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2018
Muse, B., Ndirangu, Imonje R. "Determinants of Implementing Chemistry Curriculum in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL): A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Garissa, Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;17(12):99-115.
J K, P N, Ndegwa P, L I, J I, B BO, C. A. "Discovery of Phlebotomus Species of Sand Flies in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya: A Possible Leishmaniases focus. ." Annals of Clinical Cytology and Pathology . 2018;4(3):1103-1107.
Ong’amo GO, Pallangyo B, Ali A, Njaku M, LeRu BP. "Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran stem borers and their respective native hosts in different vegetation mosaics in Tanzania." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):50-62.
Nyandega IA, Krhoda G. "Drought Frequency and Persistence in the Upper River Tana basin in Kenya." Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;18(3):1-22.
E.A MEWA, M.W O, N. KC, N. RUGIRIM. "Drying modelling, moisture diffusivity and sensory quality of thin layer dried beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
A. FF, Kayima J, Otieno CF, WERE A, Ngare S. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):14-17.
Syano, N.M., Wasonga OV, Nyangito, Moses M, Kironchi G, Egeru A. "Ecological and socio-economic evaluation of dryland agroforestry systems in East Africa." RUFORUM Working Document Series . 2018;14(1):525-535.
Wakolo S, Kihiu J, Kihato P, Njoroge K. "Effect of Angular Position on Power Generation from a Pre-Stressed Piezoelectric Element in a Car Tire." Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation. 2018;3(6):264.
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Okumu OO, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of lablab green manure on population of soil microorganisms and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(3):44-54.
Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Nancy Gikaara, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Hellen Kariuki, Lorraine Sherr, Selman IHLJ &. "Effect of participation in a randomised controlled trial of an integrated palliative care intervention on HIV-associated stigma." AIDS Care . 2018;30(9):1180-1188.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16.
Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16.
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
P M, Abuodha SO, N MJ, N MG. "The Effect of Selected Cement Brands in Kenya on the Critical Penetration depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Water Conveyancing Structures." International Journal of Scientific Research Publication. 2018;Vol 8(11):276-285.
F. NJ, N MJ, T N, K DV. "Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Concentration on the Surface and Mechanical Properties of Borassus Aethiopium Mart Fibre." International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2018;Vol. 7(11):774-779.
Okumu O, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of time after incorporation of lablab green manure on root rot pathogens and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(4):113-121.
NJERI WANGARIFAITH, Githaiga JM, MWALA AGGREYK. "The effects of fires on plants and wildlife species diversity and soil physical and chemical properties at Aberdare Ranges, Kenya." Asian Journal of Forestry. 2018;2(1).
Nguu J, Nyongesa F, Robinson M, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". 2018. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique was used to fabricate TiO2/Nb2O5 composite
thin films on FTO coated glass for application as photoelectrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). A
TiO2/Nb2O5 ratio of 1:1 was used in a 2-propanol suspension solution with a solid loading of 0.25g/L. Optical
investigations showed that the film with thickness of 5.5 µm deposited at 35.0 V for 90.0 s had the highest
transmittance of 55.0 % at a wavelength (λ) of 1,300 nm. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was 3.884 eV and was
found to be dependent on the annealing time. The solar cell fabricated from this film had an open circuit voltage
(VOC) of 0.66 V, fill factor (FF) of 57.0%, short current density (JSC) of 5.25 mA/cm2 and photo conversion
efficiency (PCE) of 2.0%. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicate that the DSSC device
with thinner photoelectrodes have more efficient electron transport in the photoanode compared to thicker
photoelectrodes to achieve higher conversion efficiencies.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition, dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2/Nb2O5 composite thin films

Nguu J, Nyongesa F, J. Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2018;6(1):1-8.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4):65-76. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films on conducting glass substrates for application in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. Phenol was used as a model pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO 2 particles to the substrate with homogeneous film coatings are ethanol, a TiO 2 solid loading of 4 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the solvent and a deposition voltage of 20 V in a time of 3.5 minutes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 thin films decreased exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it was also dependent on film thickness, and sintering temperature of the TiO 2 thin films. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimal film thickness of 95±2 µm sintered at 300 C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive wastewater purification systems for light industries as well for semi urban small communities

ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
Andima M, Costabile G, Isert L, Ndakala AJ, Derese S, Merkel OM. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles for effective treatment of breast cancer: Preparation, physicochemical characterization, and antitumor activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(2):232. AbstractPharmaceutics

Description
β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Ongachi W, Onwonga R, Nyanganga H, Chimoita E. "Farmers’ knowledge, attitude, and perception of video mediated learning vis-à-vis Farmer Field School on Striga weed management in Western." International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2018;14(2):195-210.
Njeru K, NA K, IJMwaniki. "Forecasting future customer call volumes: A case study." International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering. 2018;4 (6):12-16. AbstractWebsite

Forecasting future volumes of customer calls in call centers has proved to be a tedious and challenging task. This study, using time series analysis proposes two adequate ARIMA (p, d, q) models that are suitable to forecast two volumes of customer calls, IVR Hits Volumes and Offered Call volumes. 1472 times series data points from date 01/01/2014 to 11/01/2018 were obtained from a call center based in Kenya on the two variables of interest (IVR Hits Volumes and Offered Call volumes). The appropriate orders of the two models are picked based on the examination of the results of the ACF and PACF plots. The AIC criterion is used to select the best model for the data. The best ARIMA model for log IVR Hits volumes is ARIMA (5, 1, 3) with and the best ARIMA model for log Offered Call Volumes is ARIMA (6, 1, 3) with. The two models are recommended to model and forecast the daily arrival volumes of customer call data. The obtained forecast will be used in providing insights for appropriate workforce management

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well to the observed cumulative MN at 16th week. No significant difference was observed between CF and SRF treatments for available P content in the 2nd week. Significantly higher P content was observed in CF compared to SRF treatment in the 4th week, whereas in the 8th week, some SRFs released significantly higher content than CF. Available P peaked in the 8th week in all the treatments and remained constant at 12th and 16th week. Availability of P in SRFs increased with increased content of soluble P and decreased content of nano-HA. Exchangeable K showed less variation during the incubation period, suggesting short release time. The data revealed reduced chances of leaching losses and toxic effect to the plant roots, as well as synchronized nutrient release and requirement by crops.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Michira I, Njomo N. "Formulation of slow release NPK fertilizer (cellulose-graft-poly (acrylamide)/nano-hydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer) composite and evaluating its N mineralization potential." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;63(2):163-172. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Polymer nano-composite fertilizer formulation has the potential to enhance nutrient use efficiency. Slow release fertilizer (SRF) composite was formulated by incorporating nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and water soluble fertilizers (urea, (NH4)2HPO4 and K2SO4) into water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide) polymer hydrogel. Fourier Transform Infra-red spectra revealed existence of chemical interaction between the monomer, cellulose, urea and nano-HA. The release of nutrients was assessed using laboratory incubation experiment. Significantly higher content of mineral nitrogen (MN) was observed in the first 4 weeks in conventional fertilizer (CF) compared to SRF treatments and the control. MN content in SRF treatments increased considerably between the 8th and 12th week, and declined in the 16th week. The values of potentially mineralizable N estimated using first order kinetics model related well …

Irandu EM, Ndolo J. "Green Energy for the City of Nairobi: a path to sustainable future .". In: Food Security, renewable energy and water: Insights on sustainability. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2018.
Widmer M, Piaggio G, Nguyen TM, Osoti A, Owa OO, Misra S, Coomarasamy A, Abdel-Aleem H, Mallapur AA, Qureshi Z, Lumbiganon P. "Heat-Stable Carbetocin versus Oxytocin to Prevent Hemorrhage after Vaginal Birth." New England Journal of Medicine. 2018;379(8):743-752. AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the most common cause of maternal death. Oxytocin is the standard therapy for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, but it requires cold storage, which is not available in many countries. In a large trial, we compared a novel formulation of heat-stable carbetocin with oxytocin.

