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2016
Oyieke F, Ondiba I, Ong’amo G, Njaanake K, Nyamongo I, Estambale B. "Diversity and Distribution of Mosquitoes Transmitting Malaria and Rift Valley Fever in Baringo County, Kenya." South Africa; 2016.poster-columbia.pptx
Ngaina JN, Mutai BK, Gadain H, Muthama N. "Predictability of East African Rainfall Based on EL NINO-SOUTHERN Oscillation.". In: American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016.; 2016. Abstract

The El Nĩno-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in East Africa (EA). Here, the predictability of EA rainfall based on ENSO is quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence was also applied to avoid correlations by chance. An analysis of Principal Components (PCs) was also carried out to evaluate the atmospheric teleconnections giving rise to the Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) correlations. El Nĩno typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM on average. Significant correlation exists between (SST) over central Pacific (in phase), Maritime Continent (out of phase) and EA OND rainfall. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and an analysis based on contingency tables shows modest predictability. The correlation is maintained for different lags, and the common area that satisfies the criteria for statistical field significance is coincident with ENSO area. The use of ENSO indices derived from the central Pacific sea surfaces improves the predictability from OND and robust on intra-seasonal to inter-annual timescales. An ENSO-based scheme that is adapted to each season and region, and takes account of intra-seasonal to inter-annual variations can thus provide skilful rainfall predictions.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Njaanake KH, Vennervald BJ, Simonsen PE, Madsen H, Mukoko DA, Kimani G, Jaoko WG, Estambale BB. "Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya: infection and morbidity patterns in primary schoolchildren from two isolated villages." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:57. Abstract

Schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides) are widely distributed in developing countries where they infect over 230 million and 1.5 billion people, respectively. The parasites are frequently co-endemic and many individuals are co-infected with two or more of the species, but information on how the parasites interact in co-infected individuals is scarce. The present study assessed Schistosoma haematobium and STH infection and morbidity patterns among school children in a hyper-endemic focus in the Tana River delta of coastal Kenya.

Mecha JO, Kubo EN, Nganga LW, Muiruri PN, Njagi LN, Mutisya IN, Odionyi JJ, Ilovi SC, Wambui M, Githu C, Ngethe R, Obimbo EM, Ngumi ZW. "Trends in clinical characteristics and outcomes of Pre-ART care at a large HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective cohort study." AIDS Res Ther. 2016;13:38. Abstract

The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

Ngau PM, Mwenda JN. "Training Providers in Capacity Development for Major Land Reforms and Land Policy Implementation at Country Level.". In: FIG Working Week 2016 (Recovery from Disaster). Christchurch, New Zealand; 2016.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM, Narla RD. "Plant extracts and antagonistic fungi as alternatives to synthetic pesticides in management of fungal diseases of tomato.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Joyce N, Muturi S, Ngugi A, Gichure A, Kimotho S. "Interventions for Children with Hearing Disabilities in the Kenya Juvenile Justice System.". In: Interventions for Children with Hearing Disabilities in the Kenya Juvenile Justice System. ted States Int’l University EAMARC conference; 2016.interventions_for_children_with_hearing_disabilities_in_the_juvenile_system.pdf
Mulei I, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru R, Evensen, S. M. "Molecular characterization of Aquabirnaviruses isolated from farmed rainbow trout in Kenya.". In: AquaEpi 1 2016 . Oslo; 2016.
Mayora C, Nangami M, Ayah R, SImba D, Mafuta E, Wondafresh B, Rugema R, Tetui M, Paina L, Jessani N, Bennett SC, Bazeyo WI. "Institutional collaboration is critical in building capacity for health systems research in low income countries: Experience from the Africa Hub program.". In: Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research. Vancouver ; 2016.
Nyamongo GB. "The Significance of Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialogue: The Case of Kenya.". In: Inter-religious and Inter-cultural Dialoge in a Pluralistic World. Constanta Romania; 2016.
Chebon LJ, Ngalah BS, Ingasia LA, Juma DW, Muiruri P, Cheruiyot J, Opot B, Mbuba E, Imbuga M, Akala HM, Bulimo W, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites." PLoS ONE. 2016;11:1-19. Abstractchebon_et_al_2016.pdfWebsite

Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya.

Chebon LJ, Ngalah BS, Ingasia LA, Juma DW, Muiruri P, Cheruiyot J, Opot B, Mbuba E, Imbuga M, Akala HM, Bulimo W, Andagalu B, Kamau E. "Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites." PLoS ONE. 2016;11:1-19. AbstractWebsite

Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya.

Akinkunle O, Stefan J, Ndetei D, Musau A, Mutiso V, Mudenge C, Ngirababyeyi A, Gasovia A, Mamah D. " A comparative study of psychotic and effective symptoms in Rwandan and Kenyan students.". 2016.
JA O'o, MK M, NM O'o, PM M, IK C, JW W. " Intima-media thickness of the common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation with Age, Gender and Geometric Factors." Glob J Hum Anat Physiol Res. 2016;3:1-7. Abstractintima-media-thickness-of-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-in-a-black-kenyan-population-correlation-with-morphological-features-2161-0940.10001631.pdf Licensee Synchro Publishe

Abstract: Femoral artery intima - media thickness is a reliable surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and is important for prediction of coronary and peripheral vascular disease, but is seldom reported among black Sub Saharan African populations. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the intima - media thickness of the femoral artery in relation with age, gender and some of its geometric factors. Materials for this study were obtained during autopsy from 208 adult black Kenyans (154 males, 54 females, mean age 36.4 years) who had died of non cardiovascular causes. Those with history of cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Femoral artery was exposed by dissection. Terminal branching pattern was recorded, and length and bifurcation angle measured. Materials for determination of intima - media thickness were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Mason’s trichrome, examined with light microscope and pictures taken. The images were digitized and intimal and medial thickness determined according to the protocol by Nakashima et al. [1]. The mean intima - media thickness was 0.76 ± 0.016 mm. It increased with age and was higher in males than females; for trifurcations (0.95 ± 0.032 mm) and also short arteries and those with wide bifurcation angles. Age and gender differences and those between arterial trifurcation and bifurcation attained statistical significance. In conclusion, the mean femoral intima-media thickness of the black Kenyan population studied is higher than those reported for Caucasian populations, increases with age and is higher in males and cases of trifurcation. This suggests that the study population is susceptible to atherosclerosis and that variant terminal branching pattern constitutes a geometric risk factor for atherosclerosis. We recommend ultrasound screening for those at risk.

Kotikot T, Ndalamia J, OGUTU H, B Nyaoke, MW MUREITHI, Farah B, C Perciani, Mac Donald K, Anzala O, Jaoko W. " Reproductive Tract Infections Among Low Risk Women Attending KAVI-VZV 001 Study in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES ."; 2016.
Muema E, Kinyanjui P, Mbaria J, Nguta J, Chepkwony S, Kamau J, Onkoba N, Nyachieo A. " Toxicity and safety of Khat (Cantha edulis) consumption during pregnancy using olive Baboons (Papio Anubis as Experimental Models: A prospective Randomized study." Greener Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health. 2016;4(3): 061-070.
Muriithi JG, Nyagah G, Okoth UA. "). Influence of teachers’ communication strategies on students’ discipline in Public secondary schools in Mukurweni District." International journal of social sciences and Education (IJSSE). 2016;5(4):241-250.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia, P.G., W O. "): Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016;51.
P G, J M, Steyn P, Njau I, Cordero J. "Adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards family planning and contraceptive use: a qualitative study from Kilifi County, Kenya." The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2016;21(Supplement 1):83.
Kimenyi MS, Mwega FM, Ndung'u SN. "The African Lions: Kenya country case study."; 2016.
Mogambi, H., Nzonzo, D. "Analysis of Communication and Information Communication Technologies Adoption in Irrigated Rice Production in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2016;Vol. 4 ( No. 12):295-316.
Otieno D, Nyikal R. "Analysis of Consumer Preferences for Quality and Safety Attributes in Artisanal Fruit Juices in Kenya." Journal of Food Products Marketing. 2016. AbstractWebsite

This study used choice experiment survey data from a random sample of 374 respondents to analyze consumer preferences for quality and safety attributes of artisanal fruit juices in Kenya. Results show that consumers had a positive and significant preference for single fruit juices compared to fruit mixtures, private rather than public inspection of the juices, traceability of fruit origin, and vendor’s health. Additives such as colorants, flavors, and preservatives were not preferred. Consumers were willing to pay premiums of up to 200% for artisanal juices that contain single fruits, lack additives, and are inspected by private agencies. These insights should be incorporated in ensuring that artisanal fruit juice designs comply with food quality and safety requirements. Further, there is a need to license and regulate the artisanal juice preparation and handling and to provide training to the handlers on safety and quality requirements.

