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2017
Ngaina JN, Opere AO. "Hydrological Characteristics of Lower Nzoia Sub-basin in Kenya." Hydrol Current Res . 2017;8:4; DOI: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000285.
Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Gathumbi JK, Midiwo JO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW, Midiwo JO. "Identification of the Antimicrobial Compounds in Garlic Grown at Laikipia County." International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Wachege PN, Nyongesa KL. "Impact of Sabaot Land Defense Force Conflict (2006-2008) on the Roman Catholic Church in Cheptais, Bungoma." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;22(12):62-73.wachege_and_kibet_article.pdf
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In vitro activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):83-689.
Thuo BM, Thoithi GN, Maingi N, Ndwigah SN, Gitari RN, Otieno RO. "In vitro anthelmintic activity of Albizia gummifera, Crotalaria axillaris, Manilkara discolor, Teclea trichocarpa and Zanthoxylum usambarense using sheep nematodes." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(1):38-42.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Wagacha MJ, Narla RD. "In'vitro'activity of plant extracts against some important plant pathogenic fungi of tomato." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2017;11(6):683.
Motomura K, Ganchimeg T, Nagata C, Ota E, Vogel JP, Betran AP, Torloni MR, Jayaratne K, Jwa SC, Mittal S, Recidoro ZD, Matsumoto K, Fujieda M, Nafiou I, Yunis K, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Souza JP, Mori R. "Incidence and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior caesarean section: WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health." Scientific Reports. 2017;7. AbstractWebsite

Caesarean section (CS) is increasing globally, and women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. However, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture in women with prior CS, especially in developing countries. To investigate this, we conducted a secondary analysis of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health, which included data on delivery from 359 facilities in 29 countries. The incidence of uterine rupture among women with at least one prior CS was 0.5% (170/37,366), ranging from 0.2% in high-Human Development Index (HDI) countries to 1.0% in low-HDI countries. Factors significantly associated with uterine rupture included giving birth in medium- or low-HDI countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.0 and 3.88, respectively), lower maternal educational level (≤6 years) (AOR 1.71), spontaneous onset of labour (AOR 1.62), and gestational age at birth <37 weeks (AOR 3.52). Women with uterine rupture had significantly higher risk of maternal death (AOR 4.45) and perinatal death (AOR 33.34). Women with prior CS, especially in resource-limited settings, are facing higher risk of uterine rupture and subsequent adverse outcomes. Further studies are needed for prevention/management strategies in these settings.

Use of caesarean section (CS) deliveries has been steadily increasing, from 6.7% in 1990 to 19.1% in 2014 globally1,2. Consequently, the number of deliveries by mothers with prior CS is also on the rise1.

Women with prior CS are at higher risk of uterine rupture. The reported incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS ranged from 0.22% to 0.5% in some developed countries3,4,5,6. The risk factors for uterine rupture in women with a history of CS include prior classical incision, labour induction or argumentation, macrosomia, increasing maternal age, post-term delivery, short maternal stature, no prior vaginal delivery, and prior periviable CS4,7,8,9,10,11. Uterine rupture poses considerable risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The prevalence of maternal and perinatal complications, such as severe post-hemorrhagic anemia, major puerperal infection, bladder injury, hysterectomy, and perinatal mortality, are significantly higher in women with uterine rupture than women without uterine rupture4,10,12,13.

A World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review to determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide identified uterine rupture as a serious obstetric complication being more prevalent and with more serious consequences in developing countries than in developed countries14. In developing countries, uterine rupture has been reportedly associated with obstructed labour, grand multiparity, injudicious obstetric interventions/manipulations, lack of antenatal care, unbooked status, poor access to emergency obstetric care, and low socioeconomic status rather than prior CS15,16,17,18. However, uterine rupture after prior CS is becoming more common as the availability of CS increases in these settings18. According to a literature review on uterine rupture in developing countries, the proportion of women with prior CS or uterine scar among women who had uterine rupture was up to 64%18. A study in India reported that the incidence of uterine rupture among women with prior CS was 1.69%19. Nevertheless, there are few studies about the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS from these settings.

Typically, uterine rupture occurs suddenly and requires immediate critical emergency care for mothers, fetuses, or neonates. The strategies for prevention and management, as well as the quality of affordable care for women at risk of or experiencing uterine rupture, are likely to vary across settings depending on their diagnostic capacity, availability of obstetric interventions, and human and facility resources. Therefore, the findings in developed countries may not be generalizable to low-resource countries and settings. The aim of this analysis was to describe the incidence, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of uterine rupture among women with prior CS using data from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), which was conducted in facilities in 29 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2011.

Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014).". 2017. Abstract

This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence of fractures affecting the distal limbs of racehorses and their outcomes. A total of 387 radiographs each showing at least one significant bone lesion were examined. These radiographs were from racehorses examined in the period starting 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2014 at the Equine Clinic of the Jockey Club in Kenya. Radiographs showing all types of fractures were retrieved from the records archive and evaluated. Fractures accounted for 23.5% (91/387) of the cases studied and out of these, 56.0% (n=51) were of the distal limb. The commonest distal limb fractures occurred in the phalangeal bones (47.1%, n=24), followed by the proximal sesamoid bones (27.4%, n=14), metacarpal bones (19.6%, n=10) involving mainly metacarpus IV (50.0%, n=5) and metacarpus III (40.0%, n=4), navicular bones (3.9%, n=2) and metatarsal bone (2.0%, n=1). Of the phalangeal fractures, 45.8% (n=11) were chip fractures, while 41.7% (n=10) were single line fractures. Overall, horses with fractures involving the distal limb had a higher incidence for retirement (74.5%, n=38) compared to those that returned to racing (25.5%, n=13). Out of these distal limb fractures, those of the proximal sesamoid bones had a higher incidence for retiring from racing at 85.7% (n=12), while cases of navicular bone fractures that were only 2 retired from racing. The study concluded that among the distal limb fractures occurring in racehorses in Kenya, phalangeal fractures are the commonest particularly those affecting the third phalanx. Racehorses with distal limb fractures in Kenya have a high likelihood of retiring

Samiullah MH, Varma VS, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):81-85.
Kariuki BN, Saidi H, Ndung’u B, Kaisha W, Ogeng’o J. "INFLUENCE OF AGE ON GALLBLADDER MORPHOMETRY." Anatomy Journal of Africa. . 2017;6(2):987-994. Abstractinfluence_of_age_on_gallbladder_morphometry.pdf

Morphometric properties of the gallbladder such as length, diameter and volume are determinants of gallbladder
function. These parameters are altered with age and may explain the age-related reduction in gallbladder
contractility associated with gallstone formation. Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21
and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each
gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres
(mm) and used to calculate the gallbladder volume. These measurements were standardized using
measurements of liver length and weight. Data were recorded by age categories in age groups of 21-30, 31-40,
41-50, 51-60 and 61 or more years. The mean gallbladder volume was 47.948 (±19.080) cm3 and showed a
statistically significant increase with age (p <0.001). There was also a significant increase of gallbladder length
(p =0.01) and diameter (p <0.001). A positive correlation was observed between gallbladder length, diameter
and volume; 0.282, 0.485 and 0.480 respectively (p = 0.01). The gallbladder volume which is a function of
length and diameter, shows a statistically significant increase with age. Notably, there is a marked increase in
these parameters after the fifth decade. This could explain the exponential increase in prevalence of cholelithiasis
by 4 to 10 times after the fifth decade of life.

