gastric cancer was only found in patients aged 50 years and above, accounting for 17.4% of dyspeptic symptoms in this age group. Females were found to have more normal endoscopic findings than males (59.6%, versus 17.8% respectively). The difference being statistically significant (p < 0.001). All our cases of peptic ulcer disease had evidence of H. pylori infection while dyspeptic patients with normal endoscopic mucosal findings had H. pylori in 80.5% of cases. The difference in prevalence of H. pylori in the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, evidence of H. pylori in gastric cancer cases was very low in this study, being found in only 25% of patients.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Electrocatalytic Reactions in organized assemblies part II" J.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 187, 355. Survey Review; 1985. Abstract
n/a
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "NG.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2004. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Total Quality Management and Value Management" (TQM) This article is the abbreviated abstraction of the substance of the paper presented to the fourth annual seminar of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda on the challenges of TQM on t.". In: The Uganda Accountants Newsletter of The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Uganda. December 1999 (pages 11 - 12). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1999. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE, N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "McLeod HL, Syv.". In: Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Jun;8(3):195-9. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1998. Abstract
Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates neurotransmitters, hormones and drugs such as levodopa. COMT activity is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and individuals with low activity have thermolabile COMT protein. A low activity allele has been demonstrated at codon 108/158 of the soluble and membrane bound COMT protein, respectively, whereby a G to A transition results in a valine to methionine substitution, rendering the protein more thermolabile. As ethnic differences in erythrocyte COMT activity have been previously demonstrated, the frequency of low activity alleles were investigated in 265 British Caucasian, 99 British South-west Asian and 102 Kenyan individuals. Genotyping of COMT codon 108/158 was performed using a minisequencing method. Erythrocyte COMT activity was measured in 60 British Caucasian individuals by radiochemical assay. The frequency of low activity alleles was 0.54 in Caucasians, 0.49 in South-west Asians, and 0.32 in Kenyans. There was a much lower frequency of individuals with homozygous low activity allele in the Kenyan population (9%) than in Caucasians (31%) or South-west Asians (27%). Erythrocyte COMT activity was lower and less thermostable in individuals with homozygous low activity alleles. The data provide molecular evidence that low COMT is less common in African individuals than the Caucasian population. PMID: 9682265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Hai, M.T., Mungai, D.N. and Ong, C.K., 2000. The impact of land use and rainfall on runoff and sedimentation in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Poster presented at the Symposium/Workshop on Forest-Water-People in the Humid Tropics: Past, Present and Futur.". In: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M.Njiro, P.N.Nyaga and Kofi-Tsekpo (1993) Immunosuppresive effect of Spirostachys venenifera pax on the response of mice to sheep red blood cells. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. 42:47-50.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2001). "Efficacy of alphamethrin (Dominex.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Okoth F, Lule GN. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) in patients with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(.". In: East Afr Med J. 1990 May;67(5):355-8. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
Forty one consecutive patients (24 males and 17 females) with AIDS had their blood assayed for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by Reversed Passive Haemagglutination (RPHA), Passive Haemagglutination (PHA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques respectively. 5 (12.2%) were found positive for HBsAg. 10 (24.4%) for anti-HBs and 31 (75.6%) for anti-HBc. 32 (78%) out of 41 patients with AIDS had serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prevalence of HBsAg found in this study is not different from what has been found in the Kenyan community without AIDS, while that of anti-HBs is much lower than what has been reported in the general community.
N MJ. "Mechanical Properties, Column Buckling Behavior, and Concrete Beam and Slab Reinforcement Behavior of Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(3):836-848.
N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga, J.M. Gathuma and J.S. Kaminjolo. Parasites found on and in five marabou stock(Leptoptilos crumeniferus) in a sub-urban area of Nairobi. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. Vol.31 (1). 1983: 79-82.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1983. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Oyoo GO, Ogola EN.Clinical and socio demographic aspects of congestive heart failure patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):23-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):23-7. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
socio-demographic determinants in patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi in congestive heart failure. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. SUBJECT: All patients aged thirteen years and above of either sex consecutively admitted with clinical diagnosis of congestive heart failure. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a national referral hospital. PATIENT EVALUATION: Detailed history including socio-demographic characteristics and physical examination was done. Patients underwent haematological and biochemistry tests followed by a chest x-ray, ECG and 2D Echo-doppler examination. Blood culture sensitivity was done when clinically indicated. RESULTS: Ninety one patients were studied, 44 males and 47 females. Almost 32% had rheumatic heart disease, 25.2% had cardiomyopathy, 17.6% hypertensive heart disease, 13.2% had pericardial disease while 2.2% had ischaemic heart disease. Three quarters of patients with hypertensive heart disease were above the age of 50 years, while 79% of patients with rheumatic heart disease were below the age of 30 years. Factors associated with patient deterioration leading to admission with congestive heart failure (CHF) included inadequate therapy (27.4%), arrhythmia (20.9%), respiratory infections (17.6%), anaemia (13.2%) and infective endocardiatis. Sixty two per cent of patients investigated were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification class IV, 31.9% in class III and 5.5% in class II. CONCLUSION: Congestive heart failure constitutes 3.3% of all medical admissions at KNH. Rheumatic heart disease is the commonest cause of congestive heart failure in our set-up while inadequate therapy, arrhythmias and respiratory infections are the three major causes of decompensation in our patients with cardiac disease.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.G. MBUTHIA, R.M. WARUIRU, S.M. NJIRO, P.W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, E. H. WEDA and J. NGOTHO (1997). "Parasites and microscopic lesions in the livers of slaughtered wild animals in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa,.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. August 5th - 7th. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Lule GN, Obiero ET, Ogutu EO.Factors that influence the short term outcome of upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1994 Apr;71(4):240-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jan;71(1):44-8. test; 1994. Abstract