Dywili N, Njomo N, Ikpo CO, Yonkeu ALD, John SV, Hlongwa NW, Raleie N, Iwuoha EI. "Anilino-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Intercalated with Pt Metal Nanoparticles for Application as Supercapacitor Electrode Material." Journal of Nano Research. 2016;44:79-89. AbstractJournal of Nano Research

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Nanostructured anilino-functionalized reduced graphene oxide intercalated with Pt metal nanoparticles was successfully synthesized. Graphene oxide nanosheets were synthesized using a modified Hummers method with simultaneous in-situ functionalization with aniline and ionic Pt reduction and dispersion through sonication. The nanomaterial was characterised with FTIR, UV-visible, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD and Raman spectroscopy to ascertain surface, chemical, elemental and crystalline properties, composite structures, size, morphology and successful entrapment of metal nanoparticles while the electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using CV. The graphene oxide was successfully functionalized with aniline with new peaks belonging to the NH and CN group being present and calculated band gaps of 5.35 eV and 4.39 eV which are attributed to …

Nguta JM, Appiah-Opong R, Nyarko AK, Yeboah-Manu, D., Addo GA, Otchere, I., Kissi-Twum A. "Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;182, :10-15.
Erick A, Omosa L, Midiwo J, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycoes from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(3):136-141.
Awas E, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO, Ndakala A, Mwaniki J. "Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Aglycones from Kenyan Gardenia ternifolia Schum and Thonn." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). 2016;11(3):136-141. Abstract

Phytochemical investigation of surface exudates of the leaves of Gardenia ternifolia resulted to
characterization of four flavonoids; 3,5,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (1), 5,7-trihydroxy-4′-
methoxyflavone (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-3,4′-dimethoxyflavone (3), 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4) and two
tritepenoids; β-sitosterol (6) and stigmasterol (7). Compound 1 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with
IC50 = 40.3± 1.55 μΜ. The rest of the flavonoids showed minimal activities with IC50 values of 75.5±1.75,
89±0.22, 94±0.11 μΜ for 2-4, respectively. The antioxidant activities of 1 was substantially lower than the
standard, quercetin (IC50 = 20.1±1.34 M). Methoxylation of quercetin at 7 and 4′-position in 1 substantially
reduced antioxidant potential. Lack of oxygenation at 3′ position, as observed for kaempferol derivatives was
responsible for further reduction in the radical scavenging potential as observed for 2 and 3. Furthermore,
methylation of 3-OH position in kaempferol derivatives further reduced the antioxidant activities as exhibited by
3 with an oxygenation pattern similar to 2 except for the methylation at 3-position. The results of this study are
consistent with previous findings that revealed that flavonols, exhibited better anti-oxidant activities as
compared to 3-methoxyflavones. Acetylation of 3 at the 5 and 7 positions resulting to 3,4′dimethoxy-5,7-
diacetylflavone (5), substantially reduced the activity of this compound. The triterpenoids exhibited were
inactive as expected.
Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Gardenia ternifolia, surface exudates

Njenga D, Irungu B, Mbaria J, Mutai C, Nguta J. "Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Zanthoxylum Chalybeum Engl. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,." World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,. 2016;5(11), :208-217.
Awori RM, Ng'ang'a PN, Nyongesa LN, Amugune NO. "approved with reservations.". 2016.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Watete PW, Wambui-Kogi Makau, Njoka JT, MacOpiyo LA, Mureithi SM. "Are there options outside livestock economy? Diversification among households of northern Kenya." PastoralismPastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2016.
Opondo M, Abdi U, Nangiro P. "Assessing gender in resilience programming: Uganda." BRACED Resilience Intel. 2016;2(2). Abstractassets.publishing.service.gov.uk

There are a number of opportunities that the project can harness to increase its gender-related impact and drive resilience in the region, including a committed team with strong technical capabilities, a strong legal and policy framework on gender equality and Mercy Corps’ own experience from the field of gender and resilience in the Sahel and Somalia.

Moni, N.A., Nzuma, M.J., Munei, K. "Assessment of Demand for Meat in Rural and Peri-urban Areas of Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development. 2016;4(10):480-488.
Aluvaala J, Nyamai R, Were F, Wasunna A, Kosgei R, Karumbi J, Gathara D, English M. "Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2016;(100):42-47. Abstractassessment_of_neonatal_care_in_clinical_training_facilities_in_kenya.pdf

Objective: An audit of neonatal care services provided by clinical training centres was undertaken to identify areas requiring improvement as part of wider efforts to improve newborn survival in Kenya.
Design: Cross-sectional study using indicators based on prior work in Kenya. Statistical analyses were descriptive with adjustment for clustering of data. Setting Neonatal units of 22 public hospitals. Patients Neonates aged <7 days.
Main outcome measures: Quality of care was assessed in terms of availability of basic resources (principally equipment and drugs) and audit of case records for documentation of patient assessment and treatment at admission.
Results: All hospitals had oxygen, 19/22 had resuscitation and phototherapy equipment, but some key resources were missing—for example kangaroo care was available in 14/22. Out of 1249 records, 56.9% (95% CI 36.2% to 77.6%) had a standard neonatal admission form. A median score of 0 out of 3 for symptoms of severe illness (IQR 0–3) and a median score of 6 out of 8 for signs of severe illness (IQR 4–7) were documented. Maternal HIV status was documented in 674/1249 (54%, 95% CI 41.9% to 66.1%) cases. Drug doses exceeded recommendations by >20% in prescriptions for penicillin (11.6%, 95% CI 3.4% to 32.8%) and gentamicin (18.5%, 95% CI 13.4% to 25%), respectively.
Conclusions: Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training.

Mumbua MJ, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Kirimi L. "An assessment of the effect of a national fertiliser subsidy programme on farmer participation in private fertiliser markets in the North Rift region of Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics (AfJARE). 2016;11(4):292-304.
Ndeti N, Mecha E. "Assessment of the Use of Contraceptives among young Women in Nairobi." Journal of African Communication Research. 2016;Vol. 7(No. 1):pg 103 to 117.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:800.
Keter L, Too R, Mutai C, Mwikwabe N, Ndwigah S, Orwa J, Mwamburi E. "Bacteria contaminants and their antibiotic sensitivity from selected herbal medicinal products from Eldoret and Mombasa, Kenya." American Journal of Microbiology. 2016;7(1):18-28.
Ndambo DK. Big Data Anaytics And Competitive Advantage of Banks and Insurance Companies in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2016. Abstract

This study focussed on big data and competitive advantage in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya and was dependent on the following objectives: To establish the extent of application of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to determine the relationship between big data analytics and competitive advantage of commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to establish the challenges of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi. A descriptive survey was employed for the purpose of data collection for this research. The population targeted for this study was commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya. There are 42 commercial banks and 49 insurance companies in Nairobi. A sample of 20 commercial banks and 25 insurance companies was undertaken due to the limited time allocated for data collection and analysis. The sample was selected based on a judgmental basis taking into account the companies’ use of big data analytics. This research used primary data collected using structured questionnaires. The respondents were managers dealing with company strategies and/ or information and technology managers in the selected companies. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and regression techniques. The study found that companies in the financial industry specifically commercial banks and insurance firms have invested in data storage facilities and advanced tools in the area of business intelligence for reporting and analysing consumer/ client behaviour. These tools allow the companies to anticipate consumer needs more effectively, in addition to optimizing their operations. The addition of big data analytics systems in the companies’ daily routines enables them to gain higher levels of insight in the big data environment thus enabling more effective decision making. There are challenges in management of big data that if addressed can help organizations appreciate the full potential of big data tools and various analytics especially in aspects of competitive advantage. This study, through a thorough analysis of its findings concludes that the big data revolution has found a place in the commercial banking and insurance industry in Nairobi, and that the trend is on the rise as these companies continue to discover the valuable data with tremendous potential they have had in their storage for decades.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage I0, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talibs Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implementation Science. 2016;11(30). Abstractbuilding_capacity_in_implementation_science_research_training_at_the_university_of_nairobi.pdf

Background: Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap
between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health
care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by
training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative,
the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.
Methods: This paper describes how the University of Nairobi leveraged resources from the Medical Education
Partnership to develop an institutional program that provides training and mentoring in implementation science,
builds relationships between researchers and implementers, and identifies local research priorities for
implementation science.
Results: The curriculum content includes core material in implemerjjation science theory, methods, and experiences.
The program adopts a team mentoring and supervision approach, in which fellows are matched with mentors at the
University of Nairobi and partnering institutions University of Washington, Seattle, and University of Maryland,
Baltimore. A survey of program participants showed a high degree satisfaction with most aspects of the program,
including the content, duration, and attachment sites. A key strength of the fellowship program is the partnership
approach, which leverages innovative use of information technology to offer diverse perspectives, and a team model
for mentorship and supervision.
Conclusions: As health care systems and training institutions seek new approaches to increase capacity in
implementation science, the University of Nairobi Implementation Science Fellowship program can be a model
for health educators and administrators who wish to develop their program and curricula.
Keywords: Implementation science, Training, Fellowship program

Ng’ang’a M, Matendechero S, l. Kariuki, Omondi W, Makworo N, Owiti PO, Kizito W, Tweya H, Edwards JK, Takarinda KC, Ogutu O. "Burden of soil transmitted helminthiases in primary school children in Migori County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Muasya MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;178:64-69. Abstract

Abstract Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease
caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa.
The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence
determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies,
but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice
cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in ...