Njeru L, J.G M. "Influence of Gender Differences on Youth Participation in Agriculture in Kajiado North Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2017;6(8)(ISSN):851-861.
MBURUNG’A SOLOMONMURIUNGI, Ndiritu A, NJERI JANEKIERU. "Influence of grant financing on sustainbility of community water projects in Kieni constituency, Nyeri county, Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge Volume 2 Issue 5, May-2017: ISSN-2213-1356.". 2017. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of grant financing on sustainability of community water projects in Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County, Kenya. This study was limited to community water projects in Kieni. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and conducted a census of all the 73 water projects in Kieni Constituency. Respondents were chairpersons of each of the water projects. Data collection instruments were questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedules. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, that is, mean, standard deviations, frequency and percentages, as well as inferential statistics, that is, multiple regression analysis for modeling, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation for correlation analysis and F statistics for testing hypothesis. The study established that, there was a weak negative relationship between grant financing and level of sustainability of community water projects. An increase in grants reduces the levels of sustainability of a community water project. The null hypothesis two was accepted. It was therefore concluded that, there was no significant relationship between grant financing and sustainability of community water projects. Grant financing accounted for only 2.3% of the variation in levels of sustainability. The study recommended that, community water projects take less of grants for their project to improve sustainability of water projects. Alternatively, grants should have terms for repayment as a loan at a flexible and cheaper way in order to ensure ownership, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of grants. Key words: Sustainability, Community Water Projects, Grants, Donors.

Lutta HO, Wesonga HO, Odongo DO, Thiaucourt F, Naessens J. "Inoculation of Mycoplasma mycoides by endotracheal intubation produces a milder disease than by contact transmission." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:477-484.
AB Bugah, Ndavi PM, Jaldesa G, Njoroge PL. "Large follicular cyst in pregnancy." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9).
Njuguna NM, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Thoithi GN. "A liquid chromatography method for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups." Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;51(2):153-158. Abstract

A simple, rapid isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorpheniramine, and ephedrine in cold-cough syrups commonly available in the Kenyan market. The influence of the percentage of organic modifier, ion pairing agent, buffer concentration as well as pH and column temperature on the selectivity with respect to analytes was investigated. Optimum chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 Gemini NX column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) maintained at 40°C and a mobile phase comprising methanol –triethylamine-0.2 M ammonium acetate pH 5.0 -water mixture (50:0.15: 40:9.85, v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Upon validation, the proposed liquid chromatography method satisfied the International Committee on Harmonization acceptance criteria for linearity, sensitivity, precision, and robustness. The method was applied in the analysis of commercial samples obtained from Nairobi County, Kenya. The method can be used in routine analysis of cold-cough syrups containing the specified compounds.

Keywords: diphenhydramine; promethazine; chlorpheniramine; ephedrine, cold-cough syrups.

Kabinga S, Were AJO, Kayima JK, McLigeyo SO, Mbugua P, Ngigi J, Wambugu B, Wangombe N. "Living-Related Kidney Graft Donors Sociodemographic Characteristics and Recipients Clinical Characteristics in Kenya: A Single Centre Experience Kenyatta National Hospital 2010-2015 Audit." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017;32(2):134-142. Abstract

This article provides summary of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the kidney transplant donors and recipients from 2010-2015 from Kenyatta national hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa. Only living-related organ donation is practiced in Kenya. Accelerated kidney transplantation activities picked up in Kenyatta national hospital from the 2010. The duration from 2010-2015 has seen more kidney transplantations undertaken in the hospital than the ones done in the same hospital from 1984 when first transplantation was performed in Kenya to 2009. The data were extracted from manual medical records. There were about 120 kidney transplantations performed during this period but only 113 complete records were traceable. There were 113 medical records for both kidney graft donors and recipients from 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics for donors and recipients captured included age, sex, and donor-recipient relationships. The mean donor age was 32.94

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ochieng AO, Anyona DN, Nyamongo IK, Estambale B. "Malaria vector species distribution and seasonal population dynamics across varied ecological zones in Baringo County, Kenya." Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;7(21):174-183.ondiba_et_al_2017.pdf
Ndungu, M N. "The Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Mood." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;5(7):1-15.
Njage PMK, Sawe CT, Onyango CM, I HABIB, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, AERTS MARC, MOLENBERGHS GEERT. "Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling." Journal of Food Protection. 2017;80(1):177-188.
Kasangaki P, Nyamasyo G, Ndegwa P, Kajobe R, Angiro C, Agapitus Kato, Masembe C. "Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers reveal low genetic variation and the presence of two honey bee races in Uganda’s agro-ecological zones." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(2):112-121.
Bebora LC, Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Christopher O, Ntagereka BP. "Mixed infection of Peste-des-petits ruminants and Capripox in goats in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2017;4(4):348-355.abstract.pdf
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Ndemah R, Molo R, Chipab G. "Molecular phylogenetics and definition of the Acrapex minima Janse group (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of four new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(4):219-235.
Ndereeh D, Muchemi G, Thaiyah A. "Molecular surveillance of Spotted Fever Group rickettsiosis in wildlife." Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017;84(1) .
Ndereeh D, Muchemi G, Thaiyah A, Jowers MJ. "Molecular survey of Coxiella burnetti in wildlife and ticks at wildlife-livestock interfaces in Kenya." Experimental and Applied acarology. 2017;72:277-289.
Ondieki DK, Nyaboga EN, Wagacha JM, Mwaura FB. "Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya." International journal of microbiology. 2017;2017.
Stasiewicz MJ, Falade TDO, Mutuma M, Mutiga SK, Harvey JJW, Fox G, Pearson TC, Muthomi JW, Nelson RJ. "Multi-spectral kernel sorting to reduce aflatoxins and fumonisins in Kenyan maize." Food Control. 2017;(78):203-214.
Wahome MW, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Bwana MO. "Occurrence of Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in Non Vaccinated Indigenous Chicken, Ducks and Turkeys in Kenya." Vet Sci. 2017;6(3):159-162.
Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Wahome MW, Bwana MO. "Occurrence of antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus in non-vaccinated indigenous chicken, ducks and turkeys in Kenya." International journal of veterinary science. 2017;6(3):159-162.abstract.pdf
Wahome MW, Njagi LW, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Bwana MO. "Occurrence of Antibodies to Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in NonVaccinated Indigenous Chicken, Ducks and Turkeys in Kenya." Vet Sci. 2017;6(3):159-162.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2017;10(10):1255-1263.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary world. 2017;10(10):1255.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya, Veterinary World, 10 (10): 1255-1263.". 2017. Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9. 8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic.
Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement …

Hisco A, Tobias Homan, Smith TA, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Silky M, Collins K Mweresa, Prisca Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Teun Bousema, Nicolas Maire, DePasquale A. "ODOR-BAITED TRAPS AS A NOVEL TOOL FOR MALARIA CONTROL-THE SOLARMAL TRIAL." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. 2017;95(5):26.
Masai ST, Apolot OF, Ngʹwono OM, Kuria KTK, K CH, N MN. "Optimization and Validation of A High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Nevirapine in Plasma." Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;9(5):175-181.
S PE, Mutuku RN, N MJ. "Palm Kernel Shell as Partial Replacement for Normal Weight Aggregagte in Concrete." Civil and Environmental Research. 2017;Vol 9(11):40-47.
Otieno SP, Ndede LA, Musonye M. "The Paradox of Pain in Tosh Gitonga’s Nairobi Half Life." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences,. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 4):51-63.
Ngumbo L, Ndati N, Muchemi L. "Participatory Communication in Poverty Reduction in Kenya: A study of Murang’a County." International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(1):1139-1140.
Omondi CJ, Onguru D, Kamau L, Nanyingi M, Ong’amo G, Estambale B. "Perennial transmission of malaria in the low altitude areas of Baringo County, Kenya." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):257.
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Sezonlin M, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogeny and systematics of the Acrapex apicestriata (Bethune-Baker, 1911) species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina) with the description of eight new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2017;53(2):106-130.
Musila, F.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Nguta, CM, S.F. D. "Phylogeny of Ten Kenyan Plectranthus Species in the Coleus Clade Inferred from Leaf Micromorphology, Rbcl and MatK Genes ." Journal of Botany. 2017;((https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4369029).).
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;DOI 10.1007/s40858-016-0114-4.
Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractSpringerLink

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12. AbstractFull Text

Sweet potato is one of the most important staple food crops consumed in Kenya and throughout Africa but yields are greatly reduced by plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPN in Kenyan sweet potato fields and their relationship with soil and climatic variables. Soil samples were collected from sweet potato fields in Busia, Teso, Kisii, Embu and Makueni counties. Thirteen nematode genera were identified across the five counties with Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchus being the most prevalent. There was a significant (P <0.05) relationship between PPN abundance and sodium, calcium and iron. Canonical correspondence analysis of climatic variables revealed that the relationship between rainfall and nematode genera was significant (P <0.05) while maximum and minimum temperatures were not significant. This description of PPN assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables provides a starting point from which appropriate nematode management strategies can be implemented.