Between April 1990 to January 1991, a prospective study of 97 consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of Kenyatta National Hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage was done. All the patients studied under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation and a positive endoscopic diagnosis was possible in 90 (93%) of the patients studied. The leading causes of bleeding were oesophageal varices in 34 (35%) patients, duodenal ulceration in 17 (17.5%) patients, and superficial inflammatory lesions in 17 (17.5%) patients. 17 (17.5%) patients had multiple lesions with superficial inflammation and oesophageal varices as the commonest combination. In 86 (88%) patients, bleeding settled on simple conservative measures which included intravenous fluids, blood transfusion and antacids. Further haemorrhage was observed in 11 (11.3%) patients. Tachycardia (> 100/minute), hypotension (systolic BP < 100mm Hg) and low haemoglobin (< 8 g/dl) at admission were all correlated with a poor outcome. Variceal bleeding had the worst prognosis and the overall mortality rate was 5%.

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.S. Kaminjolo, J.P.O. Wamukoya and P.N. Nyaga. A preliminary report on the occurence of a disease in broilers in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afri. Vol. 25, 1977: 431-434.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1977. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N S, SO ML. "Neurofibromatosis type 1: report of two contrasting cases." East African Medical Journal.2002:79 (11);563 . 2002;79(11)::614-7. AbstractWebsite

We present two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), one a 35 year old male who first recognised his problem at the age of fifteen years and at the time of assessment, satisfied the National Institute of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for NF-1 and had a nodular plexiform neurofibroma involving the left fifth dorsal nerve root and a diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving the left lower limb. The second patient, a 45 year old female recognised her problem at the age of 39 years, did not quite satisfy the NIH diagnostic criteria for NF 1 and had diffuse plexiform neurofibroma involving both lower limbs and buttocks almost symmetrically, a finding which has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge. The scarcity of management options are briefly outlined.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N MUITA A.K; LORE W; presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital. E.Africa. Med.J.65; 108, 1988.". In: E.Africa. Med.J.65; 108, 1988. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA, and J. W. NGOTHO (1993). Toxocara vitulorum infections in cattle in Kajiado District, Kenya".". In: Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastrointestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. January 18th - 22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N M, A K, I O. "Prevalence and treatment needs for early childhood caries among 3-5 year-old children from a rural community in Uganda." Front Public Health. 2019;2019; 7:259(2019; 7:259):2019; 7:259.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Perinatal mortality in Kenya: time for action. East Afr Med J . 2004 Nov; 81 ( 11 ): 553-4 . No abstract available. PMID: 15868962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN.". In: East Afr Med J . 2004 Nov; 81 ( 11 ): 553-4 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 2004. Abstract
No abstract available.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Lule GN, Wankya BM. Duodenal ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 Nov;62(11):784-90. test; 1985. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "A simple atmospheric systems 'risk indicator' model: Application to fog hazards at Nairobi's Jomo Kenyatta International Airport:.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol 11&12 (Nos. 1& 2) 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Mavura, W. J. and Tiffani Bailey (2004). Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya and Evaluation of the Efficiency of a Locally Manufactured Defluoridation Filter. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agricul.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA, N PROFGUANTAIA. "A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of chloramplienicol.". In: j. VET PHARMACO. THERAP. J. 0. WESONGAH* G. A. MUMMA* A. N. GUANTAI C. ELLIOT T FODEY1 & A. CANNA VAN; 2007. Abstract

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibioi ic shown to have specific activity against a wide variety of organisms that are causative agents of several disease conditions in domestic animals. Chloramphenicol has been banned for use in food-producing animals for its serious adverse toxic effects in humans. Due to the harmful effects of chloramphenicol residues livestock products should be free of any traces of these residues. Several analytical methods are available for chloramphenicol analysis hut sensitive methods are required in order to ensure that no traces of chloramphenicol residues are present in edible animal products. In order to prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol, regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chloramphenicol has been locally developed and optimized for the detection of chloramphenicol in sheep serum. fn the assay, chloramphenicol in the test samples and that. in chloramphenicol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate compete for antibodies raised against the drug in camels and immobilized on a microtitre plate. Tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (Th413/11202) is used as chromogen-substrate system. The assay has a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml, of serum with a high specificity for chloramphenicol. Cross-reactivity with florfenicol, thiamphenicol, penicillin, tetracyclines and sulfa-methazine was not observed. The assay was able to detect chloramphenicol concentrations in normal sheep serum for at least 1 week after intramuscular Injection with the drug at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The assay can be used as a screening tool for chloramphenicol use in animals. Paper received 27 July 2006; accepted for publication 29 September 2006 1.0. Wesongaii, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute-Trypanosmniasis Research Centre

N PROFMUSOKERACHEL. "Patent ductus arteriosus in African preterm infants. East Afr Med J . 1991 Aug; 68 ( 8 ): 637-41 . PMID: 1765017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Musoke RN, Anabwani GA.". In: East Afr Med J . 1991 Aug; 68 ( 8 ): 637-41 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1991. Abstract

Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

During a 7 month period, April to October, 1984, 537 consecutive babies weighing upto 2000 gm were studied at the Kenyatta National Hospital's newborn unit. Of these 48 (8.9%) had murmurs suggestive of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Their mean birth weight was 1364 +/- 482 gm while the mean gestation was 30.5 weeks. The peak incidence occurred in the weight group 1001 to 1500 gm. 15 (31%) of all infants with PDA died. The PDA closed spontaneously in 21 (43.7%) infants before discharge from hospital and 4 closed after discharge bringing the total closure of 25 (52%). This represented 76% of the survivors. 4 were lost to follow up. In another 4 infants there was inadequate information as to when the ductus closed. It is suggested that the relatively low incidence of PDA may be due to underdiagnosis and the high mortality infants less than 1000 gm in the first few days of life before diagnosis of PDA can be made. Wider use of objective diagnostic modalities may help to make definitive diagnosis.