Nyangweso DO, Tabitha M. Njoroge, Siriba DN. "Cartographic Generalization in Multi-scale Environment: Case study of Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research. 2016;5(9):804-811.
Moturi CA, Mburu R, Ngaruiya N. "A Case for Judicial Data Warehousing and Data Mining in Kenya." American Journal of Computing Research Repository. 2016;4(1):7-14. AbstractWebsite

This aim of this study was to demonstrate how the Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) process can be utilized to assist the Kenyan Judiciary address challenges of data integration in its operational systems and hence provide better mechanisms for extracting data to allow easier reporting and generating judicial intelligence. The research determined the common data sources and operational systems, demonstrated, using case returns data, how the ETL process can be used to migrate data from sources to a data warehouse, proposed a framework for an ETL environment, and developed guidelines for creating a data warehouse for the Kenya Judiciary. This is in line with the Kenya Judiciary Transformation Framework that seeks to harness Information and Communications Technology as an enabler in the justice system in order to achieve expeditious delivery of justice. The practical implication of this work is the better preparation of judiciaries with limited adoption and utilization of ICT in laying the groundwork for judicial knowledge discovery.

Ogutu O, J A, POR O, N N, Rogena E. "Case report of spontaneous rapture of the ceacum following ceasarean section." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93.
mary g., john m., lewis n., isaac m., ambrose v. "The challenges facing adult and continuing education in Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;10(3):53-57.
Langat MK, Crouch N, Ndunda B, Midiwo JO, Aldhaher A, Alqahtani A, Mulholland DA. "The Chemistry of African Croton species." Planta Medica. 2016;81(S 01):384. AbstractFull text link

The genus Croton is one of the largest of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto, and consists of over 1300 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that are distributed worldwide in the warm tropics and subtropics. It is reported that 124 Croton species occur in continental Africa whilst a further 156 species are endemic to Madagascar. Another 12 species occur in the Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Sao Tome and Principe [1]. We discuss the chemistry, chemotaxonomic patterns and biological activities of selected compounds from ten African Croton taxa: C. alienus, C. dichogamus, C. gratissimus var. gratissimus, C. megalobotrys, C. megalocarpoides, C. megalocarpus, C. menyhartii, C. pseudopulchellus, C. rivularis and C. sylvaticus. Examples of compounds to be presented include cembranoids (1-3) from C. gratissimus var. gratissimus [2,3], ent-kauranes (4-5) from C. pseudopulchellus [4], ent-clerodanes (6-8) from C. sylvaticus, C. megalocarpus and C. megalocarpoidies, and both halimanes (9) and crotofolanes (10 – 11) from C. dichogamus. Triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids and cyclohexanol derivatives from Croton will also be discussed. Selected cembranoids from C. gratissimus were tested against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and against the PEO1 and PEO1TaxR ovarian cancer cell lines [2]. Compound 1 showed moderate activity against the PEO1 (IC50= 132 nM) and PEO1TaxR (IC50= 200 nM) ovarian cancer cell lines. Selected ent-kauranoids were tested for their effects on Semliki Forest Virus replication and for cytotoxicity against human liver tumour cells (Huh-7 strain). Other Croton-derived compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antifungal activities [5,6], antiplasmodial activity using two strains of Plasmodium falciparum, antileishmanial activities against Leishmania donovanii [5], and cytotoxic activity against NCI59 cancer cell panels, and colorectal and VERO cancer cell lines.
Keywords: Croton, Euphorbiaceae, ent-clerodanes, cembranoids, crotofolanes

Mwinzi, R., Mberia H, Ndeti N. "Communication Methods used to Disseminate Corporate Identity to Employees by Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2016;Vol. 6(Issue 2):pp.183-191.
Mwavua SM, Ndungu EK, Mutai KK, Joshi MD. "A comparative study of the quality of care and glycemic control among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, at a Tertiary Referral Hospital and a Regional Hospital in Central Kenya." BMC research notes. 2016;9(1):1-8. AbstractWebsite

Background

Peripheral public health facilities remain the most frequented by the majority of the population in Kenya; yet remain sub-optimally equipped and not optimized for non-communicable diseases care.
Design and methodology

We undertook a descriptive, cross sectional study among ambulatory type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, attending Kenyatta National Referral Hospital (KNH), and Thika District Hospital (TDH) in Central Kenya. Systematic random sampling was used. HbA1c was assessed for glycemic control and the following, as markers of quality of care: direct client costs, clinic appointment interval and frequency of self monitoring test, affordability and satisfaction with care.
Results

We enrolled 200 clients, (Kenyatta National Hospital 120; Thika District Hospital 80); Majority of the patients 66.5 % were females, the mean age was 57.8 years; and 58 % of the patients had basic primary education. 67.5 % had diabetes for less than 10 years and 40 % were on insulin therapy. The proportion (95 % CI) with good glycemic was 17 % (12.0–22.5 respectively) in the two facilities [Kenyatta National Hospital 18.3 % (11.5–25.6); Thika District Hospital 15 % (CI 7.4–23.7); P = 0.539]. However, in Thika District Hospital clients were more likely to have a clinic driven routine urinalysis and weight, they were also accorded shorter clinic appointment intervals; incurred half to three quarter lower direct costs, and reported greater affordability and satisfactions with care.
Conclusion

In conclusion, we demonstrate that in Thika district hospital, glycemic control and diabetic care is suboptimal; but comparable to that of Kenyatta National Referral hospital. Opportunities for improvement of care abound at peripheral health facilities.
Keywords
Diabetes mellitus Glycemic control Africa Quality care

Muriuki JM, Kitala P, Muchemi G, Njeru I, Karanja J, Bett B. "A comparison of malaria prevalence, control and management strategies in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in Eastern Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2016;15: 402.
T.M. M, Ndaiga P, and Aywak AA. "Comparison of qualitative and semiquantitative strain elastography in breast lesions for diagnostic accuracy." Cancer Imaging Society. 2016; 16(1):, pp. 12. (DOI 10.1186/s40644-016-0070-8.
Njogu PM, Guantai EM, Pavadai E, Chibale K. "Computer-Aided Drug Discovery Approaches against the Tropical Infectious Diseases Malaria, Tuberculosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Leishmaniasis." ACS Infectious Diseases. 2016;2:8-31. Abstract

Despite the tremendous improvement in overall global health heralded by the adoption of the Millennium Declaration in the year 2000, tropical infections remain a major health problem in the developing world. Recent estimates indicate that the major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths and a loss of approximately 85 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The crucial role of chemotherapy in curtailing the deleterious health and economic impacts of these infections has invigorated the search for new drugs against tropical infectious diseases. The research efforts have involved increased application of computational technologies in mainstream drug discovery programs at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages. This review highlights various computer-aided drug discovery approaches that have been utilized in efforts to identify novel antimalarial, antitubercular, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. The focus is largely on developments over the past 5 years (2010−2014).

Lowther K, Harding R, Aabid Ahmed, Nancy Gikaara, Ali Z, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr 5 VS. "Conducting experimental research in marginalised populations: clinical and methodological implications from a mixed-methods randomised controlled trial in Kenya." AIDS Care . 2016;28 (Suppl 1(sup1)):60-63.
Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Consumer Lending Using Social Media Data." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2016;3(2):1-8. Abstract

Consumer credit has been around for a long period of time but the dynamics observable from the consumers makes it hard to credit score and lend to the consumers. This difficulty results in the poor being excluded from receiving credit as they lack financial history. We analyze the limitations of the traditional consumer lending models due to use of historical data, and look at the benefits that could arise by incorporating social media data in credit scoring process for consumer lending. A review of the research progress made in using social media data for consumer scoring and lending process is presented. We found that social media data offers rich, vast and attractive information on changing trends and shifting demographics in credit underwriting of existing consumers and new consumers with minimal or no financial history. This data advances the lending process by widening the data set available and capture of new markets that are excluded from financial services.

Weke P, Ntwiga DB. "Credit Scoring for M-Shwari Using Hidden Markov Model." European Scientific Journal12. 2016;12(15):176-188. Abstract

The introduction of mobile based Micro-credit facility, M-Shwari, has heightened the need to develop a proper decision support system to classify the customers based on their credit scores. This arises due to lack of proper information on the poor and unbanked as they are locked out of the formal banking sector. A classification technique, the hidden Markov model, is used. The poor customers’ scanty deposits and withdrawal dynamics in the M-Shwari account estimate the credit risk factors that are used in training and learning the hidden Markov model. The data is generated through simulation and customers categorized in terms of their credit scores and credit quality levels. The model classifies over 80 percent of the customers as having average and good credit quality level. This approach offers a simple and novice method to cater for the unbanked and poor with minimal or no financial history thus increasing financial inclusion in Kenya.