Karuri HW, Olago D, Neilson R, Njeri E, Opere A, Ndegwa P. "Plant parasitic nematode assemblages associated with sweet potato in Kenya and their relationship with environmental variables." Tropical Plant Pathology. 2017;42(1):1-12.
Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4(2):1075.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
Ndlela S, Ekesi S, Ndegwa PN, Ong'amo GO, Mohamed SA. "Post‐harvest disinfestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango using hot‐water treatments." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2017;141(10):848-859.
NGUYAI CM, OGALO JP, Guthua SW, Odhiambo WA, Butt FM. "The potential of using 3D Printed Specific Models in Reconstructive Surgery of the Mandible." Afr. Journal of Oral Health Sciences (AJOHS). 2017;(1) 5:7-10.
Situma J, Ndohvu JB. "Poverty and Human Rights: Dimensions of Morals and Ideas.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Andreassen BA, Ndohvu JB,(Eds) TB. Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Waruiru RM, Murugami JW, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Predation and its associated risk factors in fish farms in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. 2017;4(8):209-214.
Murugami JW, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Thaiyah HA, Ngowi, H., Mdegela RH. "Predators and its associated risk factors in fish farms in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and advanced studies. 2017;4(8):209-214.
Nyamu DG, Guantai AN, Osanjo GO, Mwatha E, Gitonga I, Kanyiri ML. "Predictors of Adequate Ambulatory Anticoagulation Services among Adult Patients in a Tertiary Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):20-26. Abstract2017_-_predictors_of_adequate_ambulatory_anticoagulation_services.pdf

Background: Local anticoagulation services are inadequate and substantially underutilized despite compelling evidence showing that their appropriate use significantly reduces the risk of thromboembolic complications.
Objectives: To determine the predictors of adequate ambulatory anticoagulation services in Kenyatta National Hospital.
Methodology: A cross sectional study between December 2014 and April 2015 among 102 adult outpatients on anticoagulation using consecutive sampling was done. Information abstracted into a predesigned data collection tool included participants’ sociodemographic characteristics, regular sources of supply of anticoagulant, clinic pre-appointment reminders, indications of treatment and international normalized ratio tests. Data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 and logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of adequate anticoagulation, which was defined as international normalized ratio ranging 2 - 3.
Results: Females were majority (76.5 %) and only 27.5 % of patients had adequate anticoagulation control. The indication of warfarin for heart valve surgery (p=0.014) and deep venous thrombosis (p=0.021) were associated with adequate anticoagulation. Age above 60 years was associated with poor anticoagulation (p=0.006). Logistic regression revealed that the independent predictor of adequate anticoagulation was warfarin use due to heart valve surgery (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.9, p=0.017).
Conclusions: Ambulatory anticoagulation control in the hospital is poor. Further investigation is required to find out the reasons behind adequate anticoagulation in heart valve surgery patients.
Key Words: Ambulatory anticoagulation, anticoagulant, outpatient, international normalized ratio tests.

Nuwasiima A, et al. "Predictors of HIV prevention knowledge and sexual behaviors among students at Makerere University Kampala, Uganda." al Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2017;14(4).
Cheruiyot I, Bundi B, Munguti J, Olabu B, Ngure B, Ogeng’o J. "PREVALENCE AND ANATOMICAL PATTERN OF THE MEDIAN ARTERY AMONG ADULT BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(3):1015-1023. Abstractprevalence_and_anatomical_pattern_of_the_median_artery_among_adult_black_kenyans.pdf

Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ethnic differences but there are few studies on black Africans. This study therefore sought to describe the anatomy of median arteries in an adult black Kenyan population. A total of sixty two (62) upper limbs from thirty one (31) formalin-fixed cadavers were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence, origin, types, relationship with median nerves and termination were determined. Median arteries were observed in 37 (59.7%) cases. Of these, the palmar type comprised 12 (32.4%) and antebrachial type 25 (67.6%) cases. It occurred bilaterally in 14 (45.2%) cases. The most common origin was the common interosseous artery (21; 56.8%) followed by anterior interosseous (13; 35.1%) and ulnar 3 (8.1%) arteries. The artery pierced the median nerve in 7 (18.9%) cases. The palmar type terminated by uniting with the ulnar artery to form a median-ulnar type of superficial palmar arterial arch in 8 (21.6%) cases and directly gave rise to the first, second and third common digital arteries in 4 (10.8%). In conclusion, the median artery occurs in nearly 60% of the population, much higher than in prevailing literature reports. Prevalence of the palmar type of median arteries and that of median arteries piercing median nerves are also higher than in other populations. Accordingly, presence of median artery and consequently other vascular and median nerve variations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of forearm entrapment neuropathies and due caution taken during forearm surgical procedures. We recommend preoperative ultrasound evaluation of the forearm and hand vascular system.

D.B. Chai, Bergin CM, Bell IB, Nyachieo JD, Gathumbi PK. "Prevalence and geographical distribution of Papio hamadryas Papillomavirus 1 (PhPV1) in Kenyan Baboons." Journal of Medical Primatology. 2017;189(46(1)):13-15.
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(126).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto- and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Mutune MN, Otieno RO. "Prevalence of ecto-and haemo-parasites of free-range local ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(7).
JIN U, GO O, CF O, M M, N N. "Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in diabetics with chronic pain at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Afr J Rheumatol . 2017; Vol. 5(1): 54-57. Abstractprevalence_of_fibromyalgia4.pdf