Methods: We enrolled women across 23 sites in 10 countries in a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial comparing intramuscular injections of heat-stable carbetocin (at a dose of 100 μg) with oxytocin (at a dose of 10 IU) administered immediately after vaginal birth. Both drugs were kept in cold storage (2 to 8°C) to maintain double-blinding. There were two primary outcomes: the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents, and the proportion of women with blood loss of at least 1000 ml. The noninferiority margins for the relative risks of these outcomes were 1.16 and 1.23, respectively.

Results: A total of 29,645 women underwent randomization. The frequency of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents was 14.5% in the carbetocin group and 14.4% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.06), a finding that was consistent with noninferiority. The frequency of blood loss of at least 1000 ml was 1.51% in the carbetocin group and 1.45% in the oxytocin group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.25), with the confidence interval crossing the margin of noninferiority. The use of additional uterotonic agents, interventions to stop bleeding, and adverse effects did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Heat-stable carbetocin was noninferior to oxytocin for the prevention of blood loss of at least 500 ml or the use of additional uterotonic agents. Noninferiority was not shown for the outcome of blood loss of at least 1000 ml; low event rates for this outcome reduced the power of the trial. (Funded by Merck Sharpe & Dohme; CHAMPION Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000870651 ; EudraCT number, 2014-004445-26 ; and Clinical Trials Registry-India number, CTRI/2016/05/006969 .).

Waruiru, R.M., Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Murugami JW, Mavuti SK, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH, Maina KW, Otieno RO. "Helminth parasites of farmed fish and water birds in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2018;6(3):06-12.
Murugami JW, Waruiru RM, Maina KW, Mbuthia PG, Thaiyah AG, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Ngowi HA, Mdegela RH. "Helminth parasites of farmed fish and water birds in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2018;6(3):06-12.
Owakah F, Liyai H, Nyarwath O. "Henry Odera Oruka: A Bio-Bibliography.". In: Odera Oruka in the 21st Century. Washington: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (CRVP); 2018.
Munene AK, Nzuve F, Ambuko J, Odeny D. "Heritability Analysis and Phenotypic Characterization of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) for Yield." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018.abstract.pdf
Munene AK, Nzuve F, Ambuko J, Odeny D. "Heritability analysis and phenotypic characterization of spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.)for yield." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018(8568424):11.
Munene AK, Nzuve F, Ambuko J, Odeny D. "Heritability analysis and phenotypic characterization of spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.)for yield." Advances in Agriculture. 2018;2018(8568424):11.
Ntwiga DB, Ogutu C, Kirumbi M, Weke P. "A Hidden Markov Model of Risk Classification among the Low Income Earners,." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018;6(6):242-249.
Ritho C, Ng’ang’a SK, Herrero M, Fraval S, Journal TR. "Household-oriented benefits largely outweigh commercial benefits form cattl in Mabalane District, Mozambique." The Rangeland Journal. 2018;(40)6: 565-576.
Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Olago D, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. Abstract

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

Olago D, Siderius C, Gannon KE, Ndiyoi M, Opere A, Batisani N, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological response and complex impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." Earth's Future. 2018;6(1):2-22. AbstractFull Text

The 2015/2016 El Niño has been classified as one of the three most severe on record. El Niño teleconnections are commonly associated with droughts in southern Africa and high precipitation in eastern Africa. Despite their relatively frequent occurrence, evidence for their hydrological effects and impacts beyond agriculture is limited. We examine the hydrological response and impact pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in eastern and southern Africa, focusing on Botswana, Kenya, and Zambia. We use in situ and remotely sensed time series of precipitation, river flow, and lake levels complemented by qualitative insights from interviews with key organizations in each country about awareness, impacts, and responses. Our results show that drought conditions prevailed in large parts of southern Africa, reducing runoff and contributing to unusually low lake levels in Botswana and Zambia. Key informants characterized this El Niño through record high temperatures and water supply disruption in Botswana and through hydroelectric load shedding in Zambia. Warnings of flood risk in Kenya were pronounced, but the El Niño teleconnection did not materialize as expected in 2015/2016. Extreme precipitation was limited and caused localized impacts. The hydrological impacts in southern Africa were severe and complex, strongly exacerbated by dry antecedent conditions, recent changes in exposure and sensitivity and management decisions. Improved understanding of hydrological responses and the complexity of differing impact pathways can support design of more adaptive, region‐specific management strategies.

C. Siderius, K. E. Gannon, M. Ndiyoi, A. Opere, N. Batisani, D.Olago, Pardoe J, Conway D. "Hydrological Response and Complex Impact Pathways of the 2015/2016 El Niño in Eastern and Southern Africa." International Journal of Earth’s Future. 2018; RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2017EF000680.
Ng’entu SK, R I, A. Kibui, Nyagah. G. "Impact of Instructional Material Utilization in the Implementation of Literature Curriculum at Public Primary Teacher Training Colleges in Kenya." Asian Academic Research Journal of Social Science & Humanities. . 2018;5(3).
AC Guzha, Rufino MC, Okoth S, S Jacobs, Nóbrega RLB. "Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa." Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. 2018;15:49-67.
Matiang’i M, Kibwage I, Ngatia P, Omoni G, Kiarie J, Bosire K, Inyama H, Muiruri F. "Improving access to Higher education for front-line health professionals in Kenya through Blended eLearning ." African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health. 2018;12(2).
Omole RA, Malebo HM, Nondo RSO, Katani S, Mbugi H, Midiwo J, Moshi MJ. "In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of Crude Extracts of Three Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Malaria Treatment in Kenya." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2018;24(4):1-7. Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of three plants Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii which are used for malaria treatment by indigenous communities in Kenya. This work was done at the Department of Biological and Preclinical studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences in October 2016 to August 2017. Male and female albino mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) in the Peter’s four day suppression test. Five groups of mice; Group 1 (solvent: 5 mL/kg body weight of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 5 (10 mg/kg body weight chloroquine), Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts. The results showed that 5% aqueous methanol extracts of R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis exhibited higher anti-plasmodial activity than the 1:1 dichloromethane: methanol extracts in the preliminary testing. The doses showing 50% parasite suppression (EC50) were 139.2, 169.4 and 245.1 mg/kg body weight for R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis, respectively. In vivo anti-plasmodial activity of the three plants has supported the traditional use of extracts of Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii for treatment of malaria. Isolation of compounds from these plants is in progress.