Njogu PM, Chibale K. "Current and Future Strategies for Improving Drug Discovery Efficiency.". In: Attrition in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Reasons, Implications and Pathways Forward. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

Ndiritu A, Nyaga G, Gikonyo N. "Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa.". In: Democracy, Civil Society and Development in Africa. Nairobi: Research, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA), Nairobi and AISA, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Nicolas Maire, Alexandra Hiscox, Mukabana R, Takken W, Smith TA. "Design of trials for interrupting the transmission of endemic pathogens." Trials. 2016;17(1):278.
Nyamwaya D, Wang'ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Lindahl J, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya." BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:696.
Nyamwaya D, Wang’ondu V, Amimo J, Michuki G, Ogugo M, Ontiri E, Sang R, Johanna Lindahl, Grace D, Bett B. "Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.". 2016.
Maina SW, Osanjo GO, Ndwigah SN, Opanga SA. "Determinants of discontinuation of contraceptive methods among women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016;5(1):28-34.
Maina W, Osanjo G, Ndwigah S, Opanga S. "Determinants of discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods among Women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(1).
P.E. O, W.M. A, D.W. N, K.O. O, H.O. R, J.R. W,.RC. L, Njagi S.M., Mumenya S.W. K’A. "Determination of Background Ionizing Radiations in Selected Buildings in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiaion Therapy . 2016;7(3).
Archary D, Seaton KE, Passmore JAS, L Werner, A Deal, Dunphy LJ, Arnold KB, NL Yates, Lauffenburger DA, P Bergin, Liebenberg LJ, Samsunder N, Mureithi MW, M Altfeld, Garrett N, Karim AQ, S Abdool Karim, L Morris, Tomaras GD. "Distinct genital tract HIV-specific antibody profiles associated with tenofovir gel." Mucosal immunology. 2016.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Hurisso TT, Norton U, Norton JB, Odhiambo J, Grosso SDJ, Hergert GW, Lyon DJ. "Dryland soil greenhouse gases and yield-scaled emissions in no-till and organic winter wheat–fallow systems." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2016;80(1):178-192.
Olago D, Ochieng AO, Nanyingi M, Kipruto E, Ondiba IM, Amimo FA, et al. "Ecological niche modelling of Rift Valley fever virus vectors in Baringo, Kenya." Infection ecology & epidemiology. 2016;6(1):32322. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).
OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks.
METHODOLOGY:

The study used data on vector presence and ecological niche modelling (MaxEnt) algorithm to predict the effect of climatic change on habitat suitability and the spatial distribution of RVF vectors in Baringo County. Data on species occurrence were obtained from longitudinal sampling of adult mosquitoes and larvae in the study area. We used present (2000) and future (2050) Bioclim climate databases to model the vector distribution.
RESULTS:

Model results predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates for Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univitattus, Mansonia africana, and Mansonia uniformis. Under the present climatic conditions, the lowlands were found to be highly suitable for all the species. Future climatic conditions indicate an increase in the spatial distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus and M. africana. Model performance was statistically significant.
CONCLUSION:

Soil types, precipitation in the driest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and isothermality showed the highest predictive potential for the four species.

Njeru NK, Muthomi JW, Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM. "Effect of cropping systems on accumulation of Fusarium head blight of wheat inocula in crop residues and soils." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2016;11:12-21.
Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Makori A'aA, WANYOIKE-GICHUHI J, Kihara B, Oyieke BO, Ndavi PM. "The effect of time of day on unscheduled caeserian sections on perinatal and maternal outcomes in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(11):620-625.
M. Otim, Kasina M, Nderitu J, Katafiire M, Mcharo M, Kaburu M, Bwire G, Bwire J, Ol F. "Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016; 17 (1): 111-124.Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests1.pdf
Nyavanga EJ, Chebet IM, Barasa M, Ndetei DM. "Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Improving Opinions About Mental Illness Among Primary School Teacher Trainees in Kenya." Science Journal of Public Health . 2016;4(6):422-429. AbstractWebsite

Opinions about mental illness have been found to be negative among college students and the general population. Studies have indicated that improving literacy levels would improve opinions and lead to individuals to seek help and family to provide the needed support. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on the opinions about mental illness among public primary teacher trainees in Kenya. Convenience sampling was used to identify four public teacher colleges out of the twenty. Self-administered demographic questionnaire and opinions about mental illness scale were presented to the participants to collect data in four evaluations for the experimental group and three for the control group. The ethical protocol was followed from getting authority to informed consent from the participants. Out of the 2925 questionnaires presented, 2775 were returned fully filled, a return rate of 94.34%. Summative scores improved among the experimental group in the second, and third assessments, but this reduced to almost the original measure in the fourth assessment. This study found that psycho-education of mental illness is effective in improving negative opinions about mental illness among these participants and this study recommended mental health studies is included in the teachers’ curriculum.

Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO, Mwabora JM. "Effects of Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on the Photovoltaic Performance of TiO2 Thin Films." Surface Reviews and Letters. 2016;24. Abstract

Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9 µm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (AFM/STM) and x-ray diffraction. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5 µm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9 µm (7.5 mA/cm2 and 0.687 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm (8.2 mA/cm2 and 0.711 V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide\triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility.
Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 3.5 % was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm and redox concentrarion of 0.03 mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2

Nyagari E, Onyango CM, Onwong’a RN. "EFFECTS OF INTERCROPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF AFRICAN NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum L.) IN KISII COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research. 2016;2(5):1069-1083.
Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photo-voltaic Performance of dye Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2016.
Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Olum M, Attah-Poku S, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Wesonga H, Soi R, Naessens J. "Efficacy of a capsular polysaccharide conjugated vaccine against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia.". In: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.; 2016.
O G, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, B O, M K, F N, L N, K K, Farquhar C, Kiarie J, Kiarie J, I K. "Engagement of decentralized health facilities in research and training.". 2016.
Njunge LW, Wachira PM, Okoth SA. "Enhancement of Colonisation of Soybean Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using Vermicompost and Biochar." Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2016;5(3):71-78.
Ngugi A, Ombui JN, Gathuma JM. "Evaluation of Economic losses from the hides and skins subsector in Wajir County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2016;9(7):41-44.
Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Nguta JM, Mbaabu M, Kiama SG. "Evaluation of genotoxicity potential of plants traditionally used for mosquito control in Kenya’s South coast." Merit Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2016;4(4):178-182.
Wamalwa RN, WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, Mulwa JK, Ambuso WJ. "Evaluation of the factors controlling concentration of non-condensable gases and their possible impact on the performance of geothermal systems: Case study of Olkaria Wells in the Kenyan Rift Valley." International Journal of Geosciences. 2016;7:257-279. Abstract

The Olkaria geothermal field is located in the Kenyan Rift valley, about 120 km from Nairobi. Development of geothermal resources in the Olkaria area, a high temperature field, started in the early 1950s. In the subsequent years numerous expansions have been carried out with additional power plants being installed in Olkaria. These include a binary plant at Olkaria South West (Olkaria III) in 2000, a condensing plant at Olkaria North East (Olkaria II) in 2003, another binary plant at Olkaria North West (Oserian) in 2004 and finally condensing plants in the year 2014 within East production field (EPF) and Olkaria Domes (OD) areas. The total generation from this field is about 730 Mw. The study considered samples from 4 producing wells from 3 fields of the Olkaria geothermal area (OW-44 from the Olkaria East, OW-724A from the Olkaria North East, and OW-914 and OW-915 from the Olkaria Domes field). The chemical data were first analyzed using SOLVEQ. This helped in the determination of the equilibrium state of the system, the reservoir temperatures and the total moles to be run through CHILLER. The run CHILLER considered the processes that have been proven to be occurring in the Olkaria field i.e., boiling and condensing processes, fluid-fluid mixing rocks and titration resulting from water-rock interaction. The effects on gas evolution were evaluated based on the resulting recalculated gas pressures. The results indicate that the gas species are not in equilibrium with the mineral assemblages. The CHILLER evaluation shows boiling as the major process leading to the evolution of gases. OW-44 had the least gas concentrations, arising from the considered reservoir processes due to degassing, and near surface boiling, besides the removal of NH3 , H2 and H2S are through the reaction with steam condensate. The gas breakout is most likely in OW-914 and least in OW-44. The study proposes different reservoir management strategies for the different parts of the Olkaria geothermal field. That is by increasing hot reinjection in the eastern sector around well OW-44. The reservoir around OW-914 is to be managed by operating the wells at a minimum flow rate (or even to close them) or the use of chemical inhibitors to prevent calcite scaling.

