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Nancy M, Githigia S, Karanja D, Mbae C, Zeyhle E, Mulinge E, Magambo J, ogolla K. "Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in selected abattoirs in Kenya. ." Hindawi Scientifica . 2020;Article ID 5672140(https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5672140).
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: Laser Science. Optical Society of America; 2019:. Abstract
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Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Nancy G, Karimi P, Guantai E, Opanga S. "Knowledge of correct use among hormonal contraceptive users in a Kenyan referral Hospital." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2014;3(4).
Nancy Nthenya Moinde-Fockler, Nicholas Otienoh Oguge GMKDO, Suleman MA. "Human and natural impacts on forests along lower Tana river, Kenya: implications towards conservation and management of endemic primate species and their habitat." Biodiversity and Conservation. 1572-9710 (Online); 2006. Abstract
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Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4:1075. Abstract
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Nancy-Mills A, J O, Nguhiu J, R O, A M. "Plasma cortisol levels as a measure of stress in rumen impaction in sheep." Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research. 2017;4(2):1075.
Nandonde F, Adu-Gyamfi R, Mmusi TS, Asongu SA, Opperman J, Makindara J. Linkages And Spillover Effects Of South African Foreign Direct Investment In Botswana And Kenya. WIDER Working Paper 2019/53. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER; 2019.
Nangole FW, Khainga SO, Kiboi J. "Pressure ulcers presentations and management at Kenyatta National Hospital and Spinal Injury Hospital.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the presentation and management of patients with pressure ulcers. Design: A prospective study. Setting: The Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and National Spinal Injury Hospital (NSIH). Subjects: One hundred and thirteen patients were evaluated. Ninety six patients from KNH and seventeen from NSIH. Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital and National Spinal Injury Hospital with pressure ulcers during the study period. Results: Of the 113 patients, 77 (68.1%) were male and 36 (31.9%) were female. Mean age of the patients studied was 38.1 years while the range was between 12 and 74 years. Paraplegia was the main associated medical condition accounting for 35.4%, followed by HIV/AIDS with 27.4%. The most common anatomical site for pressure ulcers was tronchanteric region with 43% of the ulcers. Pressure ulcers of grade III and IV accounted for 66.4% of the ulcers. Two hourly turning was the most common method of pressure dispersion used. Gauze dressing was the most common method used in wound care while 67.3% of the patients had their wounds cleaned with povidoneiodine. Fasciocutaneous flaps were the most common surgical procedure performed (81.7%) for closure of pressure ulcers. Overall, 59.3% of surgical procedures had been successful at one month. This was, however, reduced to 48.1% at three months. Conclusion: Majority of patients with pressure ulcers were in a relatively young age group with a mean age of 38 years. Most of the ulcers were located along bony prominence points of the pelvic girdle and the proximal femur. Most of the ulcers in this study were treated conservatively, with only a few ulcers subjected to surgical interventions. For the ulcers treated with surgical interventions the early outcome was good, however studies need to be done to determine long term outcomes.

Nangole F, Biribwa P, Khainga S. "Pedicled anterior lateral thigh flap in managing a bilateral groin contracture." Case Rep Surg. 2014;2014:451356. Abstract

A fifteen-year-old female patient presented with a severe bilateral groin contracture for the last 8 years. She had sustained burns at the age of seven years. Three attempts to release the contracture with split thickness skin grafts had been done without success. A pedicled anterior lateral thigh flap was raised and advanced into the defect after the contracture had been released. Postoperatively the patient healed well without any complications and was able to achieve hip abduction of about 130 degrees.

Nangole FW, Khainga SO, Kiboi J. "Pressure ulcers presentations and management at Kenyatta National Hospital and Spinal Injury Hospital.". 2009. Abstract

To determine the presentation and management of patients with pressure ulcers. Design: A prospective study. Setting: The Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and National Spinal Injury Hospital (NSIH). Subjects: One hundred and thirteen patients were evaluated. Ninety six patients from KNH and seventeen from NSIH. Patients admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital and National Spinal Injury Hospital with pressure ulcers during the study period. Results: Of the 113 patients, 77 (68.1%) were male and 36 (31.9%) were female. Mean age of the patients studied was 38.1 years while the range was between 12 and 74 years. Paraplegia was the main associated medical condition accounting for 35.4%, followed by HIV/AIDS with 27.4%. The most common anatomical site for pressure ulcers was tronchanteric region with 43% of the ulcers. Pressure ulcers of grade III and IV accounted for 66.4% of the ulcers. Two hourly turning was the most common method of pressure dispersion used. Gauze dressing was the most common method used in wound care while 67.3% of the patients had their wounds cleaned with povidoneiodine. Fasciocutaneous flaps were the most common surgical procedure performed (81.7%) for closure of pressure ulcers. Overall, 59.3% of surgical procedures had been successful at one month. This was, however, reduced to 48.1% at three months. Conclusion: Majority of patients with pressure ulcers were in a relatively young age group with a mean age of 38 years. Most of the ulcers were located along bony prominence points of the pelvic girdle and the proximal femur. Most of the ulcers in this study were treated conservatively, with only a few ulcers subjected to surgical interventions. For the ulcers treated with surgical interventions the early outcome was good, however studies need to be done to determine long term outcomes.

