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2018
Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:54-63. Abstract
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Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food chemistry. 2018;245:112-118. Abstract
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NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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MOKAYA BITANGEN, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, Nyankanga RO. "Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency of clonal tea (Camellia sinensis)." Cell Biology and Development. 2018;2. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Nguhiu-Mwangi J. "Effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2018;33:73-81. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "Electronic, optical and transport properties of van der Waals Transition-metal Dichalcogenides Heterostructures: A First-principle Study." arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.02518. 2018. Abstract
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Mungai GW, Owino W, Ambuko J, Giovannoni JJ, Nyende AB, Michuki G. "Genetic diversity within African tomato using next generation sequencing." Plant Genetic Resources. 2018;16:296-305. Abstract
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Gateri MW, Nyankanga R, Ambuko J, Muriuki AW. "Growth, yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and time of topdressing." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2018:1-13. Abstract
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Munene AK, Nzuve F, Ambuko J, Odeny D. "Heritability analysis and phenotypic characterization of spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) for yield." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical animal health and production. 2018;50:997-1003. Abstract
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Njoroge CW, John D. Mande SME, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15:13-25. Abstract
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Nyumba TO, Wilson K, Derrick C, Mukherjee N. "Qualitative Methods for Eliciting Judgements for Decision Making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:2032. Abstract
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Mulwa NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W, others. "A retrospective study of canine hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;7:162-166. Abstract
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Xu K, Xu Y, Zhang H, Peng B, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Yao M, Lu H, Zhu H, others. "The role of Anderson’s rule in determining electronic, optical and transport properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2018;20:30351-30364. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Wu L, Li J, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Room-temperature bound exciton with long lifetime in monolayer gan." ACS Photonics. 2018;5:4081-4088. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Wu L, Lu H, Jin Q, Zhu H. "Theoretical investigation of novel electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of metallic hydrogen at 495 GPa." arXiv preprint arXiv:1805.10920. 2018. Abstract
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Tonui T, Corredor-Moreno P, Kanduma E, Joyce Njuguna, Njahira MN, Nyanjom SG, Silva JC, Djikeng A, Pelle R. "Transcriptomics reveal potential vaccine antigens and a drastic increase of upregulated genes during Theileria parva development from arthropod to bovine infective stages." PLoS One. 2018;13:e0204047. Abstract
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Peng B, Mortazavi B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Li J, Ni G, Rabczuk T, Zhu H. "Tuning thermal transport in C 3 N monolayers by adding and removing carbon atoms." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:034046. Abstract
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2017
Nyunja C, Maina J, Amimo J, Kibegwa F, Harper D, Junga J. "{Stock Structure Delineation of the African Catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Selected Populations in Kenya Using Mitochondrial DNA (Dloop) Variability}." Journal of Aquaculture Research {&} Development. 2017;08. AbstractWebsite

This study genetically characterized five populations of the African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) in Kenya. Samples were obtained from five sites in the country–Athi River hatchery, Kisii Fingerling Production Centre (FPC), Jewlett hatchery, Sagana Hatchery Station and Lake Baringo. DNA was extracted from tissue samples, followed by amplification and sequencing of the dloop region. Haplotype diversities, phylogenetic structure and variation at the dloop region of mitochondrial DNA were assessed. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicated that the sampled species showed genetic diversity between its populations. The genetic results were congruent indicating the differences in diversities and haplotype similarities of catfish samples from different sites. The Sagana, Kisii FPC, Jewlett and Baringo population cluster overlapped indicating possibly shared source of brood stock. The Athi river population was in a different cluster and its distinctiveness is attributed to imported brood stock. Both Athi River hatchery and Lake Baringo populations were highly variable and has great potential for production.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Towards a Deployment Model for eMonitoring of Geriatric Persons in Rural Developing Countries: Case of Kenya.". In: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317291029. Vol. 1. Namibia; 2017. Abstract

The United Nations and the African Union considers a person aged 65
years and above as a geriatric person. The graying population over the past decades
is showing an exponential growth rate compared to the declining fertility rate. This
population in the developing countries is not boastful of active ageing (successful,
independent ageing) as they are challenged by various health issues and
psychosomatic conditions. They require constant care and in some cases, specialized
care in familiar environments (their homes with relatives) or nursing homes (called
Nyumba za Wazee in Kenya). The researchers with support from literature believe
that technology can offer this specialized care (E-monitoring). This would be offered
in the comfort of their homes through continuous assessment of the geriatric person
relaying information to both the formal and informal caregivers. The objective of this
paper is to explore, summarize and analyse the various technologies in gerontology,
acceptance and adoption models, with the aim of identifying a suitable deployment
model that could be adopted in the context of a developing country.

LNW, Njogu REN, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Wendt OF. "”Synthesis of Tris Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes under Green Conditions for Photoredox Catalysis” Trends in Green Chemistry.". In: Trends in Green Chemistry. Stockholm University; 2017.
Ogot M, Hey VJ, Gatari M, Nyangaya J, Panchal R. "Development of an Air Quality Monitoring Programme for Nairobi and Exploration of Avenues for PM2.5 Levels Reduction.". In: 2nd Kenya Air Quality Annual Conference.; 2017.
Ritho C, Mwololo H, Nzuma J. ". Do farmer demographic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?". In: Global Food Symposium . Gottingen University Germany; 2017.
Maina KW, Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Njagi LW, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela RH. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with parasitic infections of farmed fish in central Kenya.". In: Proc. of the Joint KVA, CVA & UoN-FVM International Scientific Conference . Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017.
Murugami JM, Maina, Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Mavuti SK, Ngowi HA, Nzalawahe J, Mdegela. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with parasitic infections of farmed fish in central Kenya.". In: KVA, CVA and UoN-FVM International Scientific Conference. Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya. ; 2017.
Mulei IR, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Evensen, Mutoloki S. "Detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kenya.". In: DAFINET workshop. In collaboration with BangFish and ParaFish Control. Stigbojlen 7, University of Copenhagen,1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark, ; 2017.
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Ochwoto M, Korir R, Ngetich RK, Nginya G, Makwaga O, Bii C, Mwitari P, Tolo F. "Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(9):e0005901. Abstract

Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection. Identification of suspected bacteria colonies was done by colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine the drug susceptibility profiles. Out of 37 participants, from whom swabs were collected, specimen were positive in 29 and 8 had no growth. From these, 10 different strains of bacteria were isolated. Two were Gram positive bacteria and they were, Staphylococcus epidermidis (38.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%). Eight were Gram negative namely Enterobacter cloacae (8.5%), Proteus species (8.5%), Klebsiellla species (6.4%), Aeromonas sobria (4.3%), Citrobacter species (4.3%), Proteus mirabillis(4.3%), Enterobacter amnigenus (2.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.1%). The methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated were also resistant to clindamycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. All the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin drugs. Results from this study confirms the presence of resistant bacteria in tungiasis lesions hence highlighting the significance of secondary infection of the lesions in endemic communties. This therefore suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility testing may be considered to guide in identification of appropriate antibiotics and treatment therapy among tungiasis patients.

Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "ADAPTING A STIGMA SCALE FOR ASSESSMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS-RELATED STIGMA AMONG ENGLISH/SWAHILI-SPEAKING PATIENTS IN AN AFRICAN SETTING." Stigma Health. 2017;2(4):326. Abstract

To adapt a validated instrument that quantitatively measures stigma among English/Swahili speaking TB (tuberculosis) patients in Kenya, a high burden TB country.

Bork KA, Cames C, Newell M-L, Read JS, Ayassou K, Musyoka F, Mbatia G, Cournil A. "Formula-Feeding of HIV-Exposed Uninfected African Children Is Associated with Faster Growth in Length during the First 6 Months of Life in the Kesho Bora Study." J. Nutr.. 2017;147(3):453-461. Abstract

Background: Early feeding patterns may affect the growth of HIV-exposed children and thus their subsequent health and cognition.Objective: We assessed the association of infant feeding (IF) mode with length-for-age z score (LAZ) and stunting from age 2 d to 18 mo in HIV-exposed African children within a controlled randomized trial, which evaluated triple antiretrovirals initiated during pregnancy and continued for 6 mo postpartum to prevent HIV transmission.Methods: HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4(+) counts of 200-500 cells/mm(3) from Burkina Faso, Kenya, and South Africa were advised to exclusively breastfeed for up to 6 mo or to formula-feed from birth. Factors associated with LAZ were investigated in all uninfected children by using mixed-effects linear models; those associated with stunting (LAZ <-2) at 6 or 12 mo were assessed in multiple logistic regression after exclusion of children stunted at age 2 d. Independent variables were IF mode: formula feeding (FF), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) <3 mo, or EBF ≥3 mo (reference); sex; trial arm; maternal characteristics; and site.Results: Among 728 children, FF was associated with a greater increase in LAZ from 2 d to 6 mo (+0.07 z score/mo, P < 0.001). Between 6 and 18 mo, FF and EBF <3 mo were both associated with greater mean LAZ than was EBF ≥3 mo (+0.52 z scores and +0.43 z scores, respectively, P < 0.001). Among children not stunted at 2 d, FF was independently associated with a reduced risk of stunting at 6 mo (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.81; P = 0.021), whereas EBF <3 mo was not (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.22, 1.10; P = 0.09).Conclusions: In this observational study of HIV-exposed uninfected infants, growth in length in the first 6 mo of life was faster in formula-fed infants than in exclusively breastfed infants. The plausibility of residual confounding and reverse causality is discussed. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN71468401.

Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Gazzard B, Karita E, Bergin P, Hayes P, Kopycinski J, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Jackson A, Bizimana J, Farah B, Sayeed E, Parks CL, Inoue M, Hironaka T, Hara H, Shu T, Matano T, Dally L, Barin B, Park H, Gilmour J, Lombardo A, Excler J-L, Fast P, Laufer DS, Cox JH. "First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens." J. Infect. Dis.. 2017;215(1):95-104. Abstract

 We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.

Newman LP, Njoroge A, Magaret A, Chohan BH, Gitomea VW, Wald A, Gorstein J, Overbaugh J, Dalton Wamalwa, Maleche-Obimbo E, Ruth Nduati, Farquhar C. "Sustained Responses to Measles Revaccination at 24 Months in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017. Abstract

There are limited data on whether HIV-infected children in resource-limited countries who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are able to produce sustained, protective levels of measles antibody after multiple measles vaccinations.

Nordstrom MPC, Westercamp N, Jaoko W, Okeyo T, Bailey RC. "Medical Male Circumcision Is Associated With Improvements in Pain During Intercourse and Sexual Satisfaction in Kenya." J Sex Med. 2017;14(4):601-612. Abstract

Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision.

Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

Marangu D, Mwaniki H, Nduku S, Maleche-Obimbo E, Jaoko W, Babigumira J, John-Stewart G, Rao D. "Stakeholder perspectives for optimization of tuberculosis contact investigation in a high-burden setting." PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0183749. Abstract

Optimal tuberculosis contact investigation impacts TB prevention, timely case finding and linkage to care, however data on routine implementation in high burden contexts is limited.

Mogire RM, Akala HM, Macharia RW, Juma DW, Cheruiyot AC, Andagalu B, Brown ML, El-Shemy HA, Nyanjom SG. "Target-similarity search using Plasmodium falciparum proteome identifies approved drugs with anti-malarial activity and their possible targets." PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186364. Abstract

Malaria causes about half a million deaths annually, with Plasmodium falciparum being responsible for 90% of all the cases. Recent reports on artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia warrant urgent discovery of novel drugs for the treatment of malaria. However, most bioactive compounds fail to progress to treatments due to safety concerns. Drug repositioning offers an alternative strategy where drugs that have already been approved as safe for other diseases could be used to treat malaria. This study screened approved drugs for antimalarial activity using an in silico chemogenomics approach prior to in vitro verification. All the P. falciparum proteins sequences available in NCBI RefSeq were mined and used to perform a similarity search against DrugBank, TTD and STITCH databases to identify similar putative drug targets. Druggability indices of the potential P. falciparum drug targets were obtained from TDR targets database. Functional amino acid residues of the drug targets were determined using ConSurf server which was used to fine tune the similarity search. This study predicted 133 approved drugs that could target 34 P. falciparum proteins. A literature search done at PubMed and Google Scholar showed 105 out of the 133 drugs to have been previously tested against malaria, with most showing activity. For further validation, drug susceptibility assays using SYBR Green I method were done on a representative group of 10 predicted drugs, eight of which did show activity against P. falciparum 3D7 clone. Seven had IC50 values ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM. This study also suggests drug-target association and hence possible mechanisms of action of drugs that did show antiplasmodial activity. The study results validate the use of proteome-wide target similarity approach in identifying approved drugs with activity against P. falciparum and could be adapted for other pathogens.

Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM. "Molecular Phylogeny of ten Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade.". In: XXI AETFAT congress. Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 2017. Abstractaetfat_2017-fredrick_m.ppt

Plectranthus is one important genus of flowering plants whose member species have a variety of uses in the horticultural and in the medical field. Plectranthus species are difficult to distinguish morphologically and many species have been given different names by different authors. Use of morphological characters is not sufficiently enough to delimit the genus successfully. Molecular, anatomical and biochemical markers are better in studying interspecific variation compared to gross morphological markers. So far no study on molecular phylogeny of the Kenyan Plectranthus species has been conducted. By comparing the same gene sequence across species within a genus, a phylogenetic tree can be constructed which can support or give new insights into the existing classification and rule out the confusion brought by synonymy. As a result, the current study used molecular characters to classify ten Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade within the Plectranthus genus. The molecular characters used in the study were DNA sequences of two chloroplast genes: MatK and Rbcl genes considered as universal molecular markers. Genomic DNA from the ten species was obtained followed by amplification and sequencing of the two genes in each species. From the results, a phylogenetic tree reconstructed using MatK genes groups P. caninus, P. otostegioides, P. barbatus and P. lanuginosus together and all the four species form a monophyletic group. These four species together with P.aegyptiacus form a larger monophyletic group. The same pattern can be observed in the phylogenetic tree created using the Rbcl genes. Again based on the MatK genes; P. pseudomarruboides, P. ornatus, P. montanous and P. amboinicus have been showed to be closely related and are monophyletic. Again these four species together with P.edulis form a larger monophyletc group. This close relationship of these species can also be observed in phylogenetic tree produced using the Rbcl genes. The present study has grouped the ten study Plectranthus species using molecular characters into phylogenies which are supported by previous studies and proved that molecular characters can aid in plant identification and phylogenetic studies.
Key words; Plectranthus, Molecular phylogeny, MatK gene, Rbcl gene.

Ndohvu JB. " African Values and Children's Rights Instruments.". In: In Jackson Wafula Muyila (Ed),African Values and the Rights of the Child: Challenges and Prospects. Saarbrucken: Editions Universitaires Europeennes; 2017.
Jimmy ML, Nzuve F, Flourence O, Manyasa E, Muthomi J. ". Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and trait correlations in selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;11(5):47-56.
Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
Wambugu, M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. ": Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Land Use Practices on Rivers in Tropical Regions: A case Study of Ruiru and Ndarugu Basins, Kiambu County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017;11(8):426-437.
Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solutions onto Rice Husks: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. AbstractWebsite

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Muinde VM, Onyari JM, Wamalwa B, Wabomba J, Nthumbi RM. "Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions onto rice husks: Kinetic and equilibrium studies." Journal of Environmental Protection. 2017;8(03):215. Abstract

A study was done to evaluate the removal of a cationic dye from simulated waste water onto rice husks (RH). Spectroscopic methods such as FTIR and SEM/EDX were used for adsorbent characterization. Experimental dependency on solution pH, initial dye concentration, agitation speed, adsorbentparticle size, temperature of the solution and contact time was evaluated. The adsorption data was tested using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 6.5 mg/g. Further, the separation factor (RL) value was less than unity indicating a favorable adsorption process. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The results showed that the adsorption of malachite green onto rice husks followed pseudo-second-order model with a determination coefficient of 0.986. This work has revealed that rice husks have a great potential to sequester cationic dyes from aqueous solutions and therefore it can be utilized to clean contaminated effluents.

Udomkun P, Wiredu AN, Mutegi C, Atehnkeng J, Nagle M, Nielsen F, Müller J, Vanlauwe B, Bandyopadhyay R. "Aflatoxin distribution in crop products from Burundi and Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.". 2017:1.
Nyamai C, Daniel Ichang'i, Wamunyu AW, Feneyrol J, Giuliani G, et al. "Age and origin of the tsavorite and tanzanite mineralizing fluids in the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Metamorphic Belt." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(4):763-786. AbstractFull Text

The genetic model previously proposed for tsavorite- (and tanzanite-) bearing mineralization hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (stretching from Kenya through Tanzania to Madagascar) is refined on the basis of new Sm-Nd age determinations and detailed Sr-O-S isotope and fluid-inclusion studies. The deposits are hosted within meta-sedimentary series composed of quartzites, graphitic gneisses, calc-silicate rocks intercalated with meta-evaporites, and marbles. Tsavorite occurs either in nodules (also called “boudins”) oriented parallel to the metamorphic foliation in all of the deposits in the metamorphic belt or in quartz veins and lenses located at the hinges of anticlinal folds (Lelatema fold belt and Ruangwa deposits, Tanzania). Gem tanzanite occurs in pockets and lenses in the Lelatema fold belt of northern Tanzania.

The Sm-Nd isotopic data for tsavorites and tanzanites hosted in quartz veins and lenses from Merelani demonstrate that they formed at 600 Ma, during the retrograde metamorphic episode associated with the East African Orogeny. The tsavorites hosted in nodules do not provide reliable ages: their sedimentary protoliths had heterogeneous compositions and their Sm-Nd system was not completely rehomogenized, even at the local scale, by the fluid-absent metamorphic recrystallization.

The initial 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of calcite from marble and tanzanites from Merelani fit with the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates. Seawater sediment deposition in the Mozambique Ocean took place around 720 Ma.

The quartz-zoisite O-isotopic thermometer indicates a temperature of formation for zoisite between 385 and 448 °C.