Mwirigi M, Nkando I, Aye R, Soi R, Ochanda H, Berberov E, Potter A, Gerdts V, Perez-Casal J, Naessens J, Wesonga H. "Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2016;169:63-67.
Muchanje, P.N., Kalai, J.M., Njuguna FW, Birongo, S. "An Exploration of Factors Influencing Career Progression of Tutors in Public Primary Teachers’ Training Colleges in Kenya." Universal Journal of Educational Research . 2016;4(3):582-588.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Karimurio J, Njomo D, Gichangi M, Rono H, Barasa E, Odhiambo G. "Facial cleanliness and prevention of cross-border spread of Chlamydial infection are vital in elimination of active trachoma in Narok County ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2016;20(1):8-11.
Wamalwa CM, Nasambu WC, Karimi PN, Ogonyo KB, Wandolo G. "Factors that influence adequacy of asthma control in children residing in Naivasha, a flower growing area in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(4):221-228. AbstractWebsite

Background: In Kenya, asthma affects 10% of the population. One of the modifiable risk factors contributing to asthma morbidity and mortality is environmental exposure.Naivasha flower farms introduce pesticides persistently into the environment and thesemay drift onto residential property or other areas where children play. Proximity of households to the pesticide treated farms may also increase exposure of children to thepesticides. Pesticide exposure has been shown to exacerbate already existing asthma, a relationship that has not been studied in Kenya.
Objectives:To identify risk factors that exacerbate asthma and influence adequacy of Asthma control in children residing in a flower growing area in Kenya.
Methodology: The design was a cross-sectional study that involved 150 asthmatic children aged 5-12 years residing a flower growing area. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, which home to Kenya’s largest horticultural flower farms. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire while asthma control was measured using a validated Asthma control tool. Logistic regression was done to identify variables that affected asthma control.
Results: Majority of the asthmatic children weremales (56.7%) while females were 43.33%. Riskfactors that were found to be significantly associated with asthma control were; duration of stay in or near a flower farm (OR = 0.723, 95%CI (0.538-0.975), presence of a smoker in the family (OR = 0.463, 95%CI (0.094-22.629) and presence of household pet (OR = 4.358, 95%CI (1.182-16.057). There was no significant relationship between the child’s asthma control and age of child, sex of child, distance of school from flower, guardian’s level of education, guardian’s income, and guardian’s occupation as a flower farm worker, child’s age of diagnosis and use of indoor pesticides.
Conclusion: The use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) should be promoted as it keeps environmental exposure pesticides to a minimum.

Donatien Ntawuruhunga, Funga Alemu Assefa WMHMMMROJNNJBMPWM, T Mubyana-John, F Pule-Meulenberg MLCOAPSONJROON’getich DSTJJ, JA Odhiambo, U Norton AJWWIMIMVAOSMKD, Patrick Jeremy Likongwe, Noella Andenyi Ekhuya MSMJNMMMLAOL, Khaemba Emma Nelima, WO Owino EMMDNSMMTHMG, NO Ojijo, B Mukabane GCDSLKMMFCBJD, V Wekesa, B Torto MWTGMKETMH-KJNKS. "Farmers’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards African Indigenous Vegetables in Kenya.". 2016.
Kamau J, Melis R, Laing M, Shanahan P, Derera J, Ngugi K, Migwa Y. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Production Constraints and Preferences in Cassava Grown in Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(3):844-859.farmers_perceptions_of_production_constraints_and_preferences.pdf
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Farmers’ traditional knowledge and innovation.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Farmers’ traditional knowledge and innovation.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Matere, J.S, Mbatia, O.L.E., Nzuma, M.J., Nyamwaro, S.O. "Financial Benefit-Cost Analysis of Terraces in Maize-Pigeon Pea Intercrop in Semi-arid Areas of Kenya." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2016;5(1):140-148.
Aduda J, Weke P, Ngare P, Mwaniki J. "Financial time series modeling of trends and patterns in the energy markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

Precise recognition of a time series path is important to policymakers, statisticians, economists, traders, hedgers and speculators alike. The correct time series path is also a key ingredient in pricing models. This study uses daily futures prices of crude oil and other distillate fuels. This paper considers the statistical properties of energy futures and spot prices and investigates the trends that underlie the price dynamics in order to gain further insights into possible nuances of price discovery and energy market dynamics. The family of ARMA-GARCH models was explored.
The trends depict time-varying variability and persistence of oil price shocks. The return series conform to a constant mean model with GARCH variance.

Weke P, Aduda J, Ngare P, Mwaniki IJ. "Financial Time Series Modelling of Trends and Patterns in the Energy Markets." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2016;6:324-337. Abstract

Energy use is behind virtually everything a person comes into contact with. The energy industry has rapidly expanded and become increasingly interdependent. In developed economies, the increase in energy consumption indicates a reliance on energy and its related products for continued and sustainable economic growth and development. Developing economies also rely on the development of energy resources to drive their growth. Energy was once viewed just as a utility, and an enabler with limited consumer interest, but now, it is key in the struggle for sustainable future economic growth [1] [2].
Energy prices, which are largely linked to oil prices, are a major concern for most economies. The recent financial crises and their ripple effects and after shocks have been largely unprecedented in terms of timing, speed and magnitude of impact on the world economies. Forecasting of crude oil prices is important for better investment and risk management and policy development, and econometric models are the most commonly used.

Bobadoye" "BO, Ndegwa" "PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Ayuka F, Kajobe R. "Floral Resources Sustaining African Meliponine Bee Species (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in a Fragile Habitat of Kenya." Journal of Biology and Life Science. 2016;8(1):42-58.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Ayuka F, Kajobe R. "Floral Resources Sustaining African Meliponine Bee Species (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in a Fragile Habitat of Kenya." Journal of Biology and Life Science. 2016;8(1):42-58.
Masakhwe C, Ochanda H, Nyakoe N, Ochiel D, Waitumbi J. "Frequency of Epstein-Barr Virus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in Kenya." PloS one. 2016;11(5):e0155308. AbstractWebsite

Background

Most acute febrile illnesses (AFI) are usually not associated with a specific diagnosis because of limitations of available diagnostics. This study reports on the frequency of EBV viremia and viral load in children and adults presenting with febrile illness in hospitals in Kenya.

Methodology/Principal Findings

A pathogen surveillance study was conducted on patients presenting with AFI (N = 796) at outpatient departments in 8 hospitals located in diverse regions of Kenya. Enrollment criterion to the study was fever without a readily diagnosable infection. All the patients had AFI not attributable to the common causes of fever in Kenyan hospitals, such as malaria or rickettsiae, leptospira, brucella and salmonella and they were hence categorized as having AFI of unknown etiology. EBV was detected in blood using quantitative TaqMan-based qPCR targeting a highly conserved BALF5 gene. The overall frequency of EBV viremia in this population was 29.2%, with significantly higher proportion in younger children of <5years (33.8%, p = 0.039) compared to patients aged ≥5 years (26.3% for 5–15 years or 18.8% for >15 years). With respect to geographical localities, the frequency of EBV viremia was higher in the Lake Victoria region (36.4%), compared to Kisii highland (24.6%), Coastal region (22.2%) and Semi-Arid region (25%). Furthermore, patients from the malaria endemic coastal region and the Lake Victoria region presented with significantly higher viremia than individuals from other regions of Kenya.

Conclusions/Significance

This study provides profiles of EBV in patients with AFI from diverse eco-regions of Kenya. Of significant interest is the high frequency of EBV viremia in younger children. The observed high frequencies of EBV viremia and elevated viral loads in residents of high malaria transmission areas are probably related to malaria induced immune activation and resultant expansion of EBV infected B-cells.

Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA." Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. 2016.
Odock SO, Awino ZB, Njihia JM, IRAKI WN. "Green supply chain management practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in East Africa." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(3):103-128. Abstract

Increasing levels of environmental degradation by manufacturing firms has resulted in heterogeneous pressures from various organizational groups on the need for them to conduct environmentally friendly operations. A viable option for these firms has been the implementation of green supply chain practices. The key concern however is whether the implementing these practices actually lead to improved performance. The main objective of this study therefore was to examine the relationship between the implementation of GSCM practices and performance of ISO 14001 certified firms in East Africa. Through the use of positivist research paradigm and descriptive cross-sectional research design, primary data was collected from persons in charge of environmental issues in ISO 14001 manufacturing firms in East Africa. Based on the objective, the study establishes a statistically significant positive direct relationship between implementation of GSCM practices and organizational performance. The study therefore confirms existence of a positive link between GSCM practices and organizational performance thus helping to reduce the uncertainty which has arisen out of contradictory findings from past studies on whether it is beneficial to pursue these practices. The results support the natural resource based view that GSCM practices affords the firm an opportunity for competitive advantage and performance improvement through unique causally ambiguous and socially complex resources. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should implement environmentally sound practices in all phases of the supply chain, beginning with procurement of raw materials through to design, manufacture, packaging, distribution and end of life disposal of their products. Regulators can use the findings to scale up the level of implementation of GSCM practices by enforcing stricter environmental legislation and giving incentives to firms that have already implemented these practices. The findings also provide future researchers’ with a useful conceptual and methodological reference to pursue further studies in this under-studied GSCM area especially in the African context.