Abstract
Background: Fibromyalgia Syndrome
(FMS), an increasingly recognized
disorder with heightened response to
pressure, characterized by Chronic
Widespread Pain (CWP), for which no
other cause can be identified. Diabetes
Mellitus (DM) is the most common
metabolic endocrinopathy. It is estimated
that more than 50% of diabetic patients
will suffer from chronic disability.
Musculoskeletal complications of
diabetes may be as a consequence of DM
complications or direct associations e.g.
FMS.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence
of FMS in diabetics with chronic pain
and to determine the severity of FMS
related symptoms using the revised FMS
questionnaire (FIQR) tool.
Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.
Setting: The Diabetic Out-patient Clinic
(DOPC), Kenyatta National Hospital
(KNH).
Subjects: Two hundred and nineteen
patients with chronic musculoskeletal
pain.
Results: The prevalence of fibromyalgia
in this group of patients was 61 (27.9%)
(95% CI 21.9-34.2). Mean age for patients
with FMS was 59.9 years, significantly
older than patients without FMS (55.6%)
(P=0.034). There was a higher female
preponderance at 49 (80%). Majority of
our study population were on followup
for Type 2 DM (94.1%). The mean
tender-point count for patients with FMS
was estimated at 13.7 (SD 2.1). The mean
FIQR score was 51.9 (SD 18.4) (moderate
disease). Patients with FMS had a higher
HBA1c value compared to those without
(9.6% vs. 9.3%) (P=0.565). Other
factors such as marital status, nature of
employment, activities of daily living and
type of medications used were not found
to be statistically significant. (P˃0.05).
Conclusion: FMS is a prevalent disease in
the diabetic population. There is increased
need of awareness by the clinicians of
this disease entity and a multidisciplinary
approach required to manage patients
presenting with CWP in DM.
Introduction
FMS is a common disorder with cardinal
symptoms of diffuse chronic pain associated
with muscle stifness and tenderness of
specific points on examination. This
disease has strong biologic underpinnings
and the aetiopathogenesis is variable.
Trigger factors may be environmental
or psychosocial. This condition affects
mainly women, and its estimated
prevalence in various populations varies
between 0.2% and 4.4%. The American
College of Rheumatology Criteria (ACR)
1990 requires CWP for at least 3 months
and presence of ˃11/18 pre-specified
Tender Points (TP) on examination1
.   
  A newer diagnostic criteria published
in 2010-2011, no longer requires
performing a tender point count to make
the diagnoses and instead entails asking
about the constellation of non-pain
somatic symptoms that are typically
present in addition to the widespread
pain2
. DM affects connective tissue in
multiple ways and this may be as a result
of micro or macrovascular complications,
a consequence of metabolic derangements
inherent to DM, and notable associations,
FMS being a key presentation3
. Over
the past few years, the most important
predictor that predisposed to development
of musculoskeletal complications is
blood glucose control. The HUNT
study4
outlined the association between
DM and chronic musculoskeletal
complaints in 64,785 patients and noted
a high prevalence of FMS and a positive
correlation with HbA1c levels. Attar5
,
revealed that up to 17.9% of diabetics
suffer from chronic musculoskeletal
manifestations, fibromyalgia being one
of them. Yunus6
, in his review article, in
2011, noted that Central Sensitization
Syndromes (CSS) have an increased
prevalence in patients with diabetes
mellitus. Of particular interest, a study

Lusigi EM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba PK. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM). 2017;4(1):540-546.
Lusigi EEM, Mbuge DO, Obiero JP, Ondieki SC, Ndiba; P.K. "Quality Assessment of Rain and Storm Water Runoff for Nairobi City Industrial and Sub-Urban Areas." International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM); . 2017;volume 4(issue 1).
Mulati DM, Nyang'onda TN, Aduda BO. "Raman Crystallinity and Hall Effect Studies of Microcrystalline Silicon Seed Layers." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2017;16(1):106-118. AbstractJournal Website Link

Aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) was used to crystallize sputtered amorphous silicon
thin films on aluminium-coated glass at annealing temperatures ranging from 250-520° C in
vacuum. Crystalline volume fractions were measured by Raman spectrometry as a function
of annealing temperature. It was shown that the crystallized films had large grains as the
Raman peaks were centred at about 520 cm-1 at and over annealing temperatures of 420°
C. The three-layer sample crystallization resulted in crystallization of the films at lower
temperatures compared to the two-layer sample crystallizations which implied a reduction in
the cost of production of the seedlayer and resulting products. Hall mobilities and hole
densities ranging from 17.0-22.8 cm2V-1s-1and (4.7-9.2)× 1018 cm-3 respectively were
measured. Low hole charge densities for films of the same thickness were achieved at high annealing temperatures which was an indication of less aluminium in seed layers prepared at those temperatures. Having seed layers with sufficiently low hole charge densities is desirable for application of the seed layer in photovoltaic applications.
Key words: microcrystalline, silicon, annealed, raman, crystallinity, hall-effect

Gichuhi JM, Ndegwa PN, Mugo HM, Guandaru EK, Babin R. "Rearing method and developmental biology of the African coffee white stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)." Journal of Economic Entomology. 2017;110(3):1120-1126.
Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Muuro EM, Omwenga EI. "Regulating group cognitive conflicts using intelligent agents in collaborative M-learning." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017;38(43). AbstractFull Text Link

Group cognitive conflicts occur when a learner in a collaborative mobile learning environment becomes aware of a discrepancy between his/her existing cognitive framework and new information or experience. The cognitive conflicts stimulate the learning process by making an individual to move from his/her learning sphere and participate with others in the learning process. However, there is a big challenge on how students handle and resolve conflicts during collaborative learning. Intelligent agents have been used in this paper to provide support for group interactions by regulating the group conflicts. An experimental design with one control group and two experimental groups (role playing and guided negotiation) is used to compare levels of group knowledge construction. The findings showed improved levels of knowledge construction where regulated conflicts were used compared to where they were not used.

Nzioka S, Elly D. "The Relationship between Diversification Strategies and Capital Structure of Non-Financial Firms Listed At the NSE." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):32-61. Abstract

Purpose-This study was carried out with an aim to analyze the effect of
diversification strategies on capital structure of non-financial firms listed at NSE. The
study focused specifically on analyzing the effect of product (related and unrelated)
and geographical diversification on capital structure.
Methodology-An exploratory study design was used to collect data, with the
population of the study being 64 firms listed in NSE. Out of the 64 firms, 41 non-
financial firms were selected as the sample of the study. Data was collected from
secondary sources, NSE and capital market authority. Data collected was analyzed
through STATA by the use of panel data regression analysis.
Findings- Related product diversification had a coefficient of 21.5(p-value=0.007)
indicating that it has a significant relationship with capital structure. The study results
show that debt is the most preferred form of financing in related product
diversification strategies. Unrelated product diversification had a coefficient of 22.7(p
value =0.006) indicating that it has a significant relationship with capital structure.The
findings of this study show that debt is the most preferred form of financing in
unrelated product diversification strategies. Geographical diversification had a
coefficient of 0.178 (p-value=0.799) indicating that it doesn’t have a significant
relationship with capital structure.Geographical diversification boosts the worth of
shareholders by taking advantage of specific assets and by accelerating functioning

Nyanaro E, Elly D. "The Relationship between Stock Market Performance and Economic Growth In the East African Community." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):110-132. Abstractthe_relationship_between_stock_market_performance_and_economic_growth_in_the_eac.pdf

Purpose – This paper investigated the relationship between the stock market performance and the
economic growth in the East African Community. The stock market variables considered in the
study were stock market capitalization, market liquidity and share price volatility. The GDP
growth was a used a measure for economic growth.
Methodology – The quantitative research methods were employed to define the nature of
relationship between the variables. The population of the study was the All-Share index in the 4
stock markets in the member countries. To fulfill the purposes under the research, the stock market
performance of the EAC member countries was collected from the Capital markets, EASRA and
the respective Stock Exchanges. Data for GDP growth was collected from the World Bank website.
The study employed the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model as well as the Granger test for
causality to estimate as well as provide evidence regarding the nature and direction of relationship
of the variables.
Findings - The study established an existence of long term relationship between the stock market
performance variables (market capitalization and liquidity) and economic growth in the East
African community. The study established that there was no relationship between the share price
volatility of the stock market and economic growth

Sitati IN, Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "Remarks on A-skew-adjoint, A-almost similarity equivalence and other operators in Hilbert space." Pure and Applied Mathematics Journal. 2017;6(3):101-107. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
In this paper, notions of A-almost similarity and the Lie algebra of A-skew-adjoint operators in Hilbert space are introduced. In this context, A is a self-adjoint and an invertible operator. It is shown that A-almost similarity is an equivalence relation. Conditions under which A-almost similarity implies similarity are outlined and in which case their spectra is located. Conditions under which an A-skew adjoint operator reduces to a skew adjoint operator are also given. By relaxing some conditions on normal and unitary operators, new results on A -normal, binormal and A-binormal operators are proved. Finally A-skew adjoint operators are characterized and the relationship between A-self- adjoint and A-skew adjoint operators is given.