PIP: During a 7 month period, April-October 1984, 537 consecutive babies weighing up to 2000 gm were studied at the Kenyatta National Hospital's newborn unit. Of these, 48 (8.9%) had murmurs suggestive of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Their mean birth weight was 1364 +or- 482 gm while the mean gestation was 30.5 weeks. The peak incidence occurred in the weight group 1001-1500 gm. 15 (31%) of all infants with PDA died. The PDA closed spontaneously in 21 (43.7%) infants prior to discharge from the hospital and 4 closed after discharge bringing the total closure of 25 (52%). This represented 76% of the survivors. 4 were lost to follow up. In the cases of 4 other infants, there was inadequate information as to when the ductus closed. It is suggested that the relatively low incidence of PDA may be due to underdiagnosis and the high mortality infant 1000 gm in the 1st few days of life prior to when the diagnosis of PDA can be made. Wider use of objective diagnostic modalities may help to make a definitive diagnosis. author's modified

PMID: 1765017 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "A questionnaire survey of nematode control practices on goat farms in Denmark. Veterinary Parasitology 66:25-37.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May;31(5):265-72. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., 1998: Estimation of ultraviolet radiation using Dobson spectrophotometer,.". In: Proceedings of the Fourth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 Sept. 1998. Eastern and South African Journal; 1998. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N (2002). Water Demand Management for the City of Nairobi. Managing Water for African Cities. Water and Sewerage department, Nairobi City Council, UNCHS(UNEP. Severin Hotel, Mombasa. 21st .". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2002. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Optimization of parameters for study of heavy metals in biological samples, J. Biochemiphysics, 5, 19.". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. Survey Review; 1996. Abstract
n/a
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH, M. PROFTOLEN. "Radiation protection and the unborn child. East Afr Med J. 1988 Nov;65(11):778-84.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Nov;65(11):778-84. University of Nairobi.; 1988. Abstract
A prospective study was carried out at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between June 1987 and September 1988 to look at some aspects of obstructive jaundice in patients above 12 years of age. Screening for cases was done by use of abdominal ultrasonography. A total of 20 cases (11 females, 9 males) were diagnosed. Carcinoma of the head of pancreas accounted for 55% of cases of the obstruction, followed by gallstones (10%), hepatocellular carcinoma (10%) and gall bladder tumour (10%).
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Metabolism of cathinone to d-norpseudoephedrine in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8.". In: J Pharm Sci. 1983 Oct;72(10):1217-8. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1983. Abstract
Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J. and J. N. Mutemi: Enhancement of Agroforestry in East Africa: Implications on weather and climate.". In: Proceedings of the E.A. Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 1996. Eastern and South African Journal; 1989. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E.N. (1990). Effective Communication. Third Supervisors.". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Current-Fixed Assets versus Monetary-Non-monetary Classification." This article discusses the "Balance Sheet" as one of the statements that facilitate the discharge of accountability by management. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management,(pages 23-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
N N, SW H. "Influence of Coloring Agents on the Properties of Polymeric Coating Systems.". In: Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, 3rd edition. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2008.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "The Kenya Veterinarian Vol 28: 11-15.[2005] Oedema(exudative diathesis) in Ostriches in Kenya. T.A. Ngatia1, P.W.N Kanyari1, P.M. Mathiu1, P.M. Gathumbi,1, K.K. Srivastava2. Wilson, S.T.2 , A. Oyejide2 . 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nair.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and the Political Process 1. This article delineates the relationship between the discipline of accoutning in its delineate specialization and the political process in its various phases and settins as deined by its manifestatons in managing or.". In: "The Student Accountant, Issue No. 14. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2001. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "McLeod, H. L., Pritchard S. C., Githang'a J., et al. (1999). Ethnic differences in thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: evidence for allele specificity in Caucasian and Kenyan subjects. Pharmacogenetics 9: 773-776.". In: Book. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1999. Abstract
AIMS: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) reduces endogenous pyrimidines and therapeutic analogues such as the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Among Caucasian populations DPD activity is highly variable and subject to polymorphic regulation. To evaluate interethnic influence, DPD activity was assessed in South-west Asian, Kenyan and Ghanaian populations. METHODS: DPD activity was determined in peripheral mononuclear cells using[14C]-5-fluorouracil and h.p.l.c. analysis. RESULTS: A high degree of variation in DPD activity was observed within each population (range CV = 34-48%). Median DPD activity also varied between these populations. South-west Asian and Kenyan subjects exhibited almost identical median values (192 and 193.5 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively), which were similar to Caucasians (median 215 pmol min(-1) mg(-1). A significantly lower median DPD activity (119 pmol min(-1) mg(-1)) was observed in the Ghanaian population. CONCLUSIONS: The similarity in DPD activity between Caucasian, Kenyan and South-west Asian populations suggests that the incidence of 5FU-related toxicity may be comparable in these groups. The pharmacokinetic implications of lower activity amongst Ghanaians needs to be evaluated.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Republic of Kenya, 2003. Environmental (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations 2003, Kenya Gazette Supplement No. 56 of 13th June 2003. I was one of the Editors and contributors to the Draft Report submitted to the Government of the Republic of Kenya.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao, P.N. Nyaga and J. O. Evans (1996): Pathogenicity of Sheep Skin- cell-propagated camel-pox virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius): Indian Journ. of Animal Sciences 66(6): 535-538.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA, P.W.N. KANYARI (2002). Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya.". In: 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N MJ, Bukachi PR. "Building Information Modelling Adoption in Structural Design in Kenya – A Case Study of Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):272-285.