Key Words: Green Supply Chain, Management Practices, Organizational Performance, ISO Certified Firms, East Africa

Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Growth promotive effects of neem and stinging nettle in indigenous chickens in Kenya." Ruforum working Document Series (ISSN 1607-9345). 2016;14(1):833-838.
Njoroge J, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, Odhiambo AO. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematosus patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2016;4(2):57-62. Abstracthaematological parameters SLEWebsite

ABSTRACT

Background
Systemic lupus erthematosus (SLE) is a multisystem, autoimmune and often severe disease. Its aetiology is still poorly understood. Factors such as genetic, environmental, hormonal and immunological have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Patients with SLE are subject to myriad symptoms, complaints, and inflammatory involvement that can affect virtually every organ including the hemopoietic system.
Hematological abnormalities are common among patients with SLE. The most frequent hematological abnormalities include anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. These abnormalities are markers of disease activity and have been found to be independent determinants of mortality therefore understanding their prevalence is important in patient evaluation.

While these abnormalities have been widely studied in other parts of the world, no study has been conducted on Kenyan patients afflicted by SLE thus there exist a gap regarding hematological parameters in SLE patients and hence the need for this study. We performed this study to understand hematological parameters in a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.

Objective:
The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hematological parameters abnormalities, among SLE patients on follow up at Rheumatology and Renal Outpatient clinics at Kenyatta National Hospital. Specifically, the study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia and identify patient factors associated with these abnormalities.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on SLE patients attending the Rheumatology and Renal outpatient clinics at KNH. Seventy one consecutive SLE patients were screened for eligibility between 5th March 2015 and 5th of June 2015, of these sixty five were recruited and enrolled into the study. Clinical and social demographic data was captured and recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire. Subsequently, four millilitres of blood was collected for measurement of a complete blood count, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and peripheral blood film examination. The tests were undertaken at the KNH Department of Human Pathology, Unit of Haematology and blood transfusion using a CELL-DYN 3700 automated blood counter. ESR interpretation was undertaken at the same laboratory by the Wintrobe method and a PBF was reported after staining with maygrunwald / giemsa stain by direct visualization on a microscope at various powers of magnification by hematologists who were supervisors for this study and the PI

Results

Sixty five eligible SLE patients were recruited into the study. The mean (SD) age was 36. 5(± 12) years. There were 3 (5%) males and 62 (95%) females. Forty nine (75%) patients had at least one abnormality. The abnormalities involved all the three cell lines. The prevalence of abnormalities were; anemia 43%, leucopenia 26% and thrombocytopenia 20%. Disease duration less than one year was significantly associated with anemia, p=0.035, OR = 3.5 (95% CI 0.9-15.1).

Conclusion

Hematological abnormalities are the second most common manifestation of the disease after arthritis and arthralgia among SLE patients on follow up at Kenyatta National Hospital Rheumatology and Renal clinic. Though majority of these abnormalities were mild to moderate and clinically asymptomatic, the proportions of anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were substantially high. There was a significant association between anemia and duration of disease.

Recommendations

I. A larger longitudinal study to correlate thrombocytopenia and leucopenia with demographics and drugs. . This may require a multicenter approach to avail sufficient number of patients.
II. Routine screening for hematological abnormalities, careful long-term monitoring and prompt therapeutic intervention.
III. Multidisplinary approach in management of SLE patients and input from a hematologist.
IV. Need to review the current treatment regimens of our patients to a steroid sparing regimen.
V. Lastly a study to correlate these hematological abnormalities with disease activity in patients with SLE.

Njoroge JW, Oyoo GO, Kitonyi G, Barasa A, ODHIAMBO A. "Haematological parameters in systemic lupus erythematous patients at Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol. 2016;4(2):57-62.
Gichuki JW, Opiyo R, Mugyenyi P, Namusisi K. "Healthcare providers’ level of involvement in provision of smoking cessation interventions in public health facilities in Kenya." Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2016.
Kibui A, Mugo R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, N. M, N M. "Heath policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research, and Innovative Technology, . 2016;2(1):127-134.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
Gitari AN, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EM, Varma VJ, Mwangi WE, Konde AM, Rashid FK. "Hematological and biochemical changes in horses with colic in Nairobi county, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
JA O’o, PM M, BO O, NM O’o, J G. "Hexafurcation of Basilar Artery in a Black Kenyan Population." Austin Journal of Anatomy. 2016;3(1):1046. Abstracthexafurcation_of_basilar_artery_in_a_black_kenyan.pdfAustin Publishing Group

The Basilar Artery (BA), usually terminates by dividing into two posterior cerebral arteries [1,2]. Variant terminations described include double posterior cerebral arteries and common trunks for Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA) and Superior Cerebellar Arteries (SCA) trifurcation, quadrifurcation and pentafurcation [3-5]. Such variant branching patterns of arteries predisposes them to atherosclerosis and aneurysms [6,7], and may complicate surgery at basilar bifurcation angle and clivus [8]. The abnormalities may also alter the relationships with and compress occulomotor nerve [9]. There are, however, few reports on variant termination of the basilar artery. We recently reported up to 5 branches. In all cases of trifurcation, qudrifurcation and pentafurcation, the variation was due to duplication and rostral shift of superior cerebellar artery [4]. Potentially, more than five branches is possible but hitherto unreported in spite its importance. This study, therefore investigated the pattern of termination of the basilar artery in a black Kenyan population, for cases where there were more than five terminal branches.

Nyanchaga EN. History of Water Supply and Governance in Kenya (1895 – 2005). Lessons and Futures.. Tampere, Finland: Tampere University Press.ISBN 978-952-03-0059-3; ISBN 978-952-03-0060-9(pdf)., https://verkkokauppa.juvenes.fi; 2016.
Boit LC, Nelson ME. "The Hope that “No Child is Left Behind” in Education in Kenya ." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;4(1). Abstract

Education as a right was reaffirmed during the Jomtien World Education for all forums (1990) and during the African Regional Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa on A Framework for action in Sub-Saharan African: Renaissance (1999). The Sub-Saharan countries agreed to develop successful education systems and reaffirm that education is a basic right that need investment for quality and agreed to remove all barriers to full realization of education for the African child. The new Kenya constitution as the supreme The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research Volume4 No1, 2016 ISSN2304-2885 65 law of the land has, in article 43, guaranteed education for all citizens for all children (53). This paper examines the rights of education in relation to the constitution of Kenya 2010. Research explains that a meaningful education must be available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable; after all, education is to prepare and equip citizens to function effectively in their environment and to be useful members of society (UNESCO, 2010). The above concerns can only be realized by legislating articles 43, 53, 54 and 55 of the Kenyan constitution. The articles are contained in the Bill of Rights chapter and represent the rights of citizens of Kenya and especially the least able to provide for themselves and if fully legislated would ensure that “No Child is Left Behind” in the Kenyan education system.

Ndushabandi JB, Wausi AN. "ICT Governance Drivers and Effective ICT Governance at the University of Rwanda." American Journal of Information Systems. 2016;4(2):45-58.
Otieno NM, Apolot OF, Dimbuson BW, Christina M, Nkatha GA, Margaret O. "Impact of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Clinical Outcomes Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Attending One of the Largest HIV Care and Treatment Program in Nairobi Kenya." Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research. 2016;7:3-7. Abstractimpact-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes-amonghiv1-infected-adults-attending-one-of-the-largest-hiv-care-a-2155-6113-1000615.pdf

Objective: This study evaluated the immunologic (CD4 cell count), virological (HIV RNA viral load), hepatic (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase - ALT and AST), renal (creatinine) and hematological (hemoglobin -HB, White Blood Cell - WBC, Lymphocytes - LYM and platelets - PLT) response to a six months ART treatment among HIV participants in Nairobi Kenya. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 599 consenting HIV infected participants receiving HIV treatment in Nairobi. CD4 cell counts were measured using flow cytometer and viral load determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The blood hematology, liver and kidney function tests were also measured. One-way ANOVA and Linear regression analysis were conducted. Results: The median age at ART initiation was 41 years (IQR 35-47 years). The majority of participants (60.3%) were female and 56.1% started on regimens with 2 NRTIs and efavirenz based NNRTI. About 40% of the participants were failing treatment 6 month post ART initiation. The CD4 count significantly increased at the 6-month post ART initiation (301.7 ± 199.4 to 329.4 ± 305.8; P<0.05). Hepatotoxicity (ALT and AST levels >5 times the upper limit of normal - ULN) and renal abnormalities (elevated serum creatinine levels) were all high at month 6 compared to baseline; ALT (2.5 to 10.5%), AST (5.3 to 23.4%) and creatinine (63.4 to 68.84%). Fewer participants at month 6 had anemia (29.4% verses 56.4%), leucopenia (42.4% vs. 46.9%) and thrombocytopenia (6.5% vs. 84.1%) compared to baseline. In multivariable models, baseline levels of this parameter, ART regimen and duration with HIV at ART initiation were the most important determinant of month 6 levels. Conclusion: These data demonstrate sustained immunologic/virologic response to ART among participants remaining on therapy. Anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were minimized with marginal hepatotoxicity and renal impairment seen. Interventions leading to earlier HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART could substantially improve patient outcomes in Kenya.