Sitta J, Nzuve F, Olubayo FM, Mutinda C, Muiru WM, Miano DW, Muthomi JW, Leley PK. "Response of Assorted Maize Germplasm to the Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Kenya." Journal of Plant Studies. 2017;6(2):65-76.
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B. "Risk Assessment of the Coping and Adaptation Mechanisms for Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case Study of Kongelai Ward, West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences(ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(Issue 02, April 2017).
Magal1 RP, N.Wambua2 B, 3 SM. "Risk Assessment of Traditional Strategies, Values and Practices of Pastoralists to Climate Change and Variability: A Case of West Pokot County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences (ISSN: 2321 – 1571). 2017;Volume 05(ssue 04, August 2017).
Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Nzalawahe J, Murugami JW, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nzalawahe J, Njagi LW, Mdegela RH, Mavuti SK, Murugami JW. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies . 2017;5(4):217-223.
KW M, Mbuthia P G, RM W, J N, JW M, Njagi L W, RH M, RH M, SK M. "Risk factors associated with parasites of farmed fish in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2017;5(4):217-223.
Keter L, Too R, Mwikwabe N, Mutai C, Orwa J, Mwamburi L, Ndwigah S, Bii C, Korir R. "Risk of Fungi Associated with Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Medicinal Herbal Products in the Kenyan Market. ." The Scientific World Journal . 2017;2017:1-6.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11. Abstract

A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was
developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The
optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised
of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH2PO4 pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59
v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase
XTerra® (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm. The method was found to be linear in the range 50%–150% (r2 = 0.997). The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 0.02% (20 μg) and 0.078% (78 μg), respectively, with a 100.7% recovery of azithromycin. Degradation products of azithromycin in acidic and oxidative environments at 37 °C were resolved from the active pharmaceutical ingredient and thus the method is fit for the purpose of drug stability confirmation.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kamau FN, Ndwigah SN, Lachenmeier DW. "A Robust Liquid Chromatographic Method for Confirmation of Drug Stability of Azithromycin in Bulk Samples, Tablets and Suspensions." Pharmaceutics. 2017;9(1):11.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "The Role of Organizing Vision in Cloud Computing Adoption by Organizations in Kenya." American Journal of Information Systems. 2017;5(1).
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCYW, Raina SK. "Scientific note on the first report of Varroa destructor in Cameroon." Journal of Apicultural Research. 2017;56(4):397-399.
Ndiwa TC, Nyingi D, Wemali E, Yusuf HA. "Seafood value chains and mangrove restoration in Mida Creek.". In: In Leew J, Koech G, Yaye A, Nyongesa J. 2017. A review of best practice in the Horn of Africa with biodiversity based value chain development for pro-poor biodiversity conservation. Nairobi: ICRAF; 2017.biodiversity-based_value_chains-_14122017.pdf
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2017;11(9):e0005901.
Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW, Karanja DN, Gathumbi PK, Shah, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Sero-prevalence of avian leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(3).
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological survey of Rift Valley Fever in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 2017;2:141-146.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
Njagi LW, Miheso KO, Mbuthia PG, Gathumbi PK, Shah DN, Wanjohi CW, Murithi MR. "Seroprevalence of Avian Leucosis in chicken in Nairobi and surrounding Counties." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29.
Muthama NJ, M Moses Manene, Ndetei CJ. "Simulation of decadal precipitation over Nairobi in Kenya." Journal For Science. 2017;13:43-54. AbstractWebsite

: In investigating Kenya rainfall variability and its relationship to other climatic
elements it has become imperative to analyze the irregularly distributed rainfall events in time.
To meet this requirement, this study used a stepwise regression technique. The study seeks to
improve existing rainfall monitoring and prediction in Nairobi. Monthly rainfall data was fitted
to several mathematical functions. The best mathematical model which best simulated the
March-May (MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall over the three stations of
analysis was chosen using a stepwise regression technique. The value of R-squared for the best
fit was computed to show the percentage of rainfall information that is explained by the
variation in the independent (time) variable. From the results obtained, the stepwise regression
technique selected the fourth degree polynomial as the best fit for analyzing the March-May
(MAM) and October -December (OND) seasonal rainfall data set. Solar cycle period of ten (10)
years was employed to get the fourth degree polynomial variables. Hence from the study, it can
be deducted that the 4th degree polynomial function can be used to predict the peak and the
general pattern of seasonal rainfall over Nairobi, with acceptable error values. This information

Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Kagia R, Oluka M, Okalebo F, Njoroge A. "Socio-demographic and treatment-related variables associated with CD4 cell counts in Kenyan HIV patients on second-line regimens." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2017;6(3):142-148.
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Manene MM. "Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors for Respiratory Infections Prevalence in Kenya: An Observational Study (In Press)." Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2017.
Maina JG, Wesonga PS, Mukoya-Wangia S, Njoka JT. "Status of Fish Farming in Makueni County, Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Resources. 2017;5(ISSN):61-68.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia P, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Bwana M, Wahome RG, Margaret M, Wanzila K. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.abstract.pdf
Bwana M, Njagi L, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Bebora L, Wahome M, Mutinda W, Kitala P. "Stinging Nettle and Neem enhance antibody response to local killed and imported live Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccines in Indigenous Chicken in Kenya." Poultry Science journal. 2017;97:447-454.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology . 2017;4(11):149-154.
Nyarige JS, WAITA SEBASTIAN, Simiyu J, Mureramanzi S, Aduda B. "Structural and Optical Properties of Phosphorous and Antimony doped ZnO thin films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis: A Comparative Study." International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;4(11). Abstract

A study of structural and properties of pure (undoped) Zinc oxide (ZnO) and phosphorous (P) and Antimony (Sb) doped Zinc Oxide films has been carried out. The films were deposited by an automated spray pyrolysis equipment on both microscope glass at various elevated temperatures (270 oC - 420 oC) and on fluorine doped tin Oxide (FTO) substrates at 420 oC. Structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of the main peak for ZnO at 437 cm-1for all the films. Antimony doped films showed other peaks associated with the doping but phosphorous doping did not show extra peaks. Optical characterization using a UV-VIS-NIR Shimadzu (Model DUV 3700) double beam spectrophotometer provided both reflectance and transmittance data and Scout software was used to compute the band gap. At a wavelength of 600 nm, the average transmittance of the pure ZnO films was ~62 % while it was transmittance was ~85 % and ~80 % for Sb and P doped films respectively, an increase of ~23 % and ~18 % respectively. For the undoped ZnO films, high deposition temperatures led to band gap narrowing from 3.25eV to 3.10eVwhile doping resulted in band gap widening from 3.10 eV to 3.30 eV (for P-doped) and 3.10 eV to 3.33 eV (for Sb-doped),an observation confirmed by the increased transmittance on doping. The band gap narrowing for ZnO films makes the film become a better materials for visible light absorption which is good for photovoltaic applications. The wide gap broadening on doping makes the film more transparent to solar radiation making it suitable for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Demmler K. M, Klasen S, Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):1-18.
Olago D, Karuri HW, Neilson R, Mararo E, Villinger J. "A survey of root knot nematodes and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in sweet potato varieties from Kenyan fields." Crop protection. 2017;92:114-121. AbstractFull Text