N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Ndiritu, P.N. Nyaga and G.N. Mugera. Evaluation of Ancylostoma caninum antigens using the isoelectro-focusing techniques (1985). Kenya Vet.(9) :8-10.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "The urinary levels of catecholamines, aldosterone and cortisol in hypertensive East Africans: a pilot study.Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63.". In: Ethn Dis. 2000 Autumn;10(3):357-63. Kisipan, M.L.; 2000. Abstract
This pilot project studies the prevalence of hypertension among unique social groups in Kenya, as well as the hormonal profiles accompanying the hypertensive and normotensive states in these populations. The purpose of this report is to enlarge and improve upon the statistical data currently available concerning the prevalence, etiology and prognosis of hypertensive disease in this region. In this study, the urinary concentrations of three vasoactive metabolites were measured in hypertensive and normotensive outpatients. The excretion values for the metabolites were ultimately tabulated as the quantity excreted per milligram of creatinine. The results demonstrate that the subjects with elevated blood pressures (>140/90 mm Hg) excreted double the concentrations (ng/mg creatinine) of cortisol and aldosterone excreted by normotensives. There were no apparent differences in urinary catecholamines between hypertensives and normotensives.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.A. OMEGA, W.K. MUNYUA, T.A. NGATIA, E.K. KANG'ETHE and P.W.N. KANYARI ( 1998). Fasciola worms, faecal and gall bladder egg count relationships in sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 4.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1998. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Ogutu EO, Okoth FA, Lule GN.Colonoscopic findings in Kenyan African patients. East Afr Med J. 1998 Sep;75(9):540-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):226-31. test; 1998. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the types and prevalence of colonic diseases in Kenyan African patients referred for colonoscopy with lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey conducted over a two year period. SETTING: Major private hospitals in Nairobi. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty seven consecutive patients of both sexes and all ages referred for colonoscopy between January 1996 and December 1997. Only Kenyans of African origin were included. Patients were referred from all over the country though the majority of cases were from Nairobi and its surrounding districts. RESULTS: The major indications for colonoscopy were lower abdominal pain (35.6%), non-bloody diarrhoea (22.3%), constipation (21.4%) and rectal bleeding (19.8%). Nearly 53% of patients colonoscoped had abnormal mucosal findings, with the main abnormalities being: proctocolitis (20.2%), colorectal cancers (12.1%), haemorrhoids (7.3%), colorectal polyps (6.5%) and diverticulosis (5.3%). The main histological diagnosis among patients whose colonic biopsy were done included normal colonic mucosa (29%), non-specific colitis (28.5%), adenocarcinoma (18.2%), benign colonic polyp (9.7%) and ulcerative colitis (7.3%). There was one case of Crohn's colitis and five cases (3%) of infective colitis. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the African colon has a number of pathological lesions contrary to previous reported literature.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N. Nyaga. The role of animal management in the control of Coccidiosis. Proceedings, Animal Production Society of Kenya. Vol. 12, 1979/80: 47-50.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1979. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA E.N OGUTU E.O; Pericardial disease in association with acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: report of two cases. Nairobi J.Med. 16:3, 1990.". In: Nairobi J.Med. 16:3, 1990. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating tolerability and efficacy of the combination enalapril 20 mg with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (co-renitec) as first line therapy in black patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Fifty patients completed a twelve weeks of open clinical study preceded by two weeks of washout period. They were evaluated every four weeks and haematological, biochemical urine microscopy and electrocardiographic tests were undertaken before the start and after the completion of study. Pre-treatment values of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 172.16 mm hg (+/- 20.41) and 104.38 mm hg (+/- 7.339) respectively. The usual daily dosage was one tablet which was increased to two after eight weeks in case the DBP was not normalized, i.e. less than or equal to 95 mm hg. In 44 (88%) patients, the DBP was normalised at the end of the study period; three patients (6%) were resistant to treatment and another three (6%) exhibited labile response to the treatment. Clinical tolerance was considered to be very good with only five episodes of headache, backache and anxiety, probably not related to the test drug. Biological tolerance was excellent: there was no change in the haematologic parameters; there was a decrease of 5% in mean blood urea, of 9% in the mean serum creatinine and of 4% in the mean serum uric acid and a 5% increase in plasma potassium from 3.99 to 4.28 mmol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, W. K. MUNYUA and P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). "Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat feaces around Kabete in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42:187 - 191.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N A, N A, S M, S A, H H, S B, D M, A R, I K, O A-B, Y K, M R, V P, S C, K N, G G, A P, M F, A S, M M, A AA, D M, P P, J K, Y C, M D, J V, M A, J C, M N, I H, A V, A I, A K, E J, ME T. "Preparedness of dental academic institutions to manage the COVID-19 pandemic: a global survey." Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;2021; 18:1445(2021; 18:1445):2021; 18:1445.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Joshi MD, Lule GN, Otieno LS. Upper gastrointestinal tract in chronic renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1988 Aug;65(8):541-6. test; 1988. Abstract