Nangole WF, Khainga S, Aswani J, Kahoro L, Vilembwa A. "Free Flaps in a Resource Constrained Environment: A Five-Year Experience-Outcomes and Lessons Learned." Plast Surg Int. 2015;2015:194174. Abstract

Introduction. Free flap surgery is a routine procedure in many developed countries with good surgical outcomes. In many developing countries, however, these services are not available. In this paper, we audit free flaps done in a resource constrained hospital in Kenya. Objective. This is a five-year audit of free flaps done in a tertiary hospital in Kenya, between 2009 and 2014. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of patients operated on with free flaps between 2009 and 2014. Results. A total of one hundred and thirty-two free flaps in one hundred and twenty patients were performed during the five-year duration. The age range was eight to seventy-two years with a mean of 47.2. All the flaps were done under loupe magnification. The overall flap success rate was eighty-nine percent. Conclusion. Despite the many limitations, free flaps in our setup were successful in the majority of patients operated on. Flap salvage was noted to be low due to infrequent flap monitoring as well as unavailability of theatre space. One therefore has to be meticulous during surgery to reduce any possibilities of reexploration.

Nangole FW, Khainga SO. "Retrospective Review of Patients Operated on with Bilateral Cleft Lip through Surgical Outreaches in Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This was a study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of patients operated on with bilateral cleft lip through surgical outreach programs in Kenya between January 2006 and December 2011. Files for fifty-nine patients operated on during the study period were evaluated. The mean age for surgery was ten months with about forty-five percent of the patients more than one year of age. No presurgical orthopaedic devices were utilized on any of the patients. Mulliken surgical technique and the Manchester technique were the commonest surgical techniques in equal proportions. An overall complication rate of about 7.5 percent was noted. In conclusion we noted a delay in the surgical management of the majority of our patients. This resulted in a backlog of cases. There is thus a need to intensify more surgical outreach camps as well as training more surgeons to assist in the management of clefts. Cleft surgery is a relatively safe surgery that could be carried out in relatively remote centers through surgical outreach programs. This was evidenced by the low complication rates in our series.

Nangole FW, Khainga SO. "FAMM Flap in Reconstructing Postsurgical Nasopharyngeal Airway Stenosis." Plast Surg Int. 2014;2014:276058. Abstract

Introduction. Postsurgical nasopharyngeal airway stenosis can be a challenge to manage. The stenosis could be as a result of any surgical procedure in the nasopharyngeal region that heals extensive scarring and fibrosis. Objective. To evaluate patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis managed with FAMM flap. Study Design. Prospective study of patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 2010 and 2013 managed with FAMM flap. Materials and Methods. Patients with severe nasopharyngeal airway stenosis were reviewed and managed with FAMM flaps at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Postoperatively they were assessed for symptomatic improvement in respiratory distress, patency of the nasopharyngeal airway, and donor site morbidity. Results. A total of 8 patients were managed by the authors in a duration of 4 years with nasopharyngeal stenosis. Five patients were managed with unilateral FAMM flaps in a two-staged surgical procedure. Four patients had complete relieve of the airway obstruction with a patent airway created. One patient had a patent airway created though with only mild improvement in airway obstruction. Conclusion. FAMM flap provides an alternative in the management of postsurgical severe nasopharyngeal stenosis. It is a reliable flap that is easy to raise and could provide adequate epithelium for the stenosed pharynx.

NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. (2012):. Muenster: Waxmann ; 2012.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya-Wotsuna, C.N. :.". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2005.
NANJALA DRAGOYA-WOTSUNACATHERINE. "Agoya C.N. .". In: Proceedings of the Conference . Nairobi: DAAD, Regional Office for Africa; 2002.
Nanji, "Gichuhi", Nyenze, Kherani, damji, Kiage. "The muranga teleophthalmology study: A comparison of virtual (teleretina) assessment with in-person clinical examination to diagnose diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration in kenya." MEAJO. 2020;27(2):91-99. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE: This study compares a web-based teleophthalmology assessment with a clinical slit lamp examination to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among diabetic patients in a rural East African district.
METHODS: Six hundred and twelve eyes from 306 diabetic patients underwent both a clinical slit lamp examination and a teleretina (TR) assessment by an experienced ophthalmologist. Both assessments were compared for any DR and AMD using the early treatment diabetic retinopathy study and age-related eye disease study grading scales, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the 612 TR assessment photos, 74 (12%) were deemed ungradable due to media opacities, poor patient cooperation, or unsatisfactory photographs. The ability to detect DR and AMD showed a fair agreement (kappa statistic 0.27 and 0.23, respectively) between the TR and clinical slit lamp examination. Relative to a clinical slit lamp evaluation, a positive TR diagnosis carried a 75.0% positive predictive value when diagnosing DR and a 27.3% positive predictive value when diagnosing AMD. A negative TR diagnosis carried a 97.2% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of DR and a 98.1% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of AMD.
CONCLUSION: When comparing TR assessments to clinical slit lamp examinations to diagnose DR and AMD, there was a fair agreement. Although further validation is needed, the TR approach provides a promising method to diagnose DR and AMD, two major causes of ocular impairment worldwide.

Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, slit lamp examination, teleretina, teleophthalmology

Nankaya, J. GLBNCH. "Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation . 2021;30:761-780.
Nansen P, Kyvsgaard NC, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO. "An abattoir survey of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle in the central highlands of Kenya.". 1997. AbstractWebsite

The gastrointestinal tracts of 672 crossbred cattle were obtained from various abattoirs in Kiambu District, Kenya from August 1992 to July 1993, and examined for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. Eight nematode species were found in 583 (86.8%) of the animals. The nematodes were, in order of prevalence: Haemonchus placei (67.0%), Cooperia pectinata (53.0%), Cooperia punctata (41.7%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (38.4%), Trichostrongylus axei (24.3%), Nematodirus helvetianus (19.6%), Trichuris globulosa (9.7%) and Strongyloides papillosus (3.6%). The intensity of the nematode infection was moderate; the mean burden being less than 7000 worms. H. placei accounted, on average, for 52.3% of the total burden. The total burden was least during the dry seasons and increased gradually during the rainy seasons. Adult H. placei persisted in the host throughout the year and there was no indication of hypobiosis. The heaviest gastrointestinal worm burdens were detected in 1.5- to 3-year-old animals. These findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.

Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Nantulya F.N.., Kitonyi G.W. PNKOJ. "Chediaki Higashi Syndrome: a case report on an African infant." EAMJ. 1990;9(67):674-680 . AbstractWebsite

An African Kenyan female infant was born with very light skin and ashen grey, scanty hair. At 18 months she presented with a bluish skin pigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and non-responsive fever. A bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood examination done revealed characteri¬stic features of the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. This is a rare disorder, to our knowledge not previously described in Africans. The case is presented with a brief review of the literature

Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG;, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Okello RO, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL, Kipsengeret B Koros, M.Oguna M. "9.131 Evaluation of resistance development to three anthelmintics and efficacy of plant extracts against nematodes of sheep in Samburu District, Kenya .". In: KVA Scientific Seminar.; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Ade F, Onyango CO, Kiama SG, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological survey of Rift Valley Fever in ruminants in Garissa, Kenya." Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases. 2017;2:141-146.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG;, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Wagate CG, Gakuya KDW, Ogara WO. "Pharmacoepidemiology and Bioprospecting of Herbal Medicines in Three Districts in Kenya.". In: Published in the Proceedings of the 5thInternational congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS). College of Physical and Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi.; 2008.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Gakuya G;, Koros DW;, Ogara WO;, Wagate C. "Pharmacoepidemiology And Bioprospecting Of Herbal Medicines In Three Districts In Kenya."; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Lanyasunya AL, Wagate CG, Kipsengeret B Koros, Kaburia HF, Munenge RW, Ogara WO. "Ethnopharmacological Survey of Samburu District, Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine,. 2008; 4:(14).
Nanyingi MO, Munyua P, Kiama SG, Muchemi GM, Thumbi SM, Bitek AO, Bett B, Muriithi RM, Njenga MK. "A systematic Review of Rift Valley Fever Epidemiology 1931-2014." Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2015;5:28024.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Okello RO;, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL;, Koros KB;, Oguna MM;, Ogara WO. "Evaluation Of Resistance Development To Three Anthelmintics And Efficacy Of Plant Extracts Against N."; 2008.
Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Lanyasunya AL, Wagate CG, Koros KB, Ogara WO, O J. "Drug Discovery and Biodiversity Conservation in Samburu, Kenya.". In: Biodiversity Conference . The College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Nanyingi MO;, Mbaria JM;, Gakuya G;, Koros DW;, Ogara WO;, Wagate C. "Pharmacoepidemiology And Bioprospecting Of Herbal Medicines In Three Districts In Kenya."; 2008.
Nanyingi Mark O., Muchemi GM, Samuel M. Thumbi, Ade F, Clayton O. Onyango, G.Kiama S, Bett B. "Seroepidemiological Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Ruminants in Garissa, Kenya Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Volume 17, Number 2, 2017.". 2017.
and Naomi A. “Kuwa Smart” .; 2020.
Narang S., Seawright J.A., T.K. M, N.L.Willis. "Assignment of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase to chromosome 2 of Anopheles albimanus.Can." J.Genet.Cytol. 1983;25:567.
Naraynsingh V, Ramdass M, Singh J, Singh-Rampaul R, Maharaj D. "{McBurney}'s point: {Are} we missing it?" Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2002;24:363-365. AbstractWebsite

A prospective study of 100 post-evacuation barium enemas was done. Films were centered at McBurney's point, with an opaque skin marker at that point. Analysis of these revealed that in only one case (1%) was the base of the appendix at McBurney's point. In 67% it was cephalic and in 32% it was caudal to this point. The limitations of McBurney's point as an anatomical landmark should be recognized. This needs to be highlighted in teaching anatomy, especially to surgical trainees. Planning and choice of surgical incisions should be based on an understanding of these anatomical variations since McBurney's original description was clinical rather than anatomical. The French version of this article is available in the form of electronic supplementary material and can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-002-0069-7