The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne is one of the most economically damaging plant parasitic nematode groups, and are widely distributed in Kenyan agro-ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity of Meloidogyne species in Kenyan sweet potato fields and identify sweet potato varieties that exhibit resistance to M. incognita. Meloidogyne species were collected from Nyanza, Western, Eastern and Central Provinces of Kenya. Mitochondrial DNA was used to differentiate Meloidogyne species. The most common species in all sampled regions was M. incognita. Meloidogyne hapla was recorded for the first time in Kenyan sweet potato growing areas (Mosocho, Matayos, Teso South, Manyatta, and Nzaui sub-counties), while M. enterolobii was observed in Kiharu, Matayos and Mosocho sub-counties and a novel Meloidogyne sp. was identified in Kiharu sub-county. Seventy-two sweet potato varieties collected from both agricultural fields and research stations in Kenya were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita under greenhouse conditions in two separate trials. Known susceptible (Beauregard) and resistant (Tanzania) sweet potato varieties were included as controls. Responses of sweet potato varieties to M. incognita infection was assessed by the number of eggs present and level of galling on a scale of 1–5, where 0 = 0 galls and 5 ≥ 100 galls. The reproduction index (RI) was used to classify the varieties as resistant or susceptible. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the number of eggs, GI and RI among the varieties tested. Forty nine sweet potato varieties were considered very resistant and may be used in breeding programs to incorporate resistance against M. incognita into commercial cultivars of sweet potato or to use them in crop rotation programmes for management of RKN. The results on Meloidogyne species diversity in Kenyan sweet potato fields will also be useful in nematode management programs

Milford C, Kriel Y, Njau I, Nkole T, P G, Cordero JP, Smit JA, Steyn PS, Team UPTAKEP. "Teamwork in Qualitative Research: Descriptions of a Multicountry Team Approach." International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 2017;16 :1-10 .teamwork_in_qualitative_research.pdf
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Johansson T, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S, Mwangi EM, Ambale J. "Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane." PloS one. 2017;12(3):e0173590.
Ngecu WM, Thenya T, Ngatia J. "Title : High community expectation against low societal transformation through community based income generating activities. Analysis of Participatory forest management in Kenya 2005-2013 ." International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 2017;5(6). AbstractFull Text

The implementation of the participatory forest management (PFM) starting 2005 was meant to help in forest management and also assist the forest adjacent communities to benefit from these forest based resources through agreement with Kenya forest Service (KFS). Analysis of socio-economic reports and associated participatory forest management plan (PFMPs) undertaken between 2005 and 2013, indicate sizeable income generating projects (IGP) as part of social function of forest such as recreation have not been realised by community forest association (CFA). It is notable that several facilitating factors such as proximity to major urban areas and significant tourism circuits, necessary for development of these sites have had no impact. In some sites development of business plan did not manage to take IGP to the desired level. This failure leaves the CFA in the same status prior to the implementation of PFM in spite of huge resources invested in mapping and detailing resources potential. The CFA stakeholder’s composition, a structural weakness that failures to include more able and literate local stakeholders (business and professionals) is a major obstacle to enabling exploitation of forest ecosystems potential, thereby remaining localised and a closed unit. Thus, there is need for paradigm shift in terms CFA empowerment for exploitation of social functions of forest resources

M B, N PV, J RM, A C, D L, JP S, A.M G. "Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis: results of a systematic review and expert consultation ." Reproductive Health . 2017;14(67). AbstractWebsite

Background
There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis definitions and identification criteria and to report on the results of an expert consultation to develop a new international definition of maternal sepsis.

Methods
All original and review articles and WHO documents, as well as clinical guidelines providing definitions and/or identification criteria of maternal sepsis were included. A multidisciplinary international panel of experts was surveyed through an online consultation in March-April 2016 on their opinion on the existing sepsis definitions, including new definition of sepsis proposed for the adult population (2016 Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock) and importance of different criteria for identification of maternal sepsis. The definition was agreed using an iterative process in an expert face-to-face consensus development meeting convened by WHO and Jhpiego.

Results
Standardizing the definition of maternal sepsis and aligning it with the current understanding of sepsis in the adult population was considered a mandatory step to improve the assessment of the burden of maternal sepsis by the expert panel. The literature review and expert consultation resulted in a new WHO consensus definition “Maternal sepsis is a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, child-birth, post-abortion, or post-partum period”. Plans are in progress to validate the new WHO definition of maternal sepsis in a large international population.

Conclusion
The operationalization of the new maternal sepsis definition requires generation of a set of practical criteria to identify women with sepsis. These criteria should enable clinicians to focus on the timely initiation of actionable elements of care (administration of antimicrobials and fluids, support of vital organ functions, and referral) and improve maternal outcomes.

Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. "Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya." springer link. 2017:587-601. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved.This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among the youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises of both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions which focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Mungai C, Opondo M, Outa G, Nelson V, Nyasimi M, Kimeli P. Uptake of climate-smart agriculture through a gendered intersectionality lens: experiences from Western Kenya. Cham: Springer; 2017. Abstractlink.springer.com

This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved. This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate-smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age, and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops, for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence the adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions that focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural, and economic factors.

Keywords
Climate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull Text Link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are
rarely used to facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view
of this, the paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning
in mobile learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents
and integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction.

Njenga ST, Oboko RO, Omwenga EI, Maina EM. "Use of Intelligent Agents in Collaborative M-Learning: Case of Facilitating Group Learner Interactions." International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science. 2017;9(10):18. AbstractFull website link

Intelligent agents have been used in collaborative learning. However, they are rarely used to
facilitate group interactions in collaborative m-learning environments. In view of this, the
paper discusses the use of intelligent agents in facilitating collaborative learning in mobile
learning environments. The paper demonstrates how to design intelligent agents and
integrate them in collaborative mobile learning environments to allow group learners to
improve their levels of group knowledge construction. The design was implemented in a
collaborative mobile learning system running on Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic
Learning Environment (Moodle) platform. The application was used in some experiments to
investigate the effects of those facilitated interactions on the level of group knowledge
construction.

Karimurio J, Rono H, Njomo D, Sironka J, Kareko C, Gichangi M, Barasa E, A M, Kefa R, Kiio F. "Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper." Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:18.
Nyagah PG, Onyambu CK, Kimani NM, Wambugu M, Aywak AA. "Utility of chest radiographs in management of patients in the intensive care unit at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(9):718-734.
Gathara D, Malla L, Ayieko P, Karuri S, Nyamai R, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "Variation in and risk factors for paediatric inpatient all-cause mortality in a low income setting: data from an emerging clinical information network." BMC Pediatrics. 2017. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.

Busula AO, Takken W, de Boer JG, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Niels O Verhulst. "Variation in host preferences of malaria mosquitoes is mediated by skin bacterial volatiles." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2017;31(3):320-326.
Kabinga SK, Kayima J, MCLIGEYO SO, Wambugu B, NGIGI J, Chege R, Mutiso J. "Vascular thrombosis in patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis using indwelling venous catheters: Case reports and literature review." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 2017;36(1):110-117. Abstract

Vascular access is key in patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Thrombosis is a
significant contributor of access – associated morbidity. There are several documented risk factors that
predispose to thrombosis in patients with end stage renal disease. These include: inflammation, erythropoietin
therapy, hypotension, diabetes and old age among others. Treatment of thrombosis in these patients is
challenging. We present three cases of acute vascular thrombosis attended to in the Kenyatta National Hospital,
Nairobi-Kenya, East Africa, renal department in one week and literature review.
Keywords: Vascular thrombosis; Haemodialysis catheter; endstage renal disease.