A case of cryptococcal hepatitis is described in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. There has been no previous reports of this in the East African literature. A review of world literature showed that the entity of cryptococcal hepatitis is very rare.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Chapter 4. Global ozone: Past and Future.". In: In UNEP/WMO Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, pp. 4.1-4.9, 2003. Eastern and South African Journal; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Seppala, O.T., Rodiqi, I, Nyangeri,W.N. and Hukka, J.J. (2004). Visionary leadership and knowledge management in water services. Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for.". In: Manuscript of an article to be submitted to Journal of Infrastructure Systems. ASCE, USA. Reviewed, corrected and accepted for printing. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Spectroscopic Characterization and Distribution of tris(2,2.". In: Journal of BioChemiPhysics, Vol. 11&12, No.3, 2003. Survey Review; 2003. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL, M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Fuel value of Refined vernonia galamensis seed oil".". In: J. Biochemphysics, 6&7, 33. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract
n/a
N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J., Application models using Numerical Weather Prediction : Agricultural models.". In: Proceedings of the IMTR/UON/WMO international workshop on Related Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-17 Dec., 1999, Nairobi, Kenya. Eastern and South African Journal; 1999. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Nyangeri, E. N. (2003). Coordinator. Visionary Management Workshop in Water Services Sector Reforms in Kenya in Kenya Civil Engineering Lecture Theatre, Civil Engineering Building, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Voltammetric studies of reactions of immidazolidine...." , J. Electroanalysis, 10(11), 747.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
n/a
N DRWAMBUGUMILCAH. "Evaluation of Acute Pelvic/Lower abdominal pain in Women - Nairobi Journal of Medicine March 2002.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine March 2002. University of Nairobi.; 2002. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

N PROFGUANTAIA. "Effects of the active constituents of Catha edulis on the neuromuscular junction.Guantai AN, Mwangi JW, Muriuki G, Kuria KA. Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5.". In: Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1987. Abstract
(-)-Cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine (DNE) in the dose range 0.2-1.2 mg/ml produced a reduction in contractions of skeletal muscle, evoked by direct and indirect electrical stimulation and antagonised the facilitatory action of physostigmine on the neuromuscular junction; but failed to antagonise a partial blockade induced by d-tubocurarine (dTb) as occurs with norepinephrine or epinephrine. The local anaesthetic actions of (-)-cathinone and DNE were found to be almost equivalent to that of lignocaine. These results indicate that (-)-cathinone and DNE may have a direct blocking action on the neuromuscular junction, which is independent of cholinergic and adrenergic transmission.
N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Effect of selection pressure for thiabendazole resistance on fitness of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Parasitology, 100:327-335.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: Ozone Fluctuations: The East African situation, .Proceedings of the first National workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi;.". In: Proceedings of the first National workshop on Meteorological applications and services, Nairobi. Eastern and South African Journal; 1989. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Mwangi, A. and Nyangeri, E.N. Performance Evaluation of Community .". In: Journal of Water SRT-Aqua. Vol. 43, No.5. pp233-237. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Microelectrode voltammetry of TCNQ in aprotic solvent at low concentrations of non reducing salts", Electroanal. Chem., 292, 1990, 187.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1990. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Great Debate - Cash or Accruals? This article discusses Business Income measured on Cash Basis Accounting. The Accountant:.". In: Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya.(pages 10-24). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. E. Afr Med J, 1999: 76 (8); 425-429.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Education for Executive Jobs - A Study in Occupational Kenyanization." The report of field research conducted here in Kenya on the kind of Education best suited to a would be business executive and the extent of occupational Kenyanization of the manageri.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1978. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2003. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Morsman, JM., Sludden, J., Ameyaw, M-M., Githang'a, J., Indalo, A.., Ofori-Adjei, D., McLeod, H.L. (2000) Evaluation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in Southwest Asian, Kenyan and Ghanaian populations. Br J Clin Pharm 50:269.". In: Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Apr;11(3):217-21. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main indications for, and common conditions found in bone marrow examinations (BME) of children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from September 1, 1993 to September 3 1998. All bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy results were retrieved. The clinical data provided by clinicians were also noted. RESULTS: A total of 97 BME were recorded from patients aged two months to 13 years. The peak ages for BME were six to eight years (24% of patients). The more frequent indications for BME were unexplained anaemia found in 26% request forms, investigation for solid tumours (10%) and lymphoma (10%) and remission assessment after treatment for leukaemia (26%). The main findings were malignancy (27%) with leukaemia being commonest (ALL) 16% of patients and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5%). Haematinic deficiency was seen in 12.7% of cases with iron deficiency being the commonest. There were some notable differences and similarities in the study as compared to a similar one performed at a local referral hospital. CONCLUSION: The importance of BME as a crucial investigational tool in the management of patients is underscored. Interpretation is more meaningful when the haematologist has adequate clinical data.
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Mungai, D.N. and Nyakang.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNYAGAP. "Lilly C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga and C.O. Kimoro. (1998). Comparason of immune responses of two Salmonella gallinarum strains viewed as posssible vaccines for fowl typhoid in Kenya. Onderspoort Journal of Vet. Res. Vol. 65.67-73.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1998. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, M. MATHIU and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Some post-mortem observations on unhatched ostrich embryos in a selected locality in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 26: 55-58.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""New Accounting Practices to Manage Inflation." This article discusses the International Accounting Standards as they relate to the management of Inflation. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 21-27).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "J.M. Nyaga and P.N. Nyaga. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Kenya. Bull.Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. (1985) 33: 249-251.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI et. al. ( 1999). The African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Gastro-intestinal Parasites with special reference to Toxocara sp. in Kenya.". In: WAAVP Conference, August 15th - 19th. Copenhagen, Denmark. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OLONDE PROFAMAYOERASTUS. "Lule GN, Amayo EO. Irritable bowel syndrome in Kenyans. East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jul;79(7):360-3. test; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and clinical presentation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in black Kenyans. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Nairobi Hospital, an urban private institution. SUBJECTS: Case files of all patients presenting with abdominal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of IBS using modified Manning's Symptomatic criteria in 223 consecutive adult patients presenting with abdominal pain and discomfort who had normal clinical findings and normal general and gastrointestinal investigations. RESULTS: Out of the 3472 patient files screened, there were 281 patients who fitted the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome giving an overall prevalence of 8%. The mean age was 40 years with range of 11 to 75 years with a peak prevalence in the 3rd decade. The male to female ratio of 1.4:1 being statistical significant at a p-value of 0.010. There was no statistical significant difference between the males and females in constipation and diarrhoea at p-value of 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients were either on antidepressants or had been seen by a psychiatrist. Nine percent had undergone laparatomy for the abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: The Black African patient is equally as exposed to irritable bowel syndrome as is his counterpart in the western world and has similar morbidity patterns. The syndrome may account for over 10% of patients with abdominal pain presenting to gastroenterologists in Africa. Proper attention to symptomatology may lead to clinching the diagnosis without resorting to many unnecessary and expensive investigations.