Ntwiga DB;, Ogutu C;, Kirumbu MK. "Inclusion of peer group and individual low-income earners in M-Shwari micro-credit lending: a hidden Markov model approach." International Journal of Electronic Finance . 2018;9(2). AbstractWebsite

The M-Shwari micro-credit lending system has excluded the low income earners as they lack good financial options due to volatile and fluctuating income. This paper proposes a decision support system for credit scoring and lending of the low income earners who are customers of M-Shwari using the hidden Markov model. The model emits the credit scores of the customers, both for the peer groups and the individual customers. The learning and training of the model utilises the customers' socio-demographics, telecommunication characteristics and account activities. The peer groups have higher credit scores and are more attractive to offer credit facilities using M-Shwari when compared to the individual borrowers.

Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Nyaga PN, Mulei IR, Njagi LW, Mwihia EW, Evensen, Gamil AAA, Mutoloki S. "Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates." Journal of Fish Diseases . 2018;2018:1-10.
Mulei IR, Nyaga P, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW. "Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis virus isolated from farmed Rainbow Trout and Tilapia in Kenya is identical to European Isolates." Journal of Fish Diseases.. 2018;DOI:10.1111.
Mulei IR, Evensen MS, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Njagi LW, Mwihia EW, Gamil AAA. "Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus isolated from farmed rainbow trout and tilapia in Kenya is identical to European isolates." Journal of Fish Diseases. 2018;DOI: 10.1111.
Ngeiywa FC, Migosi J. "Influence of Organizational Structure on the Performance of Electrical Installation Works in Kapenguria Sub-County, Kenya." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2018;6(8):29-34.
Mbusa HK, Ngugi K, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "The Inheritance of Yield Components and Beta Carotene Content in Sweet Potato." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):71-81.
Muthomi JW, Wafula GO, Nderitu JH, Chemining’wa GN. "Integration of Seed Dressing, Bio-pesticides and Intercropping to Reduce Pesticide Use in Snap Bean Production." International Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 2018;5(1):12-20.
Ntwiga DB, Ogut C. "Interaction Dynamics in a Social Network Using Hidden Markov Model." Social Networking. 2018;2018(7):147-155.
Gitahi N, Gicheru MM, Gathura PB, Karanja NK, Githinji WT, Nordin A. "Internalization of enteropathogenic human bacteria in lettuce and coriander plant tissue." ISABB Journal of Health and Environmental Sciences. 2018;Vol. 5(3): 28-32.
Oduor R, Nyarwath O, Owakah F. "Introduction to Odera Oruka in the 21st Century.". In: Odera Oruka in the 21st Century. Washington: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (CRVP); 2018.
Neema G. Mturo*, Zaja Omboga KW;. "Ishara na Uashiriaji kama Mikakati ya Uchimuzi katika Riwaya za Vita vya Mapenzi, Mzimu wa Waufi na Tanzia za Maundu Mwingizi; ." Mara Research Journal of Kiswahili . 2018;Vol. 3, No. 1(Number 1):Pages 32-46, .
Kuria JKN, Ngethe EW, Kabuage LW, Gathura PB. "Isolation of Campylobacter spp and Escherichia coli 0157: H7 from free-range indigenous chicken value chain in Kenya." East African Medical Journal . 2018;95(1):1116-1124.
Karoki WH, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages sold in Nairobi County." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science. 2018;Article ID 3861265(https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3861265).
L.C. B, Karanja DN, Njagi LW, Karoki WH. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science. 2018;2018.abstract.pdf
Karoki WH, Karanja DN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW. "Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Bacteria from African Sausages Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Food Science . 2018;2018.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude and practices of usage and effects of disposal of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical Animal Health and Production . 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical animal health and production. 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Otsyina HR, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Mbuthia PG, Ogara WO. "Knowledge, attitude, and practices on usage, disposal, and effect of plastic bags on sheep and goats." Tropical animal health and production. 2018;50(5):997-1003.
Wahome MW, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Bwana MO. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices of indigenous chicken value chain actors in relation to infectious bursal disease transmission in Kenya." Ruforum working Document Series . 2018;17(2):511-518.
Gathumbi JK, Ntampaka P, Nyaga PN, Tukei M. "Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and its control among dog owners in Kigali city, Rwanda." BioRxiv 2018. 2018:500-595.
Ngugi CN, Mbaka, JN., Wachira PM, Okoth S. "Laboratory screening for infectivity of selected indigenous Entomopathogenic nematode isolates on Tuta absoluta in Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch. 2018;3 (6 ):10-25.
Mwangi W, Nyika D. Land Administration, Principles and Processes. Nairobi: Quinexx Publishers; 2018.
Rose DC, Sutherland WJ, Amano T, González-Varo JP, Robertson RJ, Nyumba TO. "The major barriers to evidence-informed conservation policy and possible solutions." Conservation letters. 2018;11(5):e12564. Abstractconl.12564.pdfconbio.onlinelibrary.wiley

Conservation policy decisions can suffer from a lack of evidence, hindering effective decision‐making. In nature conservation, studies investigating why policy is often not evidence‐informed have tended to focus on Western democracies, with relatively small samples. To understand global variation and challenges better, we established a global survey aimed at identifying top barriers and solutions to the use of conservation science in policy. This obtained the views of 758 people in policy, practice, and research positions from 68 countries across six languages. Here we show that, contrary to popular belief, there is agreement between groups about how to incorporate conservation science into policy, and there is thus room for optimism. Barriers related to the low priority of conservation were considered to be important, while mainstreaming conservation was proposed as a key solution. Therefore, priorities should focus on convincing the public of the importance of conservation as an issue, which will then influence policy‐makers to adopt pro‐environmental long‐term policies.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Ong’amo GO, Olumula MM, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Malaria vector abundance is associated with house structures in Baringo County, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0198970.
Amadi JA, Ong'amo GO, Olago DO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Mapping potential Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval distribution using remotely sensed climatic and environmental variables in Baringo, Kenya." Medical and veterinary entomology. 2018.
Njeri LW, Ogallo WO, Nyamu DG, Opanga SA, Birichi AR. "Medication related problems among adult chronic kidney disease patients in a Sub-Saharan tertiary hospital." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy. 2018.Website
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Cham DT, Fombong AT, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Nguku E, Raina SK. "Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae), an Opportunist Parasitoid of Honey Bees in Cameroon." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):254-258.
Nyakoah, Martha I, Muasya, Juliet N. "MESSAGES PORTRAYED IN 'TINGA TINGA TALES' AND 'AKILI AND ME' CARTOON PROGRAMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE MORAL BEHAVIOURS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CREATIVE RESEARCH AND STUDIES. 2018;2(1):72-80.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndung’u M. "Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Tense: An Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory." Mwanga wa Lugha. 2018;2 (2):55-75.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Ndungu MN. "Metaphorical Extension of Kiswahili Tense: An Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory." Mwanga wa Lugha: Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika. 2018;2(2):55-75.
O. ABOKE, W. OM, N. KC, O. ALIWAB. "Microbiological quality and contamination level of water sources in Isiolo County in kenya." Journal of Environmental and Public Health . 2018:1-10.
Bebora LC, Gitao CG, Bwihangane AB, Tarekegu MG, Nicholas S, Bacigale S, Suitek N. "Mitochondrial DNA variation of indigenous goat populations from Peste-des-petits-ruminants outbreak in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." Livestock Research for Rural Development (LRRD) . 2018;30(1).abstract.pdf
SCOLASTICA MANYIM, Ndakala AJ, Derese S. "Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial chromones, chromanones and chalcones based on natural products of Kenya." Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2018;16(1):8-21. AbstractBiofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry

Description
Scolastica M, Ndakala AJ, Derese S. 2018. Modeling and synthesis of antiplasmodial chromones, chromanones and chalcones based on natural products of Kenya. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 16: 8-21. Despite numerous research that has been done on plants of Kenya resulting in the isolation of thousands of natural products, data on these natural products are not systematically organized in a readily accessible form. This has urged the construction of a web-based database of natural products of Kenya. The database is named Mitishamba and is hosted at http://mitishamba. uonbi. ac. ke. The Mitishamba database was queried for chromones, chromanones, and chalcones that were subjected to structure-based drug design using Fred (OpenEye) docking utility program with 1TV5 PDB structure of the PfDHODH receptor to identify complex of ligands that bind with the active site. Ligand-based drug design (Shape and electrostatics comparison) was also done on the ligands against query A77 1726 (38)(the ligand that co-crystallized with PfDHODH receptor) using ROCS and EON programs, respectively, of OpenEye suite. There was a substantial similarity among the top performing ligands in the docking studies with shape and electrostatic comparison that led to the identification of compounds of interest which were targeted for synthesis and antiplasmodial assay. In this study, a chromanone (7-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) chroman-4-one (48)) and two intermediate chalcones (2', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (45) and 2’, 4’-dihydroxy-4-chlorochalcone (47)), were synthesized and subjected to antiplasmodial assay. Among these …

Onura CN'ate, den Broeck WV, Nevejan N, Muendo P, Stappen GV. "morphology of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822) larvae fed on live and dry feeds." Aquculture. 2018;489:70-79.
Nyakagwa F, Bore M, Gachago M, Kiage D. A multicenter study of the outcomes of combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Gitahi NJ, Gathura PB, Gicheru MM, GithinjI TW, Nordin A. "Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic school going children in Kibera slum, Kenya." African Journal of Bacteriology Research . 2018;10(5):70-77.
Ndungu MN. Mwongozo wa Chozi la Heri. Nairobi: One Planet; 2018.
Ifeoluwa Adekoya, Adewale Obadina, Cynthia Chilaka Adaku, Marthe De Boevre, Okoth S, Saeger SD, Njobeh P. "Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer." International journal of food microbiology. 2018;270:22-30.
N M, S S, Onyango, M G, Murila F, Gichangi. National Guidelines For The Screening and Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity. Nairobi: Ministry of Health Kenya; 2018.
Mwangi M, Njoroge P, Chira R, Gichuki N. "Nest food provisioning in the Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea does not vary with parental sex differences and time of day." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2018;38(2):7-15.
Nzimbi BM. "A note on some equivalences of operators and topology of invariant subspaces." Mathematics and Computer Science . 2018;3(5):102-112.
Oduor R, Nyarwath O, Owakah F. Odera Oruka in the 21st Century. Washington: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy (CRVP); 2018.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "ON ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OPERATORS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SYNTHESIS MATRIX OF A FRAME IN TERMS OF FRAME OPERATOR." Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics (ISSN: 2208-2409). 2018;5(12):01-10. AbstractWebsite

In this research paper we introduce the operators associated with a frame. That is the Analysis and the Synthesis Operators and their basic properties. The structure of matrix representation of the Synthesis operator is also analysed. This matrix is what most frame constructions in fact focus on. The frame operator which is just the joining together of the analysis and synthesis operators is fundamental for the reconstruction of signals form frame coefficients. We also give a complete characterization of the synthesis matrix in terms of the frame operator.

Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On analysis and synthesis operators and characterization of the synthesis matrix of a frame in terms of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(12):1-10.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "On finite dimensional Hilbert space frames, dual and normalized frames and pseudo-inverse of the frame operator." Advance Research in Mathematics and Statistics. 2018;5(11):1-14.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "ON FINITE DIMENSIONAL HILBERT SPACE FRAMES, DUAL AND NORMALIZED FRAMES AND PSEUDO-INVERSE OF THE FRAME OPERATOR." Journal of Advance Research in Mathematics And Statistics (ISSN: 2208-2409). 2018;5(11):11-14. AbstractWebsite

In this research paper we do an introduction to Hilbert space frames. We also discuss various frames in the Hilbert space. A frame is a generalization of a basis. It is useful, for example, in signal processing. It also allows us to expand Hilbert space vectors in terms of a set of other vectors that satisfy a certain condition. This condition guarantees that any vector in the Hilbert space can be reconstructed in a numerically stable way from its frame coe? cients. Our focus will be on frames in? nite dimensional spaces.

Ndunda EN, Madadi VO, Wandiga SO. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and water from Nairobi River, Kenya: levels, distribution, and ecological risk assessment." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;25(34):34510-34518. AbstractEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research

Description
Production and use of most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was banned through the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, appreciable amounts are still detected in the environment due to their persistence, illegal use, and releases from contaminated soils and obsolete stocks. The present study investigated the levels of OCP residues in Nairobi River. Sediment and water samples were collected from three sites along the river and screened for 17 OCPs using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Mean pesticide residues ranged from 0.01 to 41.9 μg kg−1 in sediment and below detection limit to 39.7 ng L−1 in water. In sediment α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, and p,p′-DDD were detected in all samples, while α-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, and endrin were detected in all water samples. Levels of OCPs in water …

Wandiga SO, Ndunda EN, Madadi VO. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediment and water from Nairobi River, Kenya: levels, distribution, and ecological risk assessmenta." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;(25):34510-34518(2018). AbstractSpringer link

Production and use of most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was banned through the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, appreciable amounts are still detected in the environment due to their persistence, illegal use, and releases from contaminated soils and obsolete stocks. The present study investigated the levels of OCP residues in Nairobi River. Sediment and water samples were collected from three sites along the river and screened for 17 OCPs using gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Mean pesticide residues ranged from 0.01 to 41.9 μg kg−1 in sediment and below detection limit to 39.7 ng L−1 in water. In sediment α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, and p,p′-DDD were detected in all samples, while α-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, and endrin were detected in all water samples. Levels of OCPs in water were below the WHO maximum allowable limits for surface water. However, values higher than the sediment quality guidelines for sediment samples in Racecourse Road Bridge and Outering Road Bridge were reported, thus confirming the toxicity to aquatic organisms. Consequently, as these compounds are known to bio-accumulate in fatty tissues, continued use of the river water poses a health risk to animals and humans.