The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (between –7.8 and –1.3‰ V-CDT) associated with tsavorite in the Lelatema fold belt deposits suggests the contribution of reduced marine sulfate. The sulfur in pyrite in the marbles was likely derived from bacterial sulfate reduction which produced H2S. Fluid inclusion data from tsavorite and tanzanite samples from the Merelani mine indicate the presence of a dominant H2S-S8±(CH4)±(N2)±(H2O)-bearing fluid. In the deposits in Kenya and Madagascar, the replacement of sulfate by tsavorite in the nodules and the boron isotopic composition of tourmaline associated with tsavorite are strong arguments in favor of the participation of evaporites in garnet formation.

Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko district, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(24)(ISSN – 1991-637x):2093-2100.
Roberts LC, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "An analysis of determinants of access to and use of credit by smallholder farmers in Suakoko District, Liberia." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(24): 2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

Agricultural credit has been argued to be very important for sustainable agricultural development and poverty reduction in rural areas. This study seeks to identify and to analyze the determinants of smallholder farmers’ access to and use of credit in Suakoko district, Bong County, Liberia. This research is quantitative using a survey questionnaire distributed to 105 smallholder farmers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and causal analysis was performed using a binary Logit regression model. Results from regression indicate that 39% of the farmers were credit users. The marginal effects of bank account and other sources of income show significant and positive effects on access to credit. However, education, occupation and group membership are significant but have negative effects on access to credit by smallholder farmers. The results also show that 38% of credit users applied credit received for agricultural activities, while the rest utilized it for non-agricultural activities. It is recommended that a policy should be established to ensure older farmers gets adult literacy while younger farmers get formal education. Moreover, the government should issue a policy aimed at increasing opportunities for off-farm activities through creation of jobs and motivating self-employment. Finally, the government should promote the creation of development groups geared towards providing collateral support for members and also serve as guarantors for farmers to receive banks credit/loans in order to increase agricultural productivity in the study area.

Key words: Credit access, rural, farmers, smallholder, Suakoko district, Liberia.

Madadi VO, Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Mavuti KM. "Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Lake Naivasha Catchment." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):139-149.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
NDIRANGU MAINADAVID, CHIRA ROBERTMUTUGI, Wang’ondu V, Kairo JG. "Analysis of wave energy reduction and sediment stabilization by mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2017;7(2):83-94.
Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Pileggi-Castro C, Adejuyigbe EA, Althabe F, Ariff S, Ayede AI, Baqui AH, Costello A, Chikamata DM, Crowther C, Fawole B, Gibbons L, Jobe AH, Kapasa ML, Kinuthia J, Kriplani A, Kuti O, Neilson J, Patterson J, Piaggio G, Qureshi R, Qureshi Z, Sankar MJ, Stringer JSA, Temmerman M, Yunis K, Bahl R, Gülmezoglu AM. "Antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent preterm birth in low-resource countries: the case for equipoise and the need for efficacy trials." British Medical Journal Global Health. 2017;2(3). AbstractWebsite

The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns. In this article, we briefly present an appraisal of the current evidence around ACS, how these findings informed WHO's current recommendations on ACS use, and the knowledge gaps that have emerged in the light of new trial evidence. Critical considerations in the generalisability of the available evidence demonstrate that a true state of clinical equipoise exists for this treatment option in low-resource settings. An expert group convened by WHO concluded that there is a clear need for more efficacy trials of ACS in these settings to inform clinical practice.

Keywords: antenatal corticosteroids; neonatal mortality; preterm birth.

Musi, C, MIRIKAU, N, D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;11(8):1003-1014 . Abstractantibacterial_antifungal_plectranthus_2017.pdfWebsite

Background Information: Plectranthus L’Hér. is an economically important genus with horticultural, medicinal and food uses. Most Plectranthus species are used in traditional medicine and have attracted the interest of researchers who have studied them in attempt to explore the bioactivities of their phytoconstituents.
Materials and Methods: The current study investigated the antimicrobial activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species through disc diffusion and broth dilution method.
Results:Results indicated that, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) total leaf extracts from Plectranthus barbatus displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the other nine Plectranthus species with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25, 40, 100, 50, and 100 mg/ml against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger, respectively. At a concentration of 200 mg/ml, the antibacterial activity of total leaf extracts of P. barbatus (MIC value = 25 mg/ml) and Plectranthus lanuginosus (MIC value = 40 mg/ml) againstMRSA was not significantly different from positive control drug; amoxicillin. Similarity, at a concentration of 200 mg/ml,total leaf extracts from Plectranthus ornatus (MIC value= 50 mg/ml) and P. barbatus (MIC value = 50 mg/ml) exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans which was not significantly different from that of the positive control; ketoconazole.
Conclusion: The study reports for the first time, the antimicrobial activity of Plectranthus pseudomarrubioides, Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, Plectranthus Otostegioides, and Plectranthus lanuginosus. The study has demonstrated broad bacteriostatic activity of P. barbatus and thus recommends further studies on this plant aimed at discovery of novel antimicrobial agents.
KEY WORDS: Antimicrobial activity, Bioguidance, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Plectranthus

Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Kawaljit S, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, et al. "Antimalarial pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead optimization, parasite life cycle stage profile, mechanistic evaluation, killing kinetics and in vivo oral efficacy in a mouse model." J. Med. Chem. 2017;60(4):1432-1448.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts and Phytosterols from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;20:13-16.
Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2017;20:13-16. Abstract

The root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx was dried, powdered and extracted using chloroform, methanol and hot water. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decoction (100mg/ml) was more active than the chloroform and methanol extracts against the four microorganisms. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform extract using normal phase silica yielded the phytosterols lupeol and lupenone. At 100 mg/ml, the compounds were active against all the four microorganisms, with lupeol being more active than lupenone. This is the first report of the isolation of lupenone from Lonchocarpus eriocalyx.