Narins RG, Cohen JJ. "Bicarbonate therapy for organic acidosis: the case for its continued use." Annals of Internal Medicine. 1987;106:615-618. Abstract

Critics of bicarbonate therapy for life-threatening lactic acidosis have argued that the treatment is not only ineffective but that it also worsens morbidity and mortality. We critically examine the six major arguments used to condemn alkali treatment. We highlight the shortcomings of frequently cited uncontrolled human studies, experiments in animals, and in-vitro chemical analyses not clearly related to the human condition. The damaging hemodynamic effects of acidemia, which centralizes blood volume while depressing myocardial contraction (thereby causing hemodynamic collapse), are discussed and offered in support of alkali therapy. We also emphasize the extreme sensitivity of patients with acidosis to further small decreases in serum bicarbonate concentration or increases in arterial PCO2. In short, we have found no basis by which to condemn the use of alkali and believe that those who have scorned its use have yet to demonstrate its danger clearly. Until that time, sodium bicarbonate should remain the standard of therapy for this life-threatening condition.

Narla RD;, Kiprop EK;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Etiology of Septoria Leaf Spot of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kenya.".; 2003.
Narla RD;, Kiprop EK;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Etiology of Septoria Leaf Spot of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kenya.".; 2003.
Narla RD;, Kiprop EK;, Mibey RK;, Akundabweni LMS. "Etiology of Septoria Leaf Spot of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Kenya.".; 2003.
Naruse K, Tashiro J, Sakyo Y, Ichikawa W, Karani AK. "Stakeholders' perception of the desired Master's program for Kenya in community health nursing: areas of competency.". 2008. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved the WHA 45.5 in 1992, which addressed the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwives to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased. However, in developing countries that suffering from multiple resource deficiencies, such as Kenya, the strategic direction of higher education in nursing was unclear. Therefore, in Kenya, a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well-established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers' perspective about upgrading the Master's community nursing curriculum. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the Kenyan stakeholders' perspective and the expected roles and abilities of Master's graduates in community nursing. METHODS: This qualitative, cross-sectional study used convenience sampling to obtain 21 participants. The content analysis of the data was based on 19 semistructured interviews. RESULTS: Sixteen categories and 42 subcategories were derived from the five key questions that related to the expectations of the Master's program. The Master's graduates were expected to acquire knowledge and skills relating to administration, management, epidemiology, research, and education. The participants recognized that epidemiology, important for preventive care, was minimal among the current community health nurses. Also, Master's graduates must be prepared to manage health programs. CONCLUSION: The stakeholders expected that Master's graduates would become leaders in community health nursing, with a broad range of knowledge and skills, most notably in the areas of management and administration, epidemiology, and research. Those abilities should be reflected in the curriculum content.

NASIMIYUH INYEGAHELLEN. "Teaching online courses: Lessons learned.". 2013.
Nasimolo, Kiama GMK. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain.". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Nasimolo J, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Makanya AN, Kagira JM. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model." Metab Brain Dis. 2014;29(2):509-19. Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Nasimolo J, Kiama SG, Gathumbi PK, Makanya AN, Kagira JM. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model." Metabolic Brain Disease . 2014. Abstracterythrina_abyssinica_prevents_meningoe.pdfWebsite

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10 % of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50 % of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5 % of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Nasimolo J. Kiama., S.G. Gathumbi. MKPKJM. "Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic T brucei brucei mouse model." Journal of ethnopharmacology . 2014. Abstract

Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

Nasimolo. J. Kiama., S.Makanya. A. GKP k J. "Trypanosome Migration to the Brain .". In: 2nd East Africa Neuroscience Conference. Pride Inn Hotel, Westlands Nairobi, Kenya; 2012. Abstract

The migration of trypanosomes into the brain parenchyma is still not well understood, considering the presence of a blood brain barrier. We examined the second stage of trypanosomiasis that occurs in the brain using a mice model. Swiss white mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1x104 T. brucei brucei and parasitaemia monitored from the third day up to 28 days post infection. Diminazine aceturate was given intraperitonealy 21 days post infection. One animal was sacrificed at day 21 post infection to establish whether the parasites had reached the brain.

We established the presence of trypanosomes in the brain from day 21 onwards. Scanning electron microscopy showed trypanosomes in the ventricles and some crossing the choroid plexus, while transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the parasites in brain parenchyma. The results indicate a possible route of invasion of trypanosomes into brain parenchyma, shedding some light on the mechanism of this migration.