Pope FD, Michael Gatari, Ng’ang’a D, Poynter A, Blake R. "Particulate matter air pollution monitoring in Nairobi, Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors. ." Atmos Chem and Phys. 2018.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., and Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. ." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwong’a, R., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. Carbon balance and management, 13(1), p.24." Carbon balance and management. 2018;13(1):24.
Sinei KA, Nduni LW. "Patterns of acute poisoning of paediatric patients in Kenyatta National Hospital between in the years 2014 – 2017." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;21(21):16-20.
Ndiritu A, Muriungi S. "Pay as You Drink for Sustainability of Community Water Projects Pay as You Drink for Sustainability of Community Water Projects European Scientific Journal April 2018 edition Vol.14, No.11 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.". 2018. Abstract

The main objective of this study was to investigate how community water projects are influenced by water user fee payment by the stakeholders. This study was carried out in Kieni Constituency, Nyeri County in Kenya. The research was based on the models of sustainability and theories of capital structure. The study was carried out in all the 73 water projects in Kieni Constituency. The units of analysis were all the chairmen of these projects together with 381 beneficiaries of the water projects. Two district water officers and 9 local bank managers were also included in the study. Structured questionnaires, interview and observation schedules were used as research instruments. Pearson’s Product Moment correlation was used in ascertaining the relationships between the study variables and F statistic was used in testing the hypothesis that: there is no significant relationship between the amount of water user fees and sustainability of community water projects. The analysis showed that there was a correlation coefficient r=0.356 depicting a moderate positive correlation which was significant at 0.10 significant level. This indicated a significant moderate positive relationship between water user fee and sustainability of community water projects. It was therefore concluded that an increase in water user fee moderately improves sustainability of community water projects. From the study findings, it was recommended that there is need to establish a sufficient level of water user fee and also a proper management of the collected water user payments Keywords: Water user fee, Sustainability, community projects

Ngotho-Esilaba RN, Onono JO, Ombui JN, Lindahl JF, Wesonga HO. Perceptions of challenges facing pastoral small ruminant production in a changing climate in Kenya; Handbook of climate change resilience. Switzerland AG: @Springer Nature ; 2018.
NJOROGE CECILIA, MANDE JOHNDEMESI, MITEMA SIMONERIC, KITAA JAFREDMA. "Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from surgical patients and normal dogs." Bioteknologi Biotechnological Studies. 2018;15(1):13-25.
Robinson A, Busula AO, Voets MA, Beshir KB, Caulfield JC, Powers SJ, Niels O Verhulst, Winskill P, Muwanguzi J, Birkett MA, Renate C Smallegange, Masiga DK, Mukabana RW, Sauerwe RW. "Plasmodium-associated changes in human odor attract mosquitoes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(18):E4209-E4218.
Dzupire NC, Ngare P, Odongo L. "A Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data." Journal of Probability and Statistics. 2018;2018(1012647). AbstractA Poisson-Gamma Model for Zero Inflated Rainfall Data

Rainfall modeling is significant for prediction and forecasting purposes in agriculture, weather derivatives, hydrology, and risk and disaster preparedness. Normally two models are used to model the rainfall process as a chain dependent process representing the occurrence and intensity of rainfall. Such two models help in understanding the physical features and dynamics of rainfall process. However rainfall data is zero inflated and exhibits overdispersion which is always underestimated by such models. In this study we have modeled the two processes simultaneously as a compound Poisson process. The rainfall events are modeled as a Poisson process while the intensity of each rainfall event is Gamma distributed. We minimize overdispersion by introducing the dispersion parameter in the model implemented through Tweedie distributions. Simulated rainfall data from the model shows a resemblance of the actual rainfall data in terms of seasonal variation, means, variance, and magnitude. The model also provides mechanisms for small but important properties of the rainfall process. The model developed can be used in forecasting and predicting rainfall amounts and occurrences which is important in weather derivatives, agriculture, hydrology, and prediction of drought and flood occurrences.

Boyle JH, Martins DJ, Pelaez J, Musili PM, Kibet S, Ndung’u SK, Kenfack D, N.E. P. "Polygyny does not explain the superior competitive ability of dominant ant associates in the African ant‐plant, Acacia(Vachellia) drepanolobium." Ecology and Evolution. 2018;8(3):1441-1450.
Aduma MM, Ouma G, Said MY, Wayumba GO, Omondi PA, Njino LW. "Potential Impacts of Temperature Projections on Selected Large Herbivores in Savanna Ecosystem of Kenya." American Journal of Climate Change. 2018;7(1):5-26. Abstractpotential_impacts_of_temperature_projections_on_selected_large_herbivores_in_savanna_ecosystem_of_kenya.pdfAmerican Journal of Climate Change

Due to global land surface warming, severe temperature events are expected to occur more frequently and more extremely causing changes in biodiversity and altering movement and survival of large herbivores. There are increasing observations of escalating wildlife range losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated 15 large wild herbivores (4 migratory, 1 dispersing and 10 residents) and their potential range changes in relation to projected temperatures changes based on three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Previous studies of Kenyan savannah have shown that increases in temperature can reduce the densities of wildlife significantly and after certain thresholds the species can be lost in those landscapes. The range maps of the 15 species were developed from aerial censuses that have been conducted in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. We analysed temperature changes for the three RCPs for the periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s. And based on the temperature threshold for each of the 15 species we analysed which wildlife range areas will be lost. Our results project that for the RCP 2.6, 3 out of the 15 species are projected to lose more than 50% of their range by the year 2030s, and 5 out 15 by 2050s and 4 of 15 by 2070s. The second climate scenario of RCP 4.5 projects that by 2030s, 3 species will lose more than 50% of their range, and in 2050s and 2070s 5 species. The RCP 8.5 which is the extreme scenario of temperature changes projects 5 species to lose their range by 50% in 2030s, 7 species by 2050s and 10 species by 2070s. The extent of range loss was different among species but was severe for buffalo, Thomson’s gazelle, waterbuck, and wildebeest which are also water dependent species.
However, the elephant, gerenuk, hartebeest, lesser kudu, and oryx are expected to retain most of their range in all the RCPs scenarios. These range contractions raise serious concerns about the future of wildlife in Kenyan savannah based on projected climate changes. And therefore, it is imperative the wildlife sector develops climate policies and plans that take into account the projected climate scenarios.

R. Cherogony, Maru SM, Ndwigah SN. "Pre-formulation Study on Enhancing the Solubility of Albendazole. ." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2018;21:10-15.
Lutta HO, Mather A, Maina TW, Odongo DO, Ndiwa NN, Wesonga HO, Naessens J. "Preliminary Findings of Lipoprotein B in Detecting Cattle Chronically Infected with Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia." Journal of Veterinary Science & Medical Diagnosis . 2018;7:2.
Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Kabinga SK, KAYIMA JK, MCLIGEYO SO, Ndungu JN. "Preparedness for renal replacement therapy among ambulant adult patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis in a referral hospital in Kenya: Kenyatta National hospital experience.". 2018. Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise locally and globally. The care for patients
with chronic kidney disease is multifaceted and multidisciplinary. The study aimed to explore the state of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy for patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis at the Kenyatta
National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. This cross-sectional descriptive study was to document the level of
preparedness for renal replacement therapy by the time the patients were initiated on haemodialysis. Despite
this contact with health provider before development of end stage kidney disease, 74.4% of the patients were
initiated on haemodialysis as emergency (p value 0.001) and 29.3% knew of dialysis as the only modality of
renal replacement therapy (p value <0.001). Acute catheters were used by about 85.30% of the patients as the
vascular access for initiation of haemodialysis with tunneled catheters use in 13.40% and arteriovenous fistulae
use in 1.2% (p value <0.001). Counseling and other supportive services such as health education and
nutritional counseling were not optimal was at least 20% of patients gave responses indicating deficiency of
information or knowledge in these domains. More than 40% of the patients had not been counseled about kidney
transplantation

Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2018;30(4).
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Mavuti SK, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2018;30(66).
Waruiru RM, Mavuti SK, Mbuthia PG, Njagi LW. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminth infestations of free range domestic ducks in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2018;30(4).
Nyirakanani C, Chibvongodze R, Habtu M, Masika M, Mukoko D, Njunwa KJ. "Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria among under-five children in Huye District, Southern Rwanda." Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2018;20(1). AbstractWebsite

Background: Enhanced malaria control has resulted in its reduction in some areas of Sub Saharan Africa including Rwanda. However, asymptomatic hosts serve as a reservoir for the malaria parasite for communities. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria parasites and risk factors associated with malaria infection among children underfive years in Huye district, Rwanda.

Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2016 among underfive years children. Asymptomatic children underfive years of age were randomly selected from 13 villages. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared from each child for malaria parasite diagnosis. Interviews with parents or guardians were conducted to collect data on malaria associated risk factors. Observations were made of the presence of mosquito breeding sites near and around the homestead.

Results: A total of 222 children were included in the study. Nearly a third (28.8%) of the children were within the age of 25-36 months. The majority (54%) of the children were females. Most of the parents/guardians were married (95.9%), nearly all (99.5%) had attended primary school and most (97.3%) were peasants. The overall Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in children was 12.2%. Children aged 1 to 12 months were 3.5 times more likely to have malaria parasites than children aged 13 to 59 months [AOR=3.56; 95%CI=1.18-10.71; p=0.024]. Children who were not sleeping under insecticide treated nets were 15 times more likely to be infected with malaria parasites compared to those who were sleeping under nets [AOR=15.27; 95%CI=4.42-52.82; p<0.001].

Conclusion: Malaria parasite prevalence in under-five year children in Huye District, Rwanda is moderate. The asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in the area. Young age of the child and not sleeping under mosquito net were associated with malaria parasite infection. The continuing use of mosquito nets needs to be emphasized.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal. 2018;17:330. Abstract

Background:
Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world’s malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities. Sampling of anti-malarial medicines from public and private hospitals, health centers and pharmacies was conducted between May and June 2014. Quality control tests were performed at the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, University of Nairobi, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. A test for microbial load was also conducted for suspension formulations.

Results:
A total of 39 samples were collected from public and private facilities across the Embu County. A visual inspection of the medicines showed no signs of sub-standard or falsification. All ACT passed identification, assay and dissolution tests. Of 11 suspension samples collected, none failed the microbial load test although one sample had 50 colony forming units (cfu). No oral artemisinin monotherapy medicines were encountered during the survey. Amodiaquine and chloroquine monotherapy products accounted for 5% of the collected samples, despite their ban in Kenya. Two herbal anti-malarial formulations were collected during the survey. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was also found to be available use for malaria treatment, not in accordance with malaria treatment guidelines.

Conclusion:
All the anti-malarial drugs analysed in this study passed the quality control tests. This is encouraging given the high malaria burden in Kenya. Regulatory actions are required to counter SP and herbal products for malaria treatment.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "The quality of anti-malarial medicines in Embu County, Kenya." Malaria Journal . 2018;17:30.
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Quality of farm saved maize (zea mays l.) Seeds and its effect on field establishment." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences. 2018;5(6):2348-3997.
Mulwa  NN, Kitaa JMA, Muasya DW, Ngetich W. "Retrospective Study of Canine Hemoplasmosis in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2018.
Nemerimana M, Chege M, Odhiambo EA. "Risk Factors Associated with Severity of Nongenetic Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) among Children Aged 2–18 Years Attending Kenyatta National Hospital." Neurology Research International. 2018. Abstract

Many of the nongenetic causal risk factors of intellectual disability (ID) can be prevented if they are identified early.
There is paucity on information regarding potential risk factors associated with this condition in Kenya.This study aimed to establish
risk factors associated with severity of nongenetic intellectual disability (ID) among children presenting with this condition at
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted over the period between March
and June 2017 in pediatric and child/youth mental health departments of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Kenya. It included
children aged 2–18 years diagnosed with ID without underlying known genetic cause. Results. Of 97 patients with nongenetic
ID, 24% had mild ID, 40% moderate, 23% severe-profound, and 10% unspecified ID. The mean age of children was 5.6 (±3.6)
years. Male children were predominant (62%). Three independent factors including “labor complications” [AOR = 9.45, 95% CI =
1.23–113.29,

Kariuki PM, Onyango CM, Lukhoba CW, Njoka JT. "The Role of Indigenous Knowledge on Use and Conservation of Wild Medicinal Food Plants in Loita Sub-county, Narok County." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2018;28(2):1-9.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Muthomi JW, Narla RD. "Seasonal dynamics and alternate hosts of thrips transmitted Iris yellow spot virus in Kenya." African Crop Science Journal . 2018;26(3):365-376.
Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa MW, Olubayo FM. "Seed Potato Production Practices and Quality of Farm Saved Seed Potato in Kiambu and Nyandarua Counties in Kenya." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya." PloS one. 2018;13(7):e0199357.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nanyingi M, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. Sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability and its implications for malaria risk in Baringo, Kenya.; 2018. Abstractjournal.pone_.0199357.pdfWebsite

The global increase in vector borne diseases has been linked to climate change. Seasonal vegetation changes are known to influence disease vector population. However, the relationship is more theoretical than quantitatively defined. There is a growing demand for understanding and prediction of climate sensitive vector borne disease risks especially in regions where meteorological data are lacking. This study aimed at analyzing and quantitatively assessing the seasonal and year-to-year association between climatic factors (rainfall and temperature) and vegetation cover, and its implications for malaria risks in Baringo County, Kenya. Remotely sensed temperature, rainfall, and vegetation data for the period 2004–2015 were used. Poisson regression was used to model the association between malaria cases and climatic and environmental factors for the period 2009–2012, this being the period for which all datasets overlapped. A strong positive relationship was observed between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and monthly total precipitation. There was a strong negative relationship between NDVI and minimum temperature. The total monthly rainfall (between 94 -181mm), average monthly minimum temperatures (between 16–21°C) and mean monthly NDVI values lower than 0.35 were significantly associated with malaria incidence rates. Results suggests that a combination of climatic and vegetation greenness thresholds need to be met for malaria incidence to be significantly increased in the county. Planning for malaria control can therefore be enhanced by incorporating these factors in malaria risk mapping.