N PROFNYAGAP. "P.N.Nyaga, C.G. Ndiritu, S.M. Njiro and S.W. Mbugua. Canine pulmonary geotrichosis in Kenya. Kenya Vet. Vol. 4, 1980: 6-9.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFOGOLAELIJAHS. "OGOLA EN, Muita A.k ADALA h. Chrolroquine related complete heart block blindness. Case report and review of literature. East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992.". In: East Africa. Med J.69: 50,1992. Kisipan, M.L.; 1992. Abstract

Sixty patients with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) of 100-110mmHg matched for age, sex and Bp levels were randomly assigned to propranolol 80mg daily or Hydroflumethiazide (HFM) 50mg daily. HFM causes a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP within 4 weeks compared both with baseline and propranolol (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.3 vs 158.1 +/- 10.9mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 102.4 +/- 5.1mmHg, P < 0.05), (SBP 143.7 +/- 12.2 vs 152 +/- 11.0mmHg P < 0.05; DBP 92.0 +/- 4.5 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg, P < 0.05), respectively. Propranolol produced no significant difference from the baseline at 4 weeks (SBP 152.0 +/- H.0 vs 154.1 +/- 11.5mmHg NS; DBP 101.1 +/- 6.1 vs 102.2 +/- 5.6mmHg, NS). Reduction in BP by HFM was maintained after 8 and 12 weeks with further reduction but which did not achieve statistical significance. Increased dose of propranolol (160mg daily) after 4 weeks caused significant reduction in BP by 8 week (SBP 146.8 +/- 11.8 vs 152.0 +/- 11.0mmHg, P < 0.05; DBP 95.9 +/- 4.4 vs 101.1 +/- 6.1mmHg P < 0.05), which was maintained upto 12 weeks. The values however remained higher than in the HFM group. More patients in the HFM group achieved target BP (< 140/90), SBP 53.8% vs 29.6% P < 0.05, DBP 69.2% vs 14.8% P < 0.01. Incidence of side effects was similar and will be discussed. Thiazides are superior to B'blockers as initial monotherapy in black hypertensives.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA (1994). " Isolation of Besnoitia wallacei in Kenya". Veterinary Parasitology, 52: 203- 206.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P. W. N. KANYARI (1982). " Goat Trypanosomiasis: Effect of chemotherapy using isometamedium chloride on production in three goat breeds". Kenya Veterinarian 6 (2): 9.". In: Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. August 24th - 29th 1986. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1982. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Mwai SJ. The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9. test; 1989. Abstract

Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural.

N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Analysis of fluoride in locally available beverages: Comparison of direct, oven diffusion and hexamethyldisiloxane diffusion methods.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 13: 30 -35, 2004. UoN; 2004. Abstract

Analysis of fluoride in a variety of beverages was carried out using three different methods inconjunction with a fluoride ion selective electrode. The three methods gave comparable results for 26samples of fruit juices. However, 68% of the juices were found to contain fluoride levels higher than theWHO recommended limits (0.6 - 1.0 mgl-1). Soft drinks (sodas) and beers were found to contain values lower than 0.6 mgl-1. The amount of fluoride in tea infusion was found to increase both with increase inboiling time and amount of tea leaves used. Chocolate and coffee infusions were found to contain 4.3 mgl-1and 4.0 mgl-1fluoride, respectively.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Selective control and rate enhancement of reactions involving catalytic reduction of organohalides and reduced form of myoglobin in microemulsions, Pure Appl.". In: Chem., Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 815-828, 2004. Survey Review; 2004. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of chloramphenicol.Wesongah JO, Murilla GA, Guantai AN, Elliot C, Fodey T, Cannavan A.J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;30(1):68-73.". In: J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Feb;30(1):68-73. FA Okalebol , L Wiesner, AN Guantai, K Chibale, P Smith; 2007. Abstract

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic shown to have specific activity against a wide variety of organisms that are causative agents of several disease conditions in domestic animals. Chloramphenicol has been banned for use in food-producing animals for its serious adverse toxic effects in humans. Due to the harmful effects of chloramphenicol residues livestock products should be free of any traces of these residues. Several analytical methods are available for chloramphenicol analysis but sensitive methods are required in order to ensure that no traces of chloramphenicol residues are present in edible animal products. In order to prevent the illegal use of chloramphenicol, regulatory control of its residues in food of animal origin is essential. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chloramphenicol has been locally developed and optimized for the detection of chloramphenicol in sheep serum. In the assay, chloramphenicol in the test samples and that in chloramphenicol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate compete for antibodies raised against the drug in camels and immobilized on a microtitre plate. Tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H(2)O(2)) is used as chromogen-substrate system. The assay has a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL of serum with a high specificity for chloramphenicol. Cross-reactivity with florfenicol, thiamphenicol, penicillin, tetracyclines and sulfamethazine was not observed. The assay was able to detect chloramphenicol concentrations in normal sheep serum for at least 1 week after intramuscular injection with the drug at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The assay can be used as a screening tool for chloramphenicol use in animals.