Nasio NA, Saidi H. "Perforated peptic ulcer disease at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.". 2009. Abstract

Published reports on perforated peptic ulcers indicate increasing rates for the elderly, those chronically ill and females. Our local observations are at variance. This study analysed patients treated for peptic ulcer perforations at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006 Perforated peptic ulcer disease is a disease of young males. Efforts to reduce delay in presentation in this population may reduce the complications

Nasio NA, Saidi H. "Effects of delayed treatment on perforated peptic ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9:37-41 .
Nathan I. "Forest and People in Developing Countries, introduction to the research area, status and plans."; 2013. Abstract

Citation for this document: Nathan, I., & Treue, T. Forest and People in Developing Countries, introduction to the research area, status and plans. In Presentation at the IAC meeting, Forest and Landscape, Denmark

Nathan, Iben; Thomsen K, Thomsen K. "Can smallholders be supplied with quality tree seed through commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags."; 2010. Abstract

This paper discusses the possibility for retail sale of small quantities of tree seed to smallholders through private enterprises already dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. It is suggested that the private enterprises purchase tree seed at national tree seed programmes, pack the seed in small bags and distribute and sell the bags through their networks of local seed dealers. A picture of the tree will be printed on the front of the bag, and guidelines for using the seed will be printed on the back. The aim is to increase smallholders' access to high quality tree seed. The discussion will focus on seed-physiological, genetic and financial aspects.

Nathan I, Lund JF, Gausset Q, Andersen SK. "On the Promises of Devolution: Overcoming the Constraints of Natural Resource Management in a Village in Tanzania.". 2007. Abstract

This article is concerned with the hypothesis that devolution, understood as entrusting local government with significant domains of autonomous discretionary power, will lead to the equitable and efficient management of natural resources. The paper focuses on the three domains of power conceived by some theorists as critical in the management of natural resources, namely making rules, implementing rules, and resolving disputes in relation to these rules. Based on a case study of a village in Tanzania, the article identifies some of the main constraints the village council encounters concerning the efficient and equitable management of common lands, and discusses whether devolution is the solution for overcoming these constraints. It is concluded that the role and functions of higher levels of government in decentralised natural resource management are essential and require due consideration beyond the point of arguing for more autonomy to local government.

NATHANIEL MULU K-M, Ryan K. "Preliminary Report on Lithics from Jangili Cave." Proceedings of the Pan African Congress of Prehistory and Related Studies, Gaberone, Botswana; 2005. Abstract
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NATHANIEL MULU K-M, Ryan K. "The Middle Stone Age/Later Stone Age Transition and the Origins of Modern Human Behaviour in East Africa.". A paper presented at the Anthropology Department, Moi University, Eldoret; 2006. Abstract
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NATHANIEL MULU, Ambrose KDWSHMD. "Dating the MSA/LSA Transition in Southwest Kenya.". Society for American Archaeology, 65th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia; 2005. Abstract
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National Council for Population and Development(NCPD). "Kenya Population Situation Analysis.". In: Kenya Population Situation Analysis. Nairobi: National Council for Population and Development (NCPD); 2013.
was the lead consultant National Economic and Social Council(NESC). 24-Hour Economy. and Council NES, ed. Nairobi; 2010.
National Gender and Equity Commission(NGEC) K. The Land Area Dimension of Resource Allocation: A Review of the Formula by Commission on Resource Allocation (CRA), Kenya. Nairobi: National Gender and Equity Commission (NGEC), Kenya ; 2012.
Nau KC, Lorenzetti RC, Cucuzzella M, Devine T, Kline J. "Glycemic control in hospitalized patients not in intensive care: beyond sliding-scale insulin." American family physician. 2010;81:1130-1135. AbstractWebsite
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Navarro O, Daneman A. "Intussusception. {Part} 3: {Diagnosis} and management of those with an identifiable or predisposing cause and those that reduce spontaneously." Pediatric Radiology. 2004;34:305-312; quiz 369. Abstract

In the previous two parts of this review on intussusception, the diagnosis and management of symptomatic, "idiopathic" ileocolic and ileoileocolic intussusceptions, which are considered to result from hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in the distal ileum, were discussed. In this third part, those intussusceptions with an identifiable cause including pathologic lead point, those due to gastrojejunostomy or other feeding tubes, and those that are seen in the postoperative period as well as those that may be asymptomatic or may reduce spontaneously (usually limited to the small bowel) are discussed.