AJ A, DO O, GO O, Oriaso, Nanyingi MO, Nyamongo IK, B.A. B, Estambale BA. "Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Variability and its Implications for Malaria Risk in Baringo, Kenya." PLoS One. 2018;13(7).
Njiru FM, Siriba DN. "Site Selection for an Earth Dam in Mbeere North, Embu County—Kenya." Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection. 2018;6(7):113-133.
Muia D, Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Social Capital as a Coping Mechanism for Women Small Scale Traders in the Informal Economy in Nairobi, Kenya ." Journal of Social Welfare and Human Rights . 2018;6(1):13-20.
Ngugi J, Kimotho S, Muturi S. "Social Media Use By The Deaf In Business At Nairobi, Kenya." AJBUMA JOURNAL. 2018;4(3). Abstractdeaf_use_of_social_media_in_21st_century_business.pdfWebsite

Social media for business is the new frontier for deaf Kenyans, due to the information gap they often experience as they navigate a largely speaking and hearing world. This case studyon the use of social media platforms for business by the deaf in Nairobi includes a special emphasis on the convergence of their natural visual language, sign language with video technology. The research is important to boost socio economic livelihoods of deaf Kenyans for equality in development as well as integrate the Kenyan business industry with the innovation and creativity introduced by the signing „genre‟ of business communication. The results of the study indicate that the dialectical gap between the deaf and hearing is significantly reduced as sign language users can informally interact and exchange ideas, information and updates on business. In addition, the general boost in vocabulary originating from deaf people‟ interest in on-line communication in Kenya is highlighted. It is recommended that the recent immersion of the Kenyan deaf community in the use of smartphones and dissemination of instant messaging needs to be enhanced, as it may yield answers to societal inclusion, while also highlighting deaf cultural pride proponents of the deaf business people‟ creativity.
KeyWords:Deaf, social media, business, Kenya

P Gottesfeld, Were FH, Adogame L, Gharbid S, D. San, Nota MM, Kuepouo G. "Soil Contamination from Lead Battery Manufacturing and Recycling in Seven African Countries." Environmental Research. 2018;161:609-614. Abstract

Lead battery recycling is a growing hazardous industry throughout Africa. We investigated potential
soil con-
tamination inside and outside formal sector recycling plants in seven countries. We collected 118
soil samples at 15 recycling plants and one battery manufacturing site and analyzed them for total
lead. Lead levels in soils ranged from < 40–140,000 mg/kg. Overall mean lead concentrations were
~23,200 mg/kg but, average lead levels were 22-fold greater for soil samples from inside plant
sites than from those collected outside these facilities. Arithmetic mean lead concentrations in
soil samples from communities surrounding these plants were
~2600 mg/kg. As the lead battery industry in Africa continues to expand, it is expected that the
number and size of lead battery recycling plants will grow to meet the forecasted demand. There is
an immediate need to address ongoing exposures in surrounding communities, emissions from this
industry and to regulate site closure financing procedures to ensure that we do not leave behind a
legacy of lead contamination that will impact
millions in communities throughout Africa.

Isaboke PA, Njomo N, Onyatta JO. "Spectroscopic Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Tissues in Kisii County." International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology. 2018;7(11):45-47.
Moindi SK, Njui F, Pokhariyal GP. "A Study of W3-Symmetric K-Contact Riemannian Manifold." International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics. 2018;6(3):2347-9051. AbstractWebsite

In this paper the geometric properties of W3 -
curvature tensor are studied in K-contact Riemannian
manifold.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanjac SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, characterisation and ion-binding properties of oxathiacrown ethers appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+. Selectivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+†." Journal of Royal Society of Chemistry. 2018;(8):3663-3672. Abstractwww.pubs.rsc.org

A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis absorbance with Hg2+ making it possible to detect mercury down to a detection limit of 68 ppm. The binding constants and limits of detection of the complexes have been calculated, with values ranging from 4.37 to 5.38 and 1.4 × 10−3 to 6.8 × 10−5 for log[thin space (1/6-em)]Ks and LOD respectively.

Odhiambo RA, Aluoch AO, Njenga LW, Kagwanja SM, Wandiga SO, Wendt OF. "Synthesis, Characterization and Ion-Binding Properties of Oxathiacrown Ethers Appended to [Ru(bpy)2]2+: Selectivity Towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+." RSC advances. 2018;8(7):3663-3672. AbstractRSC Advances

Description
A series of complexes with oxathiacrown ethers appended to a [Ru(bpy)2]2+ moiety have been synthesized and characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. The complexes exhibit strong MLCT luminescence bands in the range 608–611 nm and one reversible metal centred oxidation potential in the range 1.00–1.02 V. Their selectivity and sensitivity towards Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions have been investigated using electronic absorption, luminescence, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry titrations. Their responses towards selected cations and anions have also been investigated using electronic absorption and luminescence. While the complexes are selective towards Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions, none of them is selective towards Pb2+ ions. In particular, complex 2 gives a selective change in the UV/Vis …

Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on cowpea." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Tumuhaise V, Ekesi S, Maniania NK, Tonnang HEZ, Tanga CM, Ndegwa PN, Irungu LW, Srinivasan R, Mohamed SA. "Temperature-dependent growth and virulence, and mass production potential of two candidate isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin for managing Maruca vitrata …." African Entomology. 2018;26(1):73-83.
Ngaina JN, Muthama NJ, Mwalichi IJ, Owuor OA. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting. 2018;6(1). AbstractOMICS International

In order to map suitable areas for weather modification in East Africa Community (EAC), investigations were performed to determine spatio-temporal variability and relationship of aerosol, clouds and precipitation during March- April-May (MAM) and October-November-December (OND). Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and Multivariate Regression Analysis (MRA) were used. Identification of near homogeneous zones of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine Mode Fraction (FMF), Cloud Top and 3B42 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) yielded 13 (14), 20 (18), 11 (10) and 16 (17) significant Principal Components (PCs) for MAM (OND) with explained variance greater than 57%. Aerosols and clouds had positive relationship with precipitation in areas with strong factor loadings. MRA indicated independence of variables used and normality in the model residuals. Backward trajectory analysis indicated differences in origins of transported particles in the atmosphere with strong vertical mixing inlands with mixed aerosols resulting due to mountain blocking systems accounted for enhanced rainfall. Enhanced rainfall was attributed to highly varied AOD and unaffected FMF in the atmosphere. Locations east and west EAC with mean temperatures greater than -10°C were unsuitable for cloud seeding while central EAC region along the great rift-valley and coastal Tanzania exhibited optimal temperatures suitable for cloud seeding. Successful precipitation enhancement will increase available fresh water sources and thus alleviate existing and projected water stress.

Ngaina J.N., Muthama N.J., Ininda, J., Opere AO. "Towards Mapping Suitable Areas for Weather Modification in East Africa Community." J Climatol Weather Forecasting . 2018;6:1 DOI: 10.4172/2332-2594.1000217; https://doi.org/10.5194/piahs-379-37-2018.
Ndiritu AW, Gichimu WK, Ndiritu CN. ""Transformational School principals: the missing piece of puzzle in ICT integration in teaching and learning". International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, ISSN: online 2411-2933 Print 2411-3123.". 2018. Abstract