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Muthama, N. J.: A simple atmospheric systems risk indicator model: Application to fog hazards and exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Kenya Meteorological workshop on Meteorological research, application and services, Mombasa Kenya, 7-11 October, 2000. Eastern and South African Journal; 2000. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE. "Cheruiyot, P.K., W. Ndiema, C.K.W. and Ngunjiri, G.M.N. (2003). Greenhouse effects on biogas generation. Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Assembly of electroactive ordered multilayer films of cobalt pthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and polycations, J.". In: colloid and Interface Science, 212, 570-575, 1999. Survey Review; 1999. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "A Retrospective Study of Childhood Poisoning in Kenya.". In: EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES - VOL. 1. CHARLES K. MAITAI*, ISAAC 0. KIBWAGE, ANASTASIA N. GUANTAI, JAMES N. OMBEGA AND FRANCIS A. NDEM0; 1993. Abstract

A literature survey revealed lack of adequate information on poisoning in Kenya, thus providing the impetus for the present work. In this, study, a 3 year retrospective survey of human poisoning in 19 Kenyan District, Provincial hospitals and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), representing approximately 40% of such public hospitals in the country, was carried out. Cases of poisoning were identified by diagnosis codes entered on hospital records at the time of discharge. A total of 1904 cases of poisoning were recorded and the information analyzed with particular focus on childhood poisoning. Distribution pattern with respect to poisoning agents, age and sex is presented. Children aged 0-5 years account for 29.78% while those aged 6-14 years account for 10.24% of cases of poisoning recorded. In the age group 0-5 years, Kerosine, drugs and organophosphates account for 41.09, 23.81 and 15.17% of poisoning cases respectively. It is concluded that any preventive measures targeted at children must focus on the 3 classes of poisons which together account for approximately 80% of all classes of poisoning in children.

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Observations on changes in resistance to levamisole in Haemonchus contortus after passage in sheep and calves. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 39 (3): 281-287.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1991. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