Mubiu JK, Ndwigah SN, Abuga KO, Ongarora DSB. "Antimicrobial activity of extracts and phytosterols from the root bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2017;20:13-16.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:920. Abstract

Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1) along with six known ones including; lupeol (2), two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3) and lauryl alcohol (4); two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5) and nervonic acid (6) as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R)-3β-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7) from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan) (8) was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), two M.mycoides. capri (Mmc) and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc) using broth dilution methods, while the minimum …

Okombo J, Singh K, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkson C, Peter M. Njogu, Mireille V, Keiser Jennifer, Egan T, Chibale K. "Antischistosomal activity of pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives and correlation with inhibition of β-hematin formation." ACS Infect. Dis.. 2017;3:411-420.
Wambugu M, Nyandega I, Kithia S. "Application of Hydrological Models in Poorly Gauged Watersheds: A review of the Usage of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 2017;6(8):132-141.
Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Njeru CM, Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, Kinyamario JI, Kiboi S, Maeda EE. "Assessing stock and thresholds detection of soil organic carbon and nitrogen along an altitude gradient in an east Africa mountain ecosystem." Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:29-38.
Degu A, Njogu P, Weru I, Karimi P. "Assessment of drug therapy problems among patients with cervical cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Gynecol. Oncol. Res. Pract. 2017;4(15):1-15.
Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LK, Gathumbi JK. "Assessment of effectiveness of garlic extract from Laikipia County on shelf life of meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Gathumbi JK, Njue LG, Ombui JN, Kanja LW. "Assessment of Effectiveness of Garlic Extract from Laikipia County, on Shelf-Life of Meat." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2017;5(5):632-641.
Mutai BK, Muthama NJ, Ng'ang'a JK, Mwanthi MA, Wagner T. Assessment of Population Exposure to Future Climate Change-Induced Exceedances of Health-Based Air Pollutants over Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2017.
Kamau G, Njiraine D. "An Assessment of the Accessibility of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Library Users: A Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret; 2017.
J. M’eruaki, Njeru L, Kiunga G. "An Assessment of the Roleof Internal Savings and LendingCommunities (SILC) in Community Empowerment in Igembe North SubCounty, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (SJAHSS). 2017;5(8)(ISSN): 2347-5374.
Njeru L. "An Assessment of Vulnerability and Risks of Climate Change and Possible Solutions to Enhance Resilience to Adapt to the Change in Meru County, Kenya." Scholars Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences . 2017;4(7)( e-ISSN 2348–1854):267-272.
Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo DO, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;6:5-11.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Lamuka P, Njeru F, Gitao C, Khalif A. "Camel health management and pastoralists’ knowledge and information on zoonoses and food safety risks in Isiolo County, Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2017;7(20, DOI 10.1186/s13570-017-0095-z).
Maweu JM, Ndohvu JB. "A Case of Voice Poverty? Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight Against Poverty in Kenya.". In: Poverty and Human Rights: East African Experiences. Nairobi: Focus Publishers ltd; 2017.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku FM, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):331.
Mutuku FM, Ngugi HN, Ndenga BA, Musunzaji PS, Mbakaya JO, Aswani P, IRUNGU LUCYW, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U, LaBeaud AD. "Characterization and productivity profiles of Aedes aegypti (L.) breeding habitats across rural and urban landscapes in western and coastal Kenya.". 2017.
Ngugi HN, Mutuku F, Ndenga B, Siema P, Maleka H, IRUNGU LUCY, Mukoko D, Vulule J, Kitron U. "CHARACTERIZATION OF LARVAL HABITATS OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN KENYA.". 2017;95(5):56-57.
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Kariuki L, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2017;19(3). AbstractWebsite

Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda.

Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors using light trap and pyrethrum spray catch techniques, and outdoors using light traps. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characteristics. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to screen for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein and host blood meal sources. Anopheles larvae were sampled using dippers and raised into adult mosquitoes which were identified morphologically.

Results: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised of 70% of the 567 Anopheles collected. Other Anopheles species identified were An. funestus 4%, An. squamosus 16.5%, An. maculipalpis 6.5%, An. ziemanni 1.7%, An. pharoensis 1.2 % and An. coustani 0.1%. The majority, 63.5% of the collected mosquitoes were from indoors collections. The overall human blood index was 0.509. The P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein was found in 11 mosquitos including 8 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 3 secondary vectors out of the 567 tested. The overall sporozoite rate was 1.9%. A total of 661 Anopheline larvae from 22 larval habitats were collected. They comprised of An. gambiae s.l. (89%) and An. ziemanni (11%). The absolute breeding index was 86.4%. The most common larval habitats were in full sunlight with still water like rice paddies and pools of stagnant water.

Conclusion: These findings show that Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the dominant malaria vector in the area with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area.

Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, Bosse V, Giuliani G, Monié P, Omito E, Simonet C, Ohnenstetter D, Daniel Ichang'i, Nyamai C, Wamunyu A. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull text link

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430 °C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Nyamai C, Wamunyu A, Daniel Ichang'i, Martelat J-E, Paquette J-L, et al. "Chronological Constraints On Tsavorite Mineralizations and Related Metamorphic Episodes In Southeast Kenya." The Canadian Mineralogist. 2017;55(5):845-865. AbstractFull Text

Tsavorite is exclusively hosted in the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt (NMMB). The gemstone mines, widespread between Kalalani (Tanzania) and Mgama Ridge (Kenya), define a continuous corridor over a hundred kilometers in length. The tsavorite is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence defined as the Kurase tsavorite-bearing metasediments (Kurase-TB metasediments) that also hosts rubies. These metasediments underwent amphibolite-facies metamorphism and are surrounded by granulitic gneisses that are also of sedimentary origin (the Kurase high-temperature gneisses). All these rocks lie below the Kasigau Group, a unit dominated by granulite-facies metamagmatic rocks.

To constrain the timing of events that led to this peculiar occurrence of tsavorite, we have performed geochronological analyses of thin sections and of separated grains of zircon, monazite, and rutile using LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS, as well as 40Ar/39Ar of muscovite and phlogopite from various lithologies. The results show that the different terranes were metamorphosed synchronously between 620–580 Ma but under different P-T strain conditions. The Kurase-HT gneisses and the rocks from the Kasigau Group are highly strained and underwent granulite-facies metamorphism with abundant partial melting and emplacement of felsic melts between 620 and 600 Ma. Textural observations also underlined a late regional water flux controlling the occurrence of V-free muscovite and monazite mineralizations at 585 Ma. The latter event can be related to the activity of the Galana shear zone, in the east. The Kurase-TB metasediments escaped strain and partial melting. They record amphibolite-facies conditions with static heating, since initial sedimentary structures were locally preserved. The age of the tsavorite mineralization was inferred at 600 Ma from metamorphic zircon rims and monazite from the closest host-rocks, sampled in the mines. Hence, tsavorite crystallization occurred statically at the end of the metamorphic event, probably when the temperature and the amount of volatiles were at maximum levels.