Borna A. Nyaoke, Mutua G, sajabi R, delvin nyasani, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. "Volunteer motivators for participating in HIV vaccine clinical trials in Nairobi, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2017;https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183788(12).journal.pone_.pdf
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
Bobadoye BO, Ndegwa PN, IRUNGU LUCY, Fombong AT. "Vulnerable Habitats Alter African Meliponine Bee’s (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Assemblages in an Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot." International journal of insect science. 2017;9:1179543317709788.
English M, Ayieko P, Nyamai R, Were F, Githanga D, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "What do we think we are doing? How might a clinical information network be promoting implementation of recommended paediatric care practices in Kenyan hospitals?" Health Res Policy Syst.. 2017;15(4). AbstractWebsite

Background

The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our ‘insider’ interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention.
Methods

We articulate key activities that together have constituted network processes over 2.5 years and then utilise a recently published typology of implementation components to give greater granularity to this description from the perspective of those delivering the intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel we then suggest how the network may operate to achieve change and offer examples of change before making an effort to synthesise our understanding in the form of a realist context–mechanism–outcome configuration.
Results

We suggest our network is likely to comprise 22 from a total of 73 identifiable intervention components, of which 12 and 10 we consider major and minor components, respectively. At the policy level, we employed clinical guidelines, marketing and communication strategies with intervention characteristics operating through incentivisation, persuasion, education, enablement, modelling and environmental restructuring. These might influence behaviours by enhancing psychological capability, creating social opportunity and increasing motivation largely through a reflective pathway.
Conclusions

We previously proposed a clinical network as a solution to challenges implementing recommended practices in Kenyan hospitals based on our understanding of theory and context. Here, we report how we have enacted what was proposed and use a recent typology to deconstruct the intervention into its elements and articulate how we think the network may produce change. We offer a more generalised statement of our theory of change in a context–mechanism–outcome configuration. We hope this will complement a planned independent evaluation of ‘how things work’, will help others interpret results of change reported more formally in the future and encourage others to consider further examination of networks as means to scale up improvement practices in health in lower income countries.

Mutua E, Bukachi S, Bett B, Estambale B, Nyamongo I. "Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing." IDS Bulletin . 2017;48(3):95-108.
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "‘A case of Voice Poverty? Towards a new Paradigm in the fight against Poverty in Kenya’.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2017.
Njoroge WI, Irandu EM, Moronge JM. "‘An Assessement of the Impacts of Cleaner Production in Manufacturing Industries in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017;Volume 5(Issue No. 7):pp 173-186 .
Esho T, Kimani S, Nyamongo I, Kimani V, Muniu S, Kigondu C, Ndavi P, jaldesa Guyo. "The ‘heat’goes away: sexual disorders of married women with female genital mutilation/cutting in Kenya." Reproductive health. 2017;14(1):1-9.
Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "The anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in strain-engineering two-dimensional penta-SiC $ \_2$." arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.03715. 2017. Abstract
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Xu Y, Ning Z, Zhang H, Ni G, Shao H, Peng B, Zhang X, He X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Anisotropic ultrahigh hole mobility in two-dimensional penta-SiC 2 by strain-engineering: electronic structure and chemical bonding analysis." RSC advances. 2017;7:45705-45713. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang X, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Atomically sharp 1D SbSeI, SbSI and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.05732. 2017. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Alhusseini TI, Bedford FE, Bennett DJ, others. "The database of the Predicts (Projecting responses of ecological diversity in changing terrestrial systems) project." Ecology and Evolution. 2017;7:145-188. Abstract
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Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "Determination of maturity indices of three mango varieties produced in Embu County of Kenya.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:64-69. Abstract
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Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "The effect of harvest maturity on the quality attributes of solar-dried mango products of selected mango varieties.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443. Abstract
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Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Nyakiti LO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2017;24:1750065. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H. "Electronic, transport and optical properties of monolayer $$\backslash$alpha $ and $$\backslash$beta-$ GeSe: A first-principles study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.03336. 2017. Abstract
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Mbaringong GA, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of selected cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars grown in Kenya for resistance to bacterial blight disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5:94-101. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Chemining'wa GN, Mwachoni E, Wanjiru F, Owino WO, Nenguwo N, others. "Evaporative cooling technologies: simple and effective cooling alternatives for smallholder horticultural farmers.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Xu Y, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Lu H, Zhang R, Peng B, Zhu Y, Zhu H, others. "First-principles study on the electronic, optical, and transport properties of monolayer $\alpha$-and $\beta$-GeSe." Physical Review B. 2017;96:245421. Abstract
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Njau VN, Maina ENM, Anjili CO, Ingonga JM, Koech JC, Kariuki HW, Ngure PK. "In vitro antileishmanial activity and phytochemical analysis of Carissa edulis against Leishmania major." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;5. Abstract
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Samuillah MH, Varma V, Nguhiu J, Mogoa E. "Incidence, types and outcomes of distal limb fractures of racehorses in Kenya: a retrospective study of radiographs (2005-2014)." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6:81-85. Abstract
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Nakami WN, Tsuma VT, Milkey K, Dickerson M, Wong M, Mutembei HM, Muthee JK, Odipo O, Ngetich W. "Lateral flow immunoassay for whole blood progesterone detection as a tool for assessment of reproductive status in cattle.". 2017. Abstract
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Bourne RRA, Flaxman SR, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR. "Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis." The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5:e888-e897. AbstractWebsite

Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9–65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17–0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34–4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5–350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88–4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1–1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9–997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9–57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9–65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (−36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3–270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) in 2015. There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Brien Holden Vision Institute.

Gyang PJ, Nyaboga EN, Muge EK. "Molecular Characterization of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. 2017;13:1-15. Abstract
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Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mogoa E. "Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya." Veterinary World. 2017;10:1255-1263. Abstract
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Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4:1075. Abstract
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Ngetich W, Okumu AT, Kitaa JM, Chepkirui E. "Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in a 10-year male German Shepherd dog: Case Report." Int J Vet Sci Res. 2017;3:078-081. Abstract
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Mark A, Nikita M, Fred M, Jimmy M, Hassan M, Paul O. "Validation of the Euroscore on Cardiac Surgery Patients in Nairobi." Annals of African Surgery. 2017;14. Abstract
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2016
Dimba, Njiru W, Gathece LW, Mutave RJ, Ogwell A. "Tobacco cessation through use of oral health care providers in Kenya.". In: Global Tobacco Treatment Summit . Mayo Clinic Nicotine Dependence ; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, Nyamai CM, MATHU ELIUDM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016. Abstract

The research area occurs within the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (NMB) in the south-eastern part of Kenya. An enigmatic problem within the polyphase and highly deformed NMB, is the lack of better understanding of the geology and tectonic structures. In order to decipher the aforementioned problem, this study undertook a geological study with the aim of having a better understanding of the petrology and tectono-metamorphic setting, in the study area. The research was carried out using geological field mapping and remote sense investigation. Samples collected in the field were analysed using XRF (X- ray fluorescence) and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry). The petrological investigation was carried out using petrographic microscopy. An investigation using remotely sensed data established prevalent geological structures, lithology and mineral alteration zones. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the tectono-thermal scenario. One of the key findings of this study is the realization that Kitui – Taita gneisses and migmatites represent a thick sequence of meta-sedimentary rocks. The entire protolith sequence was marked by the alternation of thin pelitic, psammitic and limey layers, together with minor thin basic meta-volcanic rocks that were deposited under deep marine conditions. The entire paragneissic sequence was subsequently subjected to multiple phases of successive deformation and metamorphism, which was accompanied by shearing, faulting and folding. Petrochemistry has revealed that Kitui – Taita hills area has remnants of Island alkali tholeiite and calc – alkaline Metabasalts. It has also revealed that Ikutha (south of Kitui) has huge deposit of apatite – iron of Kiruna type. Petrological studies have shown that Mutomo–Ikutha area occurs in an ophiolitic suite and mimics similar lithological and geochemical signatures as those reported in other ophiolite suites occurring in Kenya like in Moyale, Sekerr in West Pokot and Voi, SE Kenya. The field occurrence of this suite has been documented by the lithological and stratigraphic sequence of serpentinite, sheeted dykes, gabbro, limestone, tectonic mélange and remnants of pillow lava found in the type area. The field occurrence of this suite is an indication of the remnants of the obducted oceanic crust during the closure of the paleo- Mozambique Ocean and collision of the East and West Gondwanaland