N PROFMUTHAMAJOHN. "Palmieri, S., A.M. Siani, A. Pilozzi, N. J. Muthama: Investigation on meteorological time series in the Mediterranean basin.". In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications of Time Series analysis in Astronomy and Meteorology, University of Padova Italy, September 6-10, 1993. Eastern and South African Journal; 1993. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
N DRNYANGERIEZEKIELE, AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Water and Sanitation Services in Low Income Areas of Nairobi (in: Low Income Area Water Supply and Sanitation in Selected African Cities. Ed. Sandelin S., Institute of Water and Environmental Engineer.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Rate enhancemnt and control in electrochemical catalysis using a bicontinuous microemulsion", Langmuir, 8, 1992, 1042.". In: Proceedings of the KMRI/KETRI annual Medical Scientific Conference, Nairobi, Kenya 1993. Survey Review; 1992. Abstract
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N PROFMUSOKERACHEL, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Obimbo E, Musoke RN, Were F. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. E. Afr Med J, 1999: 76 (8); 425-429.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Aug;76(8):425-9. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, maternity and newborn units of public health, facilities serving an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Of the 307 mothers interviewed, 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene whilst cutting and tying the cord, respectively. Regarding postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% good practice. Fifty-one percent of mothers knew and 54% practised postnatal cord care for the appropriate duration of time. Seventy-nine percent of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. After multivariate analysis, the following variables showed significant independent association with good maternal KAP; increased level of education (OR 2.3, p < 0.001), living in middle class areas rather than slums (OR 1.5, p < 0.03), increased maternal age (OR 1.8, p < 0.001), acquisition of knowledge from a HW rather than from other sources (OR 1.5, p < 0.001), and living in stone/brick houses rather than mud houses (p = 0.01). Fifty per cent of HW had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, and 79% had correct knowledge on duration required for the same. The knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards, but was in keeping with Nursing Council of Kenya teaching. CONCLUSION: Mothers had good knowledge on the need for hygiene when cutting the cord, had poor knowledge and practice in other aspects of cord care, and were afraid of handling the cord. Poor KAP was associated with young, poor mothers of low education, who had acquired their knowledge from sources other than HW. The knowledge of a large proportion of HW was incorrect and outdated. We recommend that health education on cord care be given at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HW on cord care be updated. PIP: Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the umbilical cord. The study interviewed a total of 307 mothers with infants less than 3 months old and 64 health workers (HWs) in an urban slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. The results showed that 91% and 28% of mothers knew of the need for hygiene while cutting and tying the cord, respectively. As to postnatal cord care, 40% had good knowledge and 66% had good practice. However, 79% of mothers were afraid of handling an unhealed cord. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the following variables had significant independent association with good maternal KAP: increased level of education, living in middle class areas, increased maternal age, and acquisition of knowledge from HWs rather than from other sources. 50% of HWs had correct knowledge on type of postnatal cord care, but the knowledge of 50% on type of care was incorrect by international standards. Based on the findings, it was recommended that good health and cord care practices be taught at all levels of contact with mothers and that knowledge of all primary HWs on cord care be updated.
N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Chlamydia as a cause of late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):476-9. PMID: 12625688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Were FN, Govedi AF, Revathi G, Wambani JS.". In: East African Med J, 79; 7-10:2002. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The problem is known to be higher in resource poor third world countries. Organisms (such as chlamydia) not covered by routine laboratory tests and regular antibiotic regimes may frequently contribute towards the causation of late neonatal pneumonia. It is therefore useful to gather epidemiological evidence to guide in the routine diagnosis and treatment of such infections. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chlamydia associated pneumonia among infants developing the disease between the 7th and 30th days of life (late neonatal pneumonia). DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Fifty two newborns clinically diagnosed as having late neonatal pneumonia. They were all subjected to chest X-rays to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal aspirates for chlamydia antigen detection tests were then performed on all patients. The study was undertaken during the months of September through to November 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of newborns with late neonatal pneumonia that have chlamydia trachomantis as the sole or contributory causative agent. RESULTS: Fifty two newborns of postnatal age between seven and 30 days were recruited. Their sex distribution was about 1:1. Thirty three (63.5%) of these infants were found with chlamydia in their upper airways. Thirty out of 47 available chest X-rays, representing 63.8% had evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. Chlamydia associated pneumonia indicated by the presence of both interstitial pneumonia and colonization of the upper air ways was present in 24 out of 47 patients, 51% of the total cases of late neonatal pneumonia. When X-rays alone were compared with our gold standard for the diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia (radiology and colonization), we computed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 73%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value of 80%. Mode of delivery, birth weight and gestation had no association with nasopharyngeal colonization by chlamydia or actual diagnosis of chlamydia pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chlamydia associated infection among newborns with late neonatal pneumonia at Kenyatta National Hospital is 51%, eight times more than that reported elsewhere. Chest X-rays appear to be a reliable diagnostic tool in this group. The use of antichlamydial drugs in addition to the regular antibiotics whenever a diagnosis of late neonatal pneumonia is made is justifiable.
N PROFLULEGODFREY, OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Ogutu EO, Lule GN, Okoth F, Mwai SJ. The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Jan;66(1):35-9. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989. Abstract
Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "The antihypertensive Effect of an extract from the Bark of Podocarpus Sp",.". In: Submitted, East Africa Medical Journal. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""The Management of Inflation." This article discusses the effects of inflation in the process of making investment decisions, arranging for the required finances and formualting divided decisions. Management:.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.(Pages 16 - 18). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N DRGITHANGAJESSIE. "Githang.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Jul;78(7 Suppl):S37-9. Douglas McLean Publishing; 2001. Abstract
Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the main indications for, and common conditions found in bone marrow examinations (BME) of children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study from September 1, 1993 to September 3 1998. All bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy results were retrieved. The clinical data provided by clinicians were also noted. RESULTS: A total of 97 BME were recorded from patients aged two months to 13 years. The peak ages for BME were six to eight years (24% of patients). The more frequent indications for BME were unexplained anaemia found in 26% request forms, investigation for solid tumours (10%) and lymphoma (10%) and remission assessment after treatment for leukaemia (26%). The main findings were malignancy (27%) with leukaemia being commonest (ALL) 16% of patients and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5%). Haematinic deficiency was seen in 12.7% of cases with iron deficiency being the commonest. There were some notable differences and similarities in the study as compared to a similar one performed at a local referral hospital. CONCLUSION: The importance of BME as a crucial investigational tool in the management of patients is underscored. Interpretation is more meaningful when the haematologist has adequate clinical data.
N DRKIMANIJOHN. "Characterization of East African Clays.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Leasing: "Four-year period for transitional new accounting practice." This article discusses the official position of the Accounting Profession on capitalization of leases.". In: Management: (Ibid), (pages 28-29).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNYAGAP. "L.W. Njagi, P.G. Mbuthia, L.C. Bebora, P.N. Nyaga, U. Minga and J.E. Olsen. Sensitivity of Listeria species, recovered from indigenous chickens to antibiotics and disinfectants. E.A.M.J. (2004): 81:44-47.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 2004. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "P.W.N. KANYARI, A. OYEJIDE, J. ALAK, D. ANDERSON, S.T. WILSON and K.K. SRIVASTAVA ( 2002). "Cryptosporidium parvum: experimental transmission in murine hosts". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 57(2): 70 - 75.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Entrepreneurship Development Policy in National Development: The Kenya Case." This article traces Kenya's entrepreneurship development policy through its development plans since independence upto Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1986 on Economic Management for R.". In: Eastern Africa Economic Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, (pages 99-105) Kenya Economic Assocation. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFMUNGAIDAVID. "Downing, T.E., Mungai, D.N. and Muturi, H.R., 1988. Drought climatology and development of the climatic scenarios. Part II (pp. 149-173), In: Parry, M.L., Carter, T.R. and Konijn, N.T. (Eds.) 1988. The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture, Vol. 2:.". In: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht etc. ISBN 90-277-271-8 (Vol.2). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "The Making of Professional Accountants." Part 1, By J.D. Newton and N.D. Nzomo. This article discusses the legal framework under which the Kenyan accounting profession is orgnaized. It presents data on the current status of the profession and discusses ed.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, July 1980. (pages 37-39).; 1980. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N LG. "Viral Hepatitis.". 1988.
N PROFNYAGAP. "E.S. Bizimenyera and P.N. Nyaga (1988). Acquisition of disinfectant resistance in E. coli and other bacteria found in poultry operations:.". In: Hong Kong 1-5th August, 1988. 8th International Conference on Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology. au-ibar; 1988. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "J.G. WAWERU, P. W. N. KANYARI, D.M. MWANGI, T.A NGATIA and P. NANSEN (1999). "Comparative parasitological and haematological changes in two breeds of sheep infected with Fasciola gigantica." Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31: 363 - 372.". In: The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Twelve Red Masai and 12 Dorper sheep aged between 6 and 9 months, were acquired from a fluke-free area and sheep of each breed divided into two equal groups of six. Each animal in one group of each breed was experimentally infected with 400 viable metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica. The other groups acted as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for the determination of serum bilirubin, albumin and gamma glutamyl transferase levels. Following the establishment of infection, albumin levels declined in both breeds of infected animals without any significant difference between the two breeds. However, serum bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the infected animals were elevated significantly more in the Dorper than in the Red Masai sheep. Based on these findings, it would appear that Dorper sheep are more susceptible to the infection than Red Masai sheep. Keywords: Dorper, Fasciola gigantica, Red Masai, serum biochemical changes

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