Conversely, the ruby formed by local metasomatism of felsic dikes and isolated ultramafic bodies. The rubies are older and zircons and monazites from a ruby-bearing felsic dike (plumasite) were dated at 615 Ma. Finally, data from rutile and micas indicate a global cooling below 430°C of the whole region between 510 and 500 Ma.

Gichobi AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. . 2017;6(1):27-37.
Gichobi 2. AN, Ndwigah SN, Sinei KA, Guantai EM. "Clinical audit of Heparin use in Rift Valley General Hospital, Nakuru County, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(1):27-37.
Nyawira M, Muchai G, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Atieno J, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga PT, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):33-39. Abstract

All persons living with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have a lifetime risk of developing Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a
potentially blinding microvascular complication of DM. The risk increases with the duration of diabetes. The
onset and progression of DR can be delayed through optimization of control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids. The risk of blindness from DR can be reduced through cost-effective interventions such as screening for DR and treatment of sight-threatening DR with laser photocoagulation and anti-VEGF medications.
Several factors make it important to provide guidance to clinicians who provide services for diabetes and
diabetic retinopathy in Kenya. First, the magnitude of both DM and DR is expected to increase over the next
decade. Secondly, as the retina is easily accessible for examination, the early signs of retinopathy may provide clinicians with the best evidence of microvascular damage from diabetes. This information can be used to guide subsequent management of both DM and DR. Thirdly, there are notable gaps in service delivery for the detection,treatment and follow-up of patients with DR, and the services are inequitable. Strengthening of service delivery will require close collaboration between diabetes services and eye care services.
Following a systematic and collaborative process of guideline development, the first published national
guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy have been developed. The purpose of this paper is to
highlight the recommendations in the guidelines, and to facilitate their adoption and implementation.

N M, M G, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, A J’o. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: An executive summary of the recommendations." JOECSA. 2017;21(2):33-39.
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Ngugi N, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: an executive summary of the recommendations." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):33-9.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Clinical manifestations of sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." Ghana Journal of Science. 2017;57:35-45.
Malemba GM, Nzuve FM, Kimani, P.M; Kimani JM, Olubayo MF, Muthomi JW. "Combining Ability for Drought Tolerance in Upland Rice Varieties at Reproductive Stage." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(3):138-150.
Bebora, L.C., Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Nicholas S. "A comprehensive review on clinical signs, diagnostic test and vaccination." Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences . 2017;7(3):58-66.abstract.pdf
W WT, N KF, M MJ. "Corporate Image and Brand Performance of Kenyan Universities ." DBA Africa Management Review . 2017;Vol 7 (No.2): 152-167.munyoki_and_tabitha.pdf
K NJ, N KF, Munyoki JM, Kinoti M. "Corporate Social Responsibility Marketing Practices, Technological Environmental factors and Performance of NGOs in Nairobi Kenya." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science. 2017;Volume 22(Issue 8):10-20.munyoki_and_john_njau_2.pdf
Rakuomi V, Okalebo F, Ndwigah S, Mbugua L. "Cost effectiveness of pre-referral antimalarial treatment in severe malaria among children in sub-Saharan Africa." Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2017;15:14.
Ondeto BM, Nyundo C, Kamau L, Muriu SM, Mwangangi JM, Njagi K, Mathenge EM, Ochanda H. "Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya." Parasites & vectors. 2017;10(1):429.
Njogu PM, Okombo J, Chibale K. "Designed Hybrid Compounds for Tropical Parasitic Diseases.". In: Design of Hybrid Molecules for Drug Development (First Edition). London: Elsevier; 2017.
Muthini D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ. "Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2017;9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Muatha IT, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(10)(ISSN – 1991-637x):3549-3555.
Tesesia MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 2017;12(51):3549-3555.
English MM, Irimu GG, Nyamai RR, Were FF, Garner PP, Opiyo NN, F W. "Developing guidelines in low-income and middle-income countries: lessons from Kenya." Arch Dis Child. 2017;1(6). AbstractWebsite

There are few examples of sustained nationally organised, evidence-informed clinical guidelines development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the evolution of efforts from 2005 to 2015 to support evidence-informed decision making to guide admission hospital care practices in Kenya. The approach to conduct reviews, present evidence, and structure and promote transparency of consensus-based procedures for making recommendations improved over four distinct rounds of policy making. Efforts to engage important voices extended from government and academia initially to include multiple professional associations, regulators and practitioners. More than 100 people have been engaged in the decision-making process; an increasing number outside the research team has contributed to the conduct of systematic reviews, and 31 clinical policy recommendations has been developed. Recommendations were incorporated into clinical guideline booklets that have been widely disseminated with a popular knowledge and skills training course. Both helped translate evidence into practice. We contend that these efforts have helped improve the use of evidence to inform policy. The systematic reviews, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches and evidence to decision-making process are well understood by clinicians, and the process has helped create a broad community engaged in evidence translation together with a social or professional norm to use evidence in paediatric care in Kenya. Specific sustained efforts should be made to support capacity and evidence-based decision making in other African settings and clinical disciplines.

Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PMF, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. "Disorders of the Claw and Their Association with Laminitis in Smallholder Zero Grazed Dairy Cows." International journal of veterinary science. 2017;6(2).
Nguhiu J, P M F M, JK W, Mbuthia P G. "Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(2):64-69.
Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbithi PM, Wabacha JK, Mbuthia PG. Disorders of the claw and their association with laminitis in smallholder zero-grazed dairy cows. University of Nairobi; 2017.
Nyaga LW, Gach. "Distance Learning Approach to Train Health Sciences Students at the University of Nairobi." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(February 2017):101-105.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BB. "Diversity, distribution and abundance of potential rift valley fever vectors in Baringo County, Kenya." International Journal of Mosquito Research. 2017;4(4):42-48.ondiba_etal_2018.pdf
Kariuki Samwel Muiruri, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu E, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Dominant Allele Phylogeny and Constitutive Subgenome Haplotype Inference in Bananas Using Mitochondrial and Nuclear Markers." Genome biology and evolution. 2017;9(10):2510-2521.
Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP Policy on Climate Change Perceptions of Smallholder French Beans Farmers in Central and Eastern Regions, Kenya." Climate . 2017;5(2). AbstractWebsite

The risks posed by climate change to Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA) smallholder fresh export fruit and vegetables production are amplifying the significance of farmers’ climate change perceptions in enhancing adoption of suitable adaptation strategies. Production of fresh export fruit and vegetables in Kenya has increasingly been done under the Global-GAP standard scheme by smallholder farmers to improve both environmental conservation and market access. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions of smallholder French beans farmers. The analysis was based on data collected from a random sample of 616 households interviewed in the Central and Eastern regions of Kenya. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract farmers’ key prevailing climate change perceptions and logit regression model to examine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions among other socio-economic factors. The PCA analysis extracted three components proxying for ‘droughts’, ‘delay in rainy seasons’, ‘diseases and pests’ and three proxying for ‘hot days’, ‘floods’, and ‘diseases and pests’ as summarizing maximum variance in the perceptions in the Central and Eastern region respectively. The common, study area-wide climate change perception was identified as incidence of diseases and pest. Logit regression analysis found that Global-GAP policy significantly influenced and improved farmers’ probability of perceiving climate change. Other factors found to influence farmers’ probability of having the identified climate change perceptions included regional specificity, access to agricultural extension service, access to credit, plot size, and soil fertility. The policy implication of this study is that the government and service providers should mainstream factors like Global-GAP compliance and regional considerations found to improve probability of perceiving climate change in awareness creation extension strategies, towards enhancing adoption of adaptation measures in the smallholder fruits and vegetables farming sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global-GAP certification; climate change perception; principal component analysis; logit regression model; smallholder; French beans farming; Kenya

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;12(8):577-587.
K NJ, Munyoki JM, N KF, Kinoti M. "Effect of Integrated Marketing Practices and Organizational Structure on Efficiency and Effectiveness of NGOs in Nairobi City County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention . 2017;Vol.6(No 8):41-49.munyoki_and_john_njau_1.pdf
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mbuthia PG, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 2017;65(3):439-447.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Effects of different infectious Bursal disease vaccination regimes on biochemical and haematological parameters of indigenous chicken in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(5).
Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Effects of different infectious Bursal disease vaccination regimes on biochemical and haematological parameters of indigenous chicken in Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(5).
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
S PE, Mutuku RN, N MJ. "Effects of Palm Kernel Shell and Rice Husk Ash as Partial Replacements of Normal Weight Aggregate and ordinary Portland Cement in Concrete." European international Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;Vol 6(8):42-54.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Maingi N, Njagi L W, HW C, DC K. "Efficacy of Piperazine citrate, Levamisole hydrochloride and Albendazole in the treatment of chicken naturally infected with gastrointestinal helminths." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(5).
Chege HW, Kemboi DC, Bebora LC, Maingi N, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Efficacy of Piperazine citrate, Levamisole hydrochloride and Albendazole in the treatment of chicken naturally infected with gastrointestinal helminths." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(5).
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.
Wafula1 GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6(4):45-54.
Wafula GO, Muthomi JW, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Efficacy of Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids in the Management of Thrips and Whitefly on Snap Beans." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2017;6:45-54.
Nyongesa F, Aduda BO. "Electrophoretic Deposition of Titanium Dioxide Thin Films for Photocatalytic water purification systems." Advances in Materials. 2017;6(4):31-37. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on
conducting glass substrates for application in water purification from organic contaminants. Phenol was used as a model
pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film
deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO2 particles to the substrate with
homogeneous film coatings, is ethanol with a pH of 3.0, a TiO2 solid loading of 4.0 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the
solvent and a deposition voltage of 20.0V in a time of 210.0s. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films decreases
exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it is also dependent on film thickness, sintering temperature
and the intensity of the UV light. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity is observed at an optimal film thickness of 95.0 ±
2.0µm sintered at 300.0°C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive waste water purification
systems for light industries before discharge into the ecosystem.
Keywords: Electrophoretic Deposition, Titanium Dioxide, Photocatalysis

Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
8. Gladys A. Mbaringong, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(2):94-101.
Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze EM, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. . 2017;21(2):40-44. Abstract

Objective: This operational evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of having a screening fundus
camera in the diabetes clinic on the demand for eye clinic diabetic retinopathy services at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Methods: A before-after evaluation design was used. The reference point was installation of a screening retinal fundus camera in the KNH diabetes clinic in May 2016. The ‘before’ period was January to June 2015 and the ‘after’ period was June to November 2016. The one-year gap between the evaluation periods was used for program development and user training. The primary measure of outcome was a comparison of the mean numbers of patients seen and treated before and after starting the screening program. Data was obtained from the medical records on both the diabetes and eye clinics.
Results: The total number of diabetic patients screened in the two periods was 3011 (monthly mean=502,
SD=44) and 2739 (monthly mean=457, SD=38) respectively. The total number referred to the eye clinic increased from 494 (monthly mean=82, SD=16) to 1065 (monthly mean=178, SD=30) while the total number of patients treated with lasers or intravitreal injections increased from 107 (monthly mean=18, SD=5) to 333 (monthly mean=56, SD=39).
Conclusions: Starting a diabetic retinopathy screening program using a fundus camera used based at the
diabetes clinic doubled the number of patients referred for further evaluation at the eye clinic (2.2-fold increase) and tripled the number of diabetics who received treatment for diabetic retinopathy (3.1-fold increase).