Nayak SB, George BM, Mishra S, Surendran S, Shetty P, Shetty SD. "Sessile ileum, subhepatic cecum, and uncinate appendix that might lead to a diagnostic dilemma." Anatomy & Cell Biology. 2013;46:296. AbstractWebsite
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NB 46. S, LW G, G WE. "Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Mouthwash among Dental and Medical Students of the University of Nairobi." International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health. 2016;http://dx.doi.org/10.16966/2378-7090.198(Volume: 2.4).abstract_simiyu.pdf
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and Histopathology of Goats Feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021(Article ID 8831996, 12 pages).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and histopathology of goats feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8831996).
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Omosa LK, Bedane KG, Derese S, Brieger L, Strohmann C, Spiteller M. "Anti-inflammatory Steroidal Sapogenins and a Conjugated Chalcone-stilbene from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Fitoterapia. 2020;146:104717.alexe_et_al_2020_fitoterapia.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Omosa LK, Bedane KG, Derese S, Spiteller M. "Inhibition of ProInflammatory Cytokine Release by Flavones and Flavanones from the Leaves of Dracaena steudneri Engl." Planta Medica. 2020:DOI: 10.1055/a-1306-1368.alexe_et_al_2020_planta_medica.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Efferth T, Spiteller M. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from the seeds of Dracaena steudneri Engl against leukemia cancer cell lines." Phytomedicine Plus. 2022;2(2):100234.alexe_et_al_2022_phytomedicine_plus.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85.alexe_et_al_2020_phytochemistry_letters.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Ndaguatha PLW. "Unusual Urinary bladder outlet obstruction." East.Afr. Med. J.. 2003;80(7):388-390.
Ndaguatha PPLW. "Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult." Medicom. 2013;26(July-August):27-28.
Ndaguatha PLW. "Practical experience with flexible fiberscope Cystoscopy in Out patients." Medicom-Afr.J.Hosp.Med.. 2004;19-24(Bridging edition):7-10.
Ndaguatha PLW. "Clinical presentations of urinary bladder in Kenya." East Afr.Med. J.. 1990;67(3):182-190.
Ndaguatha PLW. "Torsion of testis in young adults." Medicom-Afr.J.Hosp.Med.. 2010;19-24(Bridging edition):17-19.
Ndaguatha PLW, GD OE. "Gastric Volvulus." East Afr.Med. J.. 1988;65(10):714-718.
Ndaguatha PLW. "An Experience with percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy." East Afr.Med. J.. 1992;69(5):262-267.
Ndaguatha PLW. "Misdiagnosed adult testicular torsion." East Afr.Med. J.. 2009;86(1):41-4.
Ndaguatha PLW, CG. W. "Foreign bodies in a Female Neurognic Urinary Bladder." Medicom-Afr.J.Hosp.Med.. 2010;Oct., Nov.,Dec.,25:37-9.
Ndakala AJ, Howell AR. "The First General Synthesis of 1,5-Dioxaspiro[3.2]hexanes,"." Journal of Organic Chemistry 63 , 6098-6099.. 1998;63:6098-6099. AbstractWebsite

 
 
 
 

Ndakala FN, Oyugi JO, Oluka MN, Kimani J, Jablonka A, Behrens GMN. "Prevalent neuropathy in a cohort of HIV-infected Kenyan sex workers using antiretroviral drugs." Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;25(14):9699.
Ndakala AJ, Gessner RK, Gitari PW, October N, White KL, Hudson A, Fakorede F, Shackleford DM, Kaiser M, Yeates C, Charman SA, Chibale K. "Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011;54:4581-4589.Website
Ndakhona Bashingi, M Mostafa Hassan MM. "Possible Challenges of Integrating ICTs into the Public Transportation System in the Free State Province, South Africa.". 2015. AbstractWebsite

There is need for ICT in the Free State public transportation system and for its implementation to be successful, information is needed on the needs of the various stakeholders and assessment of whether those needs are possible to fulfill using ICT solutions. The conventional and traditional poor quality transportation system needs to be improved. ICTs have shown to be the ultimate solution to most public transport problems. For successful ICT integration, implementation and operation of these ICT solutions to improve the public transportation system challenges may be encountered which has to be addressed. This study investigates the challenges which are likely to be faced by the different stakeholders at the different levels of the integration process.
Keywords
ICT Integration Public transportation system Challenges 

Ndambiri HK;, Ritho C;, Mbogoh SG;, Ng’ang’a SI;, Muiruri EJ;, Nyangweso PM;, Kipsat MJ;, Ogada JO;, Omboto PI;, Kefa C;, Kubowon PC;, Cherotwo FH. "Assessment of Farmers' Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change in Kenya: the Case of Kyuso District.". 2012. Abstract

The study was carried out to assess how farmers in Kyuso District have adapted to the effects of climate change. Survey data was collected from 246 farmers from six locations that were sampled out through a multistage and simple random sampling procedure. The probit regression model was fitted into the data in order to assess factors influencing farmers’ adaptation to the effects of climate change. The analysis revealed that 85% of the farmers had adapted in various ways to the effects of climate change. In this regard, the age of the farmer, gender, education, farming experience, farm income, access to climate information, household size, local agro-ecology, distance to input/output market, access to credit, access to water for irrigation, precipitation and temperature were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to adapt to climate change. The study suggests that more policy efforts should thus be geared towards helping all the farmers in the district to adapt to climate change.

Ndambo DK. Big Data Anaytics And Competitive Advantage of Banks and Insurance Companies in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2016. Abstract

This study focussed on big data and competitive advantage in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya and was dependent on the following objectives: To establish the extent of application of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to determine the relationship between big data analytics and competitive advantage of commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi; to establish the challenges of big data analytics in commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi. A descriptive survey was employed for the purpose of data collection for this research. The population targeted for this study was commercial banks and insurance companies in Nairobi, Kenya. There are 42 commercial banks and 49 insurance companies in Nairobi. A sample of 20 commercial banks and 25 insurance companies was undertaken due to the limited time allocated for data collection and analysis. The sample was selected based on a judgmental basis taking into account the companies’ use of big data analytics. This research used primary data collected using structured questionnaires. The respondents were managers dealing with company strategies and/ or information and technology managers in the selected companies. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation and regression techniques. The study found that companies in the financial industry specifically commercial banks and insurance firms have invested in data storage facilities and advanced tools in the area of business intelligence for reporting and analysing consumer/ client behaviour. These tools allow the companies to anticipate consumer needs more effectively, in addition to optimizing their operations. The addition of big data analytics systems in the companies’ daily routines enables them to gain higher levels of insight in the big data environment thus enabling more effective decision making. There are challenges in management of big data that if addressed can help organizations appreciate the full potential of big data tools and various analytics especially in aspects of competitive advantage. This study, through a thorough analysis of its findings concludes that the big data revolution has found a place in the commercial banking and insurance industry in Nairobi, and that the trend is on the rise as these companies continue to discover the valuable data with tremendous potential they have had in their storage for decades.