Teyie BG, Nelson ME. "The Impact of International Education on Private Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research . 2016;4(1). Abstract

International education is most probably the means by which we will be able to bridge the cultural and linguistic divides that exist not only within our country, but also globally. In the last decade Kenya has had an increase in the number of schools that are offering one form or another of an international education curriculum such as the British National Curriculum (BNC), the International Baccalaureate (IB), the Business Technology Examination Council (BTEC) and the American system of education. This paper explored the impact of international education in high schools in Nairobi County. This study was prompted by the need to find out whether there has been a paradigm shift. It attempted to answer the following questions: Is global citizenship still a foreign concept to Kenya? Does international education contribute/establish a greater formal equality of opportunity for all? Does international education cater for individual differences? Do students at post primary level appreciate the multicultural environment? How does it impact on the cost of education in Kenya? How do stereotypes about international education affect the implementation of these curricula? The study adopted a survey design where stratified random sampling was used to select schools from the private international secondary schools in Nairobi. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect primary data from the respondents. A combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques was used in the analysis. The outcome of this study was expected to make recommendations that would enhance appreciation of diversity in education and encourage adoption of various positive attributes that would continue to add value to Kenyan education. It also proposed ways of minimizing the negative influences that international education may have on the Kenyan educational structures.

B.Irungu M, Mwangi CG, Njenga KP, K. M. "Impact of Sociocultural factors on adoption of modern technologies in beekeeping projects among women groups in Kajiado County- Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2016;4(4):55-64.
Matere, J.S, Mbatia, O.L.E., Nzuma, M.J., Nyamwaro, S.O. "Impact of Terraces in Maize and Pigeon pea Intercrop on Wellbeing of Smallholder Farmers in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2016;4(4):435-439.
Kingori GM, Njiraine D, Maina S. "Implementation of information literacy programmes in public libraries." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(2):17-22.
Bhui KS, Fiorillo A, Stein D, Okasha T, Ndetei D, Lam L, Chaturvedi S, Maj M. "Improving education, policy and research in mental health worldwide: the role of the WPA Collaborating Centres." World Psychiatry. 2016.Website
Okeyo-Ikawa R, Amugune NO, Njoroge NC, Asami P, Holton T. "In planta seed transformation of Kenyan cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) with P5CS gene via Agrobacterium tumefaciens." Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2016;8(5):32-45.
Appiah-Opong R., NyarkoA.K., Yeboah-Manu D, Addo GA, Otchere ID, Kissi-Twum A. "In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacterial strains." . International Journal of Mycobacteriology,. 2016;5(5 (2016) ):S106-S107.
Nguta JM, Appiah-Opong R, Nyarko AK, Yeboah-Manu D, Addo, G.A., Otchere ID, Kissi-Twum, A. "In vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic data on medicinal plants used to treat tuberculosis." Data in Brief. 2016;7 (2016) (7 (2016) ):1124-1130.
Ontita EG, Onyango CM, Onwonga RN, Nyamongo D. "Indigenous Knowledge on the Uses of African Nightshades (Solanum nigram L.) Species among Three Kenyan Communities." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2016;14(3):1-8.
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Financial Prudence on the Performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science. 2016;2(1):4.ajwang_karanja_ogollah_and_orwa_2016_2.pdf
catherine ngahu, Francis K, Kobonyo P. "Influence of Interactional Justice Strategy on Recovery Satisfaction among Customers of Mobile Money Services in Kenya ." Journal of Marketing and Consumer Research . 2016;27(2422):55-61.
Njogu E, Kibui AW. "Influence of mother tongue on pre-school children's performance in the English language in Gachoka Division, Embu County." International Journal of Research In Humanities, Arts and Literature. 2016;4(8):99-104.
Ajwang BO, Ngugi K, Ogollah K, Orwa G. "Influence of Product Value on the performance of the Insurance Industry in Kenya ." Journal Of Business Management Science . 2016;2(1).ajwang_ogollah_karanja_and_orwa_2016_.pdf
k litondo, Ntale F. "INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETING DECISIONS AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN KENYA: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom. 2016;4(4):1167-1180.information_communication.pdf
Mumenya SW, Nyangwachi J. "Integrated programme for civil engineering and construction management." Journal of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya on-line. 2016.
Muchemi L, Mogambi H, Ndati N. "Interpreting Green Advertising messages: A Perspective of Environmentally-informed consumers in Kenya." Scientific Research Journal (Scirj). . 2016;4(10):17-26.
Mogambi H, Muchemi L, ndeti ndati. "Interpreting Green Advertising messages: A Perspective of Environmentally-informed consumers in Kenya." Scientific Research Journal (SCIR). 2016;4(5):17-26.
NB 46. S, LW G, G WE. "Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016;http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2378-7090.198(Volume: 2.4).abstract_simiyu.pdf
Ndereeh D, Muchemi G, Thaiyah A. "Knowledge, attitudes and Practices towards Spotted Fever Group rickettiosis and Q-Fever in Laikipia and Maasai Mara." Journal of Public Health Africa. 2016;7:545.
Njomo D, Karimurio J, Odhiambo G, Mukiri M, Barasa E, Rono H, et al. "Knowledge, practices and perceptions of trachoma and its control among communities of Narok County, Kenya." Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2016;2(13):3-10.
Waruiru RM, Murigu MM, Nana P, Nga’nga’ CJ, Ekesi S, N. M. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz- resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Murigu MM, Nana P, Waruiru RM, Nganga CJ, Ekesi S, Maniania NK. "Laboratory and field evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of amitraz-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus decoloratus." Veterinary Parasitology. 2016;225:12-18.
Warinwa F, mwaura F, Kiringe JW, Ndubi AO. "Land Cover Dynamics in the Kirisia Forest Ecosystem, Samburu County, Kenya. ." Advances in Remote Sensing. 2016;5::168-182.
Omoko BJ, Onyatta J, Nyabaro O, Kenanda OE. "Level of Metal Pollutants in Water from Nyakomisaro Stream through Kisii Town.." International Journal of Science and Research . 2016;5(7):464-565.
Mwangi H, Williams D, Waema T, Nganga Z. "Leveraging HIV advancement in the light of Tuberculosis and Malaria using System Dynamics." Advances in Computer System. 2016;5:47-54.
and Muthama AKH, W MJ, N MUTHAMAJ. "Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform." American Research Journal of Physics. 2016;2(2):1-9.
Nguyen TTT, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, EO A, et al. "A Longitudinal study of association between heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients: related with non-immunoglobin E mediated mechanism." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13:110.
Ndlela S, Mohamed S, Ndegwa PN, Ong’amo GO, Ekesi S. "Male annihilation technique using methyl eugenol for field suppression of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango in Kenya." African Entomology . 2016;24(2):437-447 .
Aluisio AR, Bosire R, Betz B, Gatuguta A, Kiarie JN, Nduati R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "Male Partner Participation in Antenatal Clinic Services is Associated with Improved HIV-free survival Among Infants in Nairobi, Kenya: A Prospective Cohort Study." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

This prospective study investigated the relationship between male antenatal clinics (ANC) involvement and infant HIV-free survival.

Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Management of agropastoral production systems.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Kibet S, Nantongo P. "Management of agropastoral production systems.". In: Mainstreaming ecosystem services and biodiversity into agricultural production and management in East Africa. Rome: FAO; 2016.
Situma J, Attoh F, Ndohvu J. "Mapping Out the Identity of African Arts and Aesthetics." Thought and Practice. 2016;7(1):77-102.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Masiga D, Oria PA, Jane Alaii. "Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial." Trials. 2016;17(1):356.
Nickson. Mastitogenic bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Kabete Sub County. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology; 2016.
Ronoh M, Rym Jaroudi, Patrick Fotso, Victor Kamdoum, Nancy Matendechere, Wairimu J, Rose Auma JL. "A Mathematical Model of Tuberculosis with Drug Resistance Effects." https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=68984. 2016;7(12):1303-1316. AbstractWebsite

Despite the enormous progress in prevention and treatment, tuberculosis disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and one of the major sources of concern is the drug resistant strain, MDR-TB (multidrug resistant tuberculosis) and XDR-TB (extensively drug resistant tuberculosis). In this work, we extend the standard SEIRS epidemiology model of tuberculosis to include MDR-TB. For that, we considered compartments of susceptible, exposed, infected, resistant to a first line of treatment and recovered humans and we modeled the natural growth, the interactions between these populations and the effects of treatments. We calculate the basic reproduction number, , using the next generation method. The DFE and the EE are established and their stability analysis done to show that they are locally and globally asymptotically stable. Numerical analysis for the model with and without delay is done and demonstrated that in the case of patients with both active tuberculosis and MDR tuberculosis, both strains will still persist due to lack of permanent immunity to tuberculosis while the recovered can still lose their immunity to become susceptible again

Amimo JO, El Zowalaty ME, Githae D, Wamalwa M, Djikeng A, Nasrallah GK. "Metagenomic analysis demonstrates the diversity of the fecal virome in asymptomatic pigs in East Africa." Archives of Virology. 2016;161(4):887-897.
Ferrier S, Ninan KN, Leadley P, Alkemade R, Acosta LA, Akcakaya HR, Brotons L, Cheung WWL, Christensen V, Harhash KA, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Lundquist C, Obersteiner M, Pereira HM, Peterson G, Pichs-Madruga R, Ravindranath N, Rondinini C, Wintle BA. The methodological assessment report on scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bonn, Germany: IPBES; 2016.2016.methodological_assessment_report_scenarios_models.pdf
Ntwiga, Pweke, MManene, IJMwaniki. "MODELING TRUST IN SOCIAL NETWORK." International Journal of mathematical archive. 2016;7(2):64-68. AbstractWebsite

We rely on trust in our day to day interactions and activities with each other. It is not easy to estimate it but we offer a
simple and powerful method for estimating trust levels of agents in a social network using data from the agents’
reputation matrix. The reputation resultant method (RRM) is based on the mean values of the reputation rating matrix
and the reputation resultant matrix. Reputation ratings are derived from the agents’ peer to peer ratings and the
resultant reputation data is the relative reputation ratings by the agents. A comparison is made between the results of
Singular value decomposition (SVD) and our new method, the RRM. The two methods offer results that are highly
comparative with the RRM being simple, powerful and easy to understand and implement.

Okeyo J, IJMwaniki, Ngare P. "Modelling Inflation Rate Volatility in Kenya Using Arch-Type Model Family." Research journal of finance and accounting.. 2016;7(23):10-17. AbstractWebsite

This paper describe the empirical study based on financial time series modelling with special application to modelling inflation data for Kenya. Specifically the theory of time series is modelled and applied to the inflation data spanning from January 1985 to April 2016 obtained from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Three Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (ARCH) family type models (traditional ARCH, Generalized ARCH (GARCH), GJR GARCH and the Exponential GARCH (EGARCH)) models were fitted and forecast to the data. This was principally because the data were characterized by changing mean and variance. The outcome of the study revealed that the ARCH –family type models, particularly, the EGARCH (1, 1) with generalized error distribution (GED) was the best in modelling and forecasting Kenya’s monthly rates of inflation. The study recommends that governments, policy makers interested in modelling and forecasting monthly rates of inflation should take into consideration Heteroscedastic models since it captures the volatilities in the monthly rates of inflation

Carolyne Musyoki Minoo, Ngugi CC, Oyoo-Okoth E, Muthumbi A, Sigana D, Mulwa R, Chemoiwa EJ. "Monitoring the effects of aquaculture effluents on benthic macroinvertebrate populations and functional feeding responses in a tropical highland headwater stream (Kenya)." Aquatic ecosystem health & management. 2016;19(4):431-440.
Macharia JW, Wandiga SO, Njenga LW, Madadi VO. "Moringa oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia coli and Turbidity removal from drinking water." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2016;9(5):46-55.
Njenga LW, Macharia JW, Shem O. Wandiga*, Madadi VO. "Moringa Oleifera and Ceramic Filters for Escherichia Coli and Turbidity Removal From Drinking Water." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC). 2016;9(5):2278-5736.final_paper_jane.pdf
Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Nguta JM, Mbaabu M, Kiama SG. "Mosquito repellency and knockdown effect of a plant based formulation." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2016;6(5):09-14.
Musau JK, Mbaria JM, Nguta JM, Mbaabu KM. "Mosquito repellency and knockdown effect of a plant based formulation. ." Journal of Pharmacy. 2016;6(5) : 9-14.
S.A.M.Johnson, D.W. Gakuya, P.G. Mbuthia, J.D. Mande, K.Afakye, N. Maingi. "Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana." Vector-borne and Zoonotic diseases. 2016;16(1):54-57.myiasis_in_dogs_in_the_greater_accra_region_of_ghana.pdf
Nyundo AA, Ndetei DM, Othieno CJ, Mathai AM. "Neurocognitive correlates of the use of combined Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-infected adults attending care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: An analytical crosssectional study." Tanzania Medical Journal. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The discovery of the highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life span of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to almost that of the general population. This, however, has been coupled with increased incidences of HIVassociated dementia, especially mild cognitive impairment. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been observed to improve neurocognitive functions but the ART regimen that is best suited for improvement of neurocognitive functions is still largely unknown. This study was aimed at determining how neurocognitive deficits in patients on cART were related to ART regimen.

Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, A.Walker L, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M.G. Gilbert." Planta Med. 2016;82(2016):1079-1086.
Ndunda B, Langat MK, Mulholland DA, Eastman H, Jacob MR, Khan SI, Walker LA, Muhammad I, Kerubo LO, Midiwo JO. "New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Planta medica. 2016;82(11/12):1079-1086. AbstractFull text link

The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1–12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.
Key words:
Croton megalocarpoides - Euphorbiaceae - abietane - ent-clerodane - ent-trachylobane - diterpenoids - electronic circular dichroism

WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Njeru NK, Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Mutegi CK. "Occurrence of Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and Associated Mycotoxins in Narok and Nakuru Counties, Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016;4(4):119-127.
Wanjama JK, Onyango I, Mutyambai DM, Kabochi SK, Ndegwa PN. "Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2016;64(1):129-135.
Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On A-Self-Adjoint, A-Unitary Operators and Quasiaffinities." SciencePG journals. 2016;Vol. 1(3 ):56-60. Abstract

In this paper, we investigate properties of A-self-adjoint operators and other relations on Hilbert spaces. In this
context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. More results on operator equivalences including similarity, unitary and metric equivalences are discussed. We also investigate conditions under which these classes of operators are self- adjoint and unitary. We finally locate their spectra.

Clair V, Mutiso V, Musau A, Frank E, Ndetei D. "Online learning improves substance use care in Kenya: Randomized control trial results and implications." Annals of Global Health. 2016;82(3):320-321. AbstractWebsite

Alcohol use is the 5th most important risk factor driving the global burden of diseases. WHO identifies a lack of health worker training as one of the main barriers to providing cost-effective brief interventions for alcohol use disorder. This study assesses the impact of online training, using the NextGenU.org model, on the delivery of the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its linked brief intervention (BI).

Omwenga I, Kanja L, Nguta JM, Mbaria JM, Irungu P. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in farmed fish in Machakos and Kiambu counties, Kenya." Cogent Environmental Science. . 2016;2(1153215.).
Nshimirimana DA, Uwurukundo JMC, Kokonya D, Biraboneye P, Were F, Baribwira C. "Pain Assessment among African Neonates." American Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;2(2). AbstractWebsite

Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A total of 60 neonates born at gestational age of 28-42 weeks at the National University of Rwanda Teaching and Referral Hospital in the year 2005 were enrolled into this study. Blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation levels, the Neonatal Facing Coding System (NFCS) and Neonatal Acute Pain (APN) pain tools were and scores recorded before, immediately and 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after procedures were recorded. Physiological parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test while the NFCS and APN were compared using the McNemar Test. All (100%) neonates experienced acutely peak pain in the first 5 minutes of the invasive procedures with peak responses recorded at 2.5 minutes and no pain (resolution) after 15 minutes among 81% of the neonates and only 6% experienced pain after 20 minutes. The increases in systolic blood pressures immediately after inflicting pain, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were statistically significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.005 and p<0.046) respectively compared to the diastolic blood pressures whose significant increases were at 5 and 10 minutes, (p<0.001 and p<0.001) respectively. Respiratory rates were significantly high at the onset (p<0.001), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes later (p<0.002). Heart rates significantly increased at the onset of the procedures (p<0.000), 5 minutes (p<0.001) and after 10 minutes (p<0.033). Decrease in oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures was significant (p<0.001). Oxygen saturation immediately after the procedures significantly increased up to 5 minutes (p<0.001) and 10 minutes (p<0.001). Invasive procedures caused acute pain among neonates in the African settings but to date, neonatal practice had not been given its due consideration with the aim of reducing pain among African neonates.

Keywords: Pain, Assessment, Neonates, Physiological, APN, NFCS, Africa

Nadenge M, Ngesu L, Muasya I, Maonga T, Mukhungulu M. "Parental socio-economic status and students academic achievement in selected secondary schools in urban informal settlements in West lands division, Nairobi County." International Journal of Education and Social Sciences. 2016;3(1):43-55.

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