Gichuhi S, Gichangi M, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Nyenze M, Nyaga PT, Karimurio J. "Evaluation of the Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic retinopathy screening program 2015-2016 ." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr.. 2017;21(2):40-5.
Ngesu L. "The evolution of students’ militancy in globalizing world: Trends and patterns in Kenya." . IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(4):1-10.
Kang’ethe EK, Gatwiri M, Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Mburugu-Musoti CK, Kitala PM, Nduhiu GJ, Nderitu JG, JK Mungatu, Hietaniemi V, V Joutsjoki, Korhonen HJ. "Exposure of Kenyan population to aflatoxins in foods with special reference to Nandi and Makueni counties." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1 (2):131-137.
Muiruri KS, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu EK, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.)." Frontiers in plant science. 2017;1034:1034.
Gichure, N.G., Wahome, R.G., Njage, P.K., Karuri, H. W., Nzuma, M.J., Karantininis, K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Gichure JN, Wahome RG, Njage PKM, Karuri EG, Nzuma JM, Karantininis K. "Factors influencing extent of traceability along organic fresh produce value chains: case of kale in Nairobi, Kenya." Organic Agriculture. 2017;7(3):293-302.
Richard, Fabienne;;;;;; Bukuluki P, Ahmed W, Denholm N, Dawson A, Varol N, Essén B, Johnsdotter S, Ndavi P. "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: sharing data and experiences to accelerate eradication and improve care: part 2.". 2017.
Otieno SP, Ndede LA, Musonye M. "Film as an Artefact: Confronting Kenya's History through the Kitchen Toto and Nairobi Half Life." Journal of African Theatre Film and Media Discourse. 2017;vol. 1(Issue 1):61-84.
Musonye MM, Ndede L, Otieno SP. "Film as an Artifact: Confronting Kenya's History through The Kitchen Toto and Nairobi Half Life." The Journal of African Theatre, Film and Media Discourse . 2017;1(1):69-84.
Nzioka OM, Kaijage E, Ochieng DE. "Financial Integration, Macroeconomic Volatility And Economic Growth In The East African Community." European Scientific Journal. 2017;13(19):317-331. Abstract

This study aimed at determining the moderating effect of macroeconomic
volatility on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth in the EAC.
The study adopted a positivistic research philosophy and casual research
design.. Generalized-two stage least squares instrumental variable regression
model (G2SLSIV) was then conducted to test the hypothesis. The findings of
the study showed that, macro-economic volatility does not have a significant
moderating effect on the relationship between financial integration and
economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends that, the governments of
respective member states work on a monetary policy that aims to attain a
single digit level of inflation rate (low inflation targeting), in the spirit of
macro-economic convergence. The study culminates with acknowledging the
limitations encountered and provides suggestions for further research.

Amimo JO, Njuguna JN, Machuka E, Okoth E, Djikeng A. "First Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Bocavirus Strains from East Africa." Genome Announcement. 2017.
Atilaw Y, Muiva-Mutisya L, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Yeda R, Wu YJ, Coghi P, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Four Prenylflavone Derivatives with Antiplasmodial Activities from the Stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya." Molecules. 2017;22(9):1514. AbstractMolecules

Description
Four new flavones with modified prenyl groups, namely (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1), purleptone (2),(E)-5-hydroxyanhydrotephrostachin (3), and terpurlepflavone (4), along with seven known compounds (5–11), were isolated from the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya, a widely used medicinal plant. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric evidence. Some of the isolated compounds showed antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive D6 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with (E)-5-hydroxytephrostachin (1) being the most active, IC 50 1.7±0.1 μM, with relatively low cytotoxicity, IC 50> 21 μM, against four cell-lines. View Full-Text

Mutende EA, Mwangi M, NJIHIA JM, Ochieng DE. "Free Cash Flows, Agency Costs and Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange.". In: The Pan-African Journal of Business Management. Vol. 1.; 2017:. Abstractfree_cash_flows_agency_costs_and_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities.pdf

Abstract: Firm performance is affected by various factors, both internal and external. Internal
factors include firm characteristics such as firm size, age, liquidity, leverage, profitability,
growth prospects among others. External factors include regulation, agency costs and general
macro-economic factors. This paper sought to establish the influence of agency costs on the
relationship between free cash flows and firm performance. The second objective was to assess
the influence of agency costs on the relationship between free cash flows and performance of
firms listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. The study used both primary data and secondary
panel data which were obtained from all firms listed at the NSE for the period 2006 to 2015.
Panel data and simple regression analyses using OLS were employed in the study. Results
indicate that free cash flows have a significant positive relationship with firm performance, and,
agency costs have a positive significant moderating effect on the relationship between free cash
flows and firm performance. All the predictor variables had a joint positive and significant effect
on performance. The main academic contribution of the study is that free cash flows have a
positive relationship with firm performance and that agency costs; and specifically, firm
monitoring and corporate governance has a positive and significant effect on the performance of
firms listed at the NSE. Firm managers, shareholders, practitioners, the government and other
regulators should, therefore, enhance firm monitoring and corporate governance because the
benefits derived from investing therein seem to outweigh the costs.

Otieno SP, Ndede, L.A., Musonye M. "From the Snow of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;Vol. 1(Issue 5):51-63.
Musonye MM, Ndede L, Otieno SP. "From The Snows of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 94 Years of Film in Kenya." Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2017;1(5).
Mageto E.K, D. Makumbi, and K. Njoroge, Nyankanga R. "Genetic analysis of early-maturing maize (Zea Mays L.) inbred lines under stress and nonstress conditions." Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017; DOI: 10.1080/15427528.2017.1315625(31:4, ):560-588.
Osena G, Amugune NO, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Stability of Cassava Plants Regenerated Through Organogenesis Using Microsatellite Markers." Journal of Plant Sciences. 2017;5(1):19-28.
Ng’ang’a TM, Wachira PM, Wango TJL, Ndung’u JM, Ndungo MN. "Geospatial Digital Rights Management: Challenge to Global Spatial Data Infrastructure.". In: Volunteered Geographic Information and the Future of Geospatial Data. London: IGI Global.; 2017.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Gross and Histo-Pathologic Findings in Goats with Plastic bags in the Rumen.". 2017.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen.". In: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. Vol. 5.; 2017:.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Gross and histopathologic findings in sheep with plastic bags in the rumen." International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine . 2017;5:152-158.
N M, M G, Gichuhi S, G K, N N, L M, M B. Guidelines For Screening And Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2017.
Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
A.W N, N.B P, E.O W, D.W O. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." Journal of Morphological Sciences. 2017;34:156-167.

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