ICT is a critical tool for expanding human skills and rests largely on a system of producing, distributing and utilising information and knowledge that in turn plays a great role in driving productivity and economic prosperity. Kenya as a developing country realizes this importance and has a ministry specifically dealing with ICT. The vision statement of the ministry of information and Technology as stated in its strategic plan 2013-2018 is to make Kenya a globally competitive knowledge-based economy. This vision aims at shifting the current industrial development path towards innovation where creation, adoption, adaptation and use of knowledge remain the key source of economic growth. Research has shown that countries which have invested a lot in their human capital are far ahead of others in development. This development is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya is able to achieve its educational goals. Education and training has been isolated in the vision 2030 as the only mechanism that will translate Kenya into a middle-income economy. This is because education is fundamental to development of human resource capacities for sustainable economic growth and development. Through impartation of new skills and knowledge in people, education is able to improve human capabilities and labour productivity. It is in this regard that the Kenyan government has invested a lot of funds in ICT infrastructure including digitization of educational materials through Kenya Institute of curriculum Development. Kenya’s vision of education service provision is to have a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. This study focused on the influence of secondary school managers on integration of ICT in teaching and learning in Githunguri subcounty, Kiambu County in Kenya. The study targeted 40 schools with a total population of 245 male teachers and 282 female teachers. teachers. A researcher developed questionnaire was issued to all the 40 school managers and to 100 teachers for triangulation purposes. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).The study sort to establish if there is a relationship between management support and ICT integration in teaching and learning. Pearson correlation coefficient was used in the analysis. A positive correlation coefficient of 0.560 was obtained between the level of school management support and the use of ICT in teaching and learning. The findings indicated that school managers influenced integration of ICT in teaching and learning. The study therefore suggested that effort should be made by all stakeholders to ensure that school managers come up with policies on ICT integration in their schools which should be in line with the National ICT policy. KEY word: ICT integration, Teaching and learning, school managers, transformational leadership, challenging the process, secondary schools

PUlei AN, Shatry NA, Sura MK, Njoroge MW, Kibii DK, Mwaniki DK, Teko HP, Maranga O, Ogutu O, Vogel JP, Qureshi Z. "Updating of a clinical protocol for the prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2). AbstractWebsite

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) affects 6% of births and accounts for almost 30% of maternal deaths. The use of clinical protocols for preventing and treating PPH is recommended by WHO. Protocols should be evidence-based, regularly updated, widely available and routinely adhered to.
Broad Objective: To update the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) PPH prevention and management protocol based on latest recommendations, and ensure its dissemination and use by providers.
Materials and Methods: A literature search identified selected PPH-related guidelines which were assessed using the AGREE-II tool for guideline quality. A matrix was created to compare recommendations across guidelines. Recommendations included in the KNH protocol were based on agreement across guidelines, guideline quality, publication year, and contextual factors in our setting. To aid implementation, an updated KNH protocol document, a clinical algorithm and a PPH management checklist were developed. These were reviewed and accepted as best practice by KNH and University of Nairobi.
Results: Six PPH-related guidelines were used (WHO, FIGO, RCOG, ACOG, FOGSI, and the Kenya National Guidelines for Quality Obstetrics and Perinatal care). The KNH protocol covers PPH prevention, including: active management of third stage, oxytocin after vaginal or caesarean delivery, other drugs for prevention (when oxytocin is not available), controlled cord traction and delayed cord clamping. It also covers PPH management (supportive and definitive measures).
Conclusion: An updated PPH prevention and management protocol for KNH was developed. Implementation and adherence will help standardize PPH-related care and improve health outcomes for women.

Muloi D., Pablo A, Ombui JN., Ngeiywa JK., Abdullahi B, Muinde, P, Karani MK., Jonathan R, Fevre E. "Value chain analysis and sanitary risks of the camel milk system supplying Nairobi city, Kenya." Prev. Vet. Med.. 2018;159: 203-210:203-210.
Khamala D, Njiraine D, Makori E. "Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice. 2018.
Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

Kemunto N, Mogoa E, Osoro E, Bitek A, Njenga MK, Thumbi SM. "Zoonotic disease research in East Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18(1):545.
Amadi JA, Olago DO, Ong’amo GO, Oriaso SO, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "“We don’t want our clothes to smell smoke”: changing malaria control practices and opportunities for integrated community-based management in Baringo, Kenya." BMC public health. 2018;18(1):609. AbstractFull Text

Background

The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya.

Methods

Clinical malaria cases obtained from four health facilities in the riverine and lowland zones were used to analyse malaria trends for the 2005–2014 period. A mixed method approach integrating eight focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews, 300 survey questionnaires and two stakeholders’ consultative forums were used to assess local knowledge on malaria risk and develop a framework for malaria reduction.

Results

Malaria cases increased significantly during the 2005–2014 period (tau = 0.352; p < 0.001) in the riverine zone. March, April, May, June and October showed significant increases compared to other months. Misconceptions about the cause and mode of malaria transmission existed. Gender-segregated outdoor occupation such as social drinking, farm activities, herding, and circumcision events increased the risk of mosquito bites. A positive relationship occurred between education level and opinion on exposure to malaria risk after dusk (χ2 = 2.70, p < 0.05). There was over-reliance on bed nets, yet only 68% (204/300) of respondents owned at least one net. Complementary malaria control measures were under-utilized, with 90% of respondents denying having used either sprays, repellents or burnt cow dung or plant leaves over the last one year before the study was conducted. Baraza, radios, and mobile phone messages were identified as effective media for malaria information exchange. Supplementary strategies identified included unblocking canals, clearing Prosopis bushes, and use of community volunteers and school clubs to promote social behaviour change.

Conclusions

The knowledge gap on malaria transmission should be addressed to minimize the impacts and enhance uptake of appropriate malaria management mechanisms. Implementing community-based framework can support significant reductions in malaria prevalence by minimizing both indoor and outdoor malaria transmissions.

Keywords

Local knowledgeMalaria trendsCommunity-based strategiesFramework

Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
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Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
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Chamandy L, Frank A, Blackman EG, Carroll-Nellenback J, Liu B, Tu Y, Nordhaus J, Chen Z, Peng B. "Accretion in common envelope evolution." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018;480:1898-1911. Abstract
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Pope FD, Gatari M, Ng'ang'a D,... "Airborne particulate matter monitoring in Kenya using calibrated low cost sensors [discussion paper]." Atmospheric …. 2018. AbstractWebsite

East African countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanisation, population growth and a steep rise in fuel use and motorization rates. With few air quality monitoring systems available, this study provides the much needed high temporal …

Mwangi J, Ndithia HK, Kentie R, Muchai M, Tieleman IB. "AVIAN BIOLOGY.". 2018. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhang H, Shao H, Xu K, Ni G, Li J, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, $\alpha$-arsenene and aW-antimonene." Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2018;6. Abstract
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Soukoulis CM, Zhu H, Li J, Ni G, Xu K, Shao H, Zhang H, Peng B, others. "Chemical intuition for high thermoelectric performance in monolayer black phosphorus, alpha-arsenene and aW-antimonene.". 2018. Abstract
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Mukherjee N, Zabala A, Huge J, Nyumba TO, Esmail BA, Sutherland WJ. "Comparison of techniques for eliciting views and judgements in decision-making." Methods in Ecology and Evolution. 2018;9:54-63. Abstract
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Kuballa T, Hausler T, Okaru AO, Neufeld M, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Rehm J, Luy B, Walch SG, Lachenmeier DW. "Detection of counterfeit brand spirits using 1H NMR fingerprints in comparison to sensory analysis." Food chemistry. 2018;245:112-118. Abstract
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NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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MOKAYA BITANGEN, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, Nyankanga RO. "Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency of clonal tea (Camellia sinensis)." Cell Biology and Development. 2018;2. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Nguhiu-Mwangi J. "Effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2018;33:73-81. Abstract
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