Ndambuki JM, EUNICEODHIAMBO, Chege M, MIRIE WAITHIRA. "Factors influencing Quality Management of Medication by Nurses at Kenyatta National Hospital Paediatric Wards. Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2013;Vol.3,( No.18, 2013):93-98.factors_influencing_quality_management.pdf
Ndaruga AM, Nderitu GG, Gichuki NN, Wamicha WN. "Impact of water quality on macro-invertebrate assemblages along a tropical stream in Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2004;(42):208-216.
Ndase P, Celum C, Thomas K, Donnell D, Fife KH, Bukusi E, Delany-Moretlwe S, Baeten JM. "Outside sexual partnerships and risk of HIV acquisition for HIV uninfected partners in African HIV serodiscordant partnerships." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2012;59(1):65-71. Abstract

As African countries scale-up couples HIV testing, little is known about sexual behaviors and HIV risk for HIV-uninfected partners in known HIV-serodiscordant relationships.

Ndase P, Celum C, Thomas K, Donnell D, Fife KH, Bukusi E, Delany-Moretlwe S, Baeten JM. "Outside sexual partnerships and risk of HIV acquisition for HIV uninfected partners in African HIV serodiscordant partnerships." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2012;59(1):65-71. Abstract

As African countries scale-up couples HIV testing, little is known about sexual behaviors and HIV risk for HIV-uninfected partners in known HIV-serodiscordant relationships.

Ndase P, Celum C, Campbell J, Bukusi E, Kiarie J, Katabira E, Mugo N, Tumwesigye E, Wangisi J, Were E, Brantley J, Donnell D, Baeten JM. "Successful discontinuation of the placebo arm and provision of an effective HIV prevention product after a positive interim efficacy result: the partners PrEP study experience." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2014;66(2):206-12. Abstract

Dissemination of research results to study participants and stakeholders and provision of proven effective products in the immediate post-trial period are core elements of the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention clinical trials. Few biomedical HIV prevention trials have demonstrated HIV protection with novel interventions, and thus, communication of positive trial results and provision of an effective product have not been tested in many situations.

Ndathi AJN;, Nyangito, M.M.;, simba NKR;, Mitaru. NB. "Farmers preferences of livestock and livestock products in drylands of Kenya.".; 2010.
Ndathi AJN, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Smallholder farmers’ feed material conservation strategies in the tropical dry-lands of South-eastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2012;24 ((6)). Abstract

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. In an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agro-pastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method while data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and lastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

Key words: Dry season, feed conservation, structures, ranking

Ndathi AJN;, Nyangito, M.M.;, simba NKR;, Mitaru. NB. "Farmers preferences of livestock and livestock products in drylands of Kenya.".; 2010.
Ndathi AJN, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Farmers’ preference and nutritive value of selected indigenous plant feed materials for cattle in drylands of south-eastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2012;24 ((2) ). Abstract

This study was undertaken in the drylands of southeastern Kenya to identify and rank important indigenous plant feed materials for cattle. Through the use of a structured questionnaire administered at the household level, farmers were asked to identify and rank the plant feed materials. The households were selected through systematic sampling along road transects in three agroecological zones namely LM4, LM5 and IL5. Samples of edible plant parts of top ranked feed materials were collected and nutritional analysis done at University of Nairobi, Department of animal production nutrition laboratory. Farmers’ preference, nutritional value rankings and climate variability were used to give the final ranking of the feed plant materials.

The top ranked grass species were Cynodon plectostachys and Eragrostis superba. Other grass species included Cenchrus ciliaris and Panicum maximum. Among the browse species, Combretum exalatum and Duosperma kilimandscharicum were the top ranked species. However, Acacia tortilis, Melia volkensii and Combretum apiculatum were also valuable browse plant species in the study area. The most important crop residues were from maize, pigeon peas and cow peas. However, maize stover may not be reliable especially with increasing aridity and hence more drought resistant cereal crops such as sorghum and millets should be promoted.

Key words: degradation, grasses, indigenous, Kibwezi, legumes, shrubs, trees

Ndathi AJN, MNM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Climate variability and dry season ruminant livestock feeding strategies in Southeastern Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23(9). Abstract

Availability of feeds for livestock production is a major constraint to livestock production in drylands of Kenya. This study was conducted to generate information on the climate of the semi-arid lands of Southeastern Kenya and the livestock keepers’ dry seasons feed provision strategies. Information on climate was generated through analysis of long-term and short-term rainfall and temperature data. The dry seasons’ livestock feed provision strategies were generated through a household survey using a questionnaire.

Livestock keepers have a period of 6 months to grow and harvest feeds to bridge a5 months feed shortage gap. Long-term rainfall amounts showed irregular peaks and troughs and seem to have a stable mean over the years. However, even with the troughs and peaks, the temperatures seem to be increasing. This means that moisture available for feed production may be decreasing. Buying of feeds and using on-farm conserved feeds were the most commonly used feed provision strategies during the dry seasons. However, these strategies were constrained by lack of money, availability of the feeds to buy, inadequate space for conservation and rotting of the conserved feeds.

Key word: constraints, feed conservation, droughts, drylands

Ndathi AJN, Nyangito, Moses M, Musimba NKR. "Smallholder farmers' feed material conseryation strategies in the tropical drylands of South-eastern Kenya.". 2012. Abstractabstract11.pdfWebsite

Availability of feed is the major constraint to livestock production in the drylands of southeastern Kenya. ln an effort to address this problem, this study was carried out to identify and rank feed material conservation strategies being used by the Kamba agropastoralists inhabiting this region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to household heads of households selected using agro-ecological zones and systematic sampling using the road transect method. Ranking was done using the pairwise method white data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Feed conservation strategies identified being used in the study area were leaving the feed standing in the field, harvesting and placing the feed on tree branches or putting in an open wooden rack, roofed wooden rack or a granary. The granary was ranked the most effective structures followed by the tree branches, the roofed wooden racks and tastly the open wooden racks. However, a granary could only store small amounts of feed material hence the roofed wooden rack was more popular.

ndeti ndati, M M. "The Role of Wireless Communication in Financial Inclusion: A Case of Agency Banking in Kenya.". In: East African Communication Association. St Augustine University, Tanzania; 2012.
ndeti ndati, I G, P M. "Media Portrayal and Disability Mainstreaming.". In: School of Human Resource Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
ndeti ndati, Mulwa M. "Integrated Marketing Communications and Technology Adoption: A Case of Safaricom's Mobile Money Transfer Services in Kenya.". In: Africa Mobile Money Research Conference. Kenya School of Monetary Studies; 2012.
ndeti ndati, Mulwa M. "Network Logic and the Stabilization of Mobile Banking Products: A Case Study of Selected Mobile Banking Products in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development . 2013;Vol. 2 Issue 8.ISSN: 278-0211(Online).
ndeti ndati. "Leadership and Community Mobilization.". In: HIV/AIDS Base Group Regional Conference. YMCA Nairobi; 2011.
ndeti ndati, M M. "Barriers to Uptake and Use of Agency Banking products targeting Poor and Marginalized populations in Kenya.". In: Reaching the Unreached: Mobile Money Uptake in Ghana. Accra, Ghana; 2013.
ndeti ndati. HIV and AIDS Communication in Secondary Schools in Kenya. Eldoret: Zapf Chancery Publishers; 2012.
ndeti ndati. "Conflict and Cooperation in Society: A Case of Lay Training Centres in Africa.". In: Association of Christian Lay Centres Leadership Training. Jumuia Conference Centre, Limuru; 2009.
Ndavi P Muia. "1. Female Genital Mutilation Across Boarders: .". In: 38th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Nyeri, Kenya; 2014.
Ndavi PM, Wanga H KD. "1. Underutilized technology in infertility management: .". In: 37th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Eldoret, Kenya; 2013.
Ndavi PM, Dlamini D KP:. A Reproductive Health Needs Assessment; A Report of Findings from the Kingdom of Swaziland:. Mbabane: World Health Organization; 2002.
Ndavi PM, Oyieke JBO MKCS:G. "Coagulation Studies inHypertensive Disease in Pregnancy in Kenyatta National Hospital:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 2003;16(1):32-36.
Ndavi PM KCS:, et al. "A survey of Attitude of Kenyan Medical Doctorson Family Planning (FP): Secondary Data Analysis: ." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. 1995;11(1):38-43.
Ndavi PM, Muia EG OJ, et al. An analysis of Training in the Provision of Family Planning Services in Factors thatContribute to the Utilization of Quality RH Care: Findings from Further Analysis of the Service Provision Assessment of 1999: . Nairobi: Ministry of Health, National Council for Population and Development-Ministry of Planning and National ; 2003.
Ndavi PM, Dlamini D KP:. Report of Maternal Death Review in the Kingdom of Swaziland. Mbabane: World Health Organization; 2002.
Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Similarities In Periods Of Meteorological Variables Over Kenya And Solar Activity Periods." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2009;29(3):43-51. AbstractAFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL)

Using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, we determined the spectral characteristics of some meteorological variables over Kenya and identified the prominent periodicities associated with the variables. The meteorological variables studied are the maximum temperature, mini-mum temperature, average temperature, wind speed, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radia-tion intensity, evaporation and sunshine duration. Data from five terrestrial stations, represent-ing the regional climatic zones in Kenya, were employed in the study. The result reveals periods that are associated with solar activity. It is established that solar forcing is very significant over the Kenyan climate. The Sun-Climate relations were influenced at some locations by local ef-fects such as orography and vegetation.

Keywords: periodicity, solar activity, Sun-climate relations

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Determination of the Coefficient of Correlation Between Radiation and Relative Humidity, and Determining Equation of the Line of Best Fit Using