Nyamongo GB. "Challenges facing humanity in contemporary Society.". In: International Seminar on Knowledge and Spirituality Religious Dimension of man In the Horizons of contemporary Challenges. Vatra- Dornei, Romania ; 2016.
WASWA AARONK, MATHU ELIUDM, Nyamai CM, Ichang’i DW. "NEW FINDINGS OF THE TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST AFRICAN OROGENY IN THE KITUI – TAITA HILLS, S.E KENYA.". In: 35TH INTERNATIONAL GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS. CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA; 2016.
Olago D, Kanoti J, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Taylor R, Dulo SI, Ayah R. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: 23rd IAH Congress . Montepellier, France; 2016.
Waswa AK, Nyamai CM. "THE GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES POTENTIAL OF KENYA .". In: Symposium on Capacity Building in Sustainable Resource Development in Africa. NAIROBI; 2016.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah LW, Njagi HA, Ngowi J, Nzalawahe RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Mulei IR, Nyaga P, Mbuthia P, Waruiru P, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Risk factors associated with occurrence of infectious diseases in farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya.". In: 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) 2016. African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya; 2016.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Njagi LW, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Management Practices and Constraints of Fish Farming in Kiambu and Counties, Kenya.". In: the 1st Eastern Africa Aquaculture Symposium and Exhibition (EAASE) . African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD), Kiambu, Kenya ; 2016.
Ogot M, Nyangaya J. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Abatement Potential in Kenya from Introduction of Feebates.". In: 1st Biennial Status of Higher Education Conference, . Commission for University Education, Nairobi; 2016.
Ogot M, Nyangaya J. "How Many Vehicles are there on Kenya's Roads?". In: 1st Biennial Status of Higher Education Conference. Commission for University Education, Nairobi; 2016.
Mokaya AG, Mutiso V, Musau A, Tele A, Kombe Y, Ng'ang'a Z, Frank E, Ndetei DM, Clair V. "Substance Use among a Sample of Healthcare Workers in Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study." J Psychoactive Drugs. 2016;48(4):310-9. AbstractWebsite

This study describes reported substance use among Kenyan healthcare workers (HCWs), as it has implications for HCWs' health, productivity, and their ability and likelihood to intervene on substance use. The Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) was administered to a convenience sample of HCWs (n = 206) in 15 health facilities. Reported lifetime use was 35.8% for alcohol, 23.5% for tobacco, 9.3% for cannabis, 9.3% for sedatives, 8.8% for cocaine, 6.4% for amphetamine-like stimulants, 5.4% for hallucinogens, 3.4% for inhalants, and 3.9% for opioids. Tobacco and alcohol were also the two most commonly used substances in the previous three months. Male gender and other substance use were key predictors of both lifetime and previous three months' use rates. HCWs' substance use rates appear generally higher than those seen in the general population in Kenya, though lower than those reported among many HCWs globally. This pattern of use has implications for both HCWs and their clients.

Mamah D, Musau A, Mutiso VN, Owoso A, Abdallah AB, Cottler LB, Striley CW, Walker EF, Ndetei DM. "Characterizing psychosis risk traits in Africa: A longitudinal study of Kenyan adolescents." Schizophr. Res.. 2016;176(2-3):340-8. AbstractWebsite

The schizophrenia prodrome has not been extensively studied in Africa. Identification of prodromal behavioral symptoms holds promise for early intervention and prevention of disorder onset. Our goal was to investigate schizophrenia risk traits in Kenyan adolescents and identify predictors of psychosis progression. 135 high-risk (HR) and 142 low-risk (LR) adolescents were identified from among secondary school students in Machakos, Kenya, using the structured interview of psychosis-risk syndromes (SIPS) and the Washington early recognition center affectivity and psychosis (WERCAP) screen. Clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and participants followed longitudinally over 0-, 4-, 7-, 14- and 20-months. Potential predictors of psychosis conversion and severity change were studied using multiple regression analyses. More psychiatric comorbidities and increased psychosocial stress were observed in HR compared to LR participants. HR participants also had worse attention and better abstraction. The psychosis conversion rate was 3.8%, with only disorganized communication severity at baseline predicting conversion (p=0.007). Decreasing psychotic symptom severity over the study period was observed in both HR and LR participants. ADHD, bipolar disorder, and major depression diagnoses, as well as poor occupational functioning and avolition were factors relating to lesser improvement in psychosis severity. Our results indicate that psychopathology and disability occur at relatively high rates in Kenyan HR adolescents. Few psychosis conversions may reflect an inadequate time to conversion, warranting longer follow-up studies to clarify risk predictors. Identifying disorganized communication and other risk factors could be useful for developing preventive strategies for HR youth in Kenya.

Musyimi CW, Mutiso VN, Haji ZR, Nandoya ES, Ndetei DM. "Mobile Based mhGAP-IG Depression Screening in Kenya." Community Ment Health J. 2016. AbstractWebsite

We aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of depression using mobile based mental health Global Action Programme Intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) in remote health care settings where most priority mental health problems are managed by non-mental health specialists and evaluate the feasibility of the application. Adult patients were recruited from four rural public health facilities in Kenya using systematic random sampling and screened for depression. There were no missing items since the application prevented saving of data unless all the items were answered. The prevalence of depression was 25% with suicidal behavior being the most significant comorbid problem. Older age, personal and a family history of a mental disorder were significantly correlated with depression. Exploring the use of health-related mobile applications in identification of priority mental health problems is useful notably in low-resource settings; and also forms a basis for prevention of mental disorders and intervention at acute stages.

Mutiso VN, Musyimi CW, Tele A, Ndetei DM. "Epidemiological patterns and correlates of mental disorders among orphans and vulnerable children under institutional care." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2016. AbstractWebsite

The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, comorbidity and socio-demographic correlates of common mental disorders among orphan and vulnerable children (OVCs) in residential care.

Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Langat A, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Otieno V, Inwani I, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC. "Treatment interruption after 2-year antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiated during acute/early HIV in infancy: a randomized trial." AIDS. 2016. Abstract

Treatment interruption (TI) has been safe and durable in some pediatric studies but none have compared TI to continued antiretroviral treatment (ART) following ART initiation in early HIV. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in TI versus continued ART among early-treated infants.

Nduati EW, Nkumama IN, Gambo FK, Muema DM, Knight MG, Hassan AS, Jahangir MN, Etyang TJ, Berkley JA, Urban BC. "HIV-exposed uninfected infants show robust memory B cell responses in spite of a delayed accumulation of memory B cells: An observational study in the first two years of life." Clin. Vaccine Immunol.. 2016. Abstract

Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV infected women. Although uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV-exposure predisposing them to increased post-natal infections.

Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

Osanjo GO, Oyugi JO, Kibwage IO, Mwanda WO, Ngugi EN, Otieno FC, Ndege W, Child M, Farquhar C, Penner J, Talib Z, Kiarie JN. "Building capacity in implementation science research training at the University of Nairobi." Implement Sci. 2016;11:30. Abstract

Health care systems in sub-Saharan Africa, and globally, grapple with the problem of closing the gap between evidence-based health interventions and actual practice in health service settings. It is essential for health care systems, especially in low-resource settings, to increase capacity to implement evidence-based practices, by training professionals in implementation science. With support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative, the University of Nairobi has developed a training program to build local capacity for implementation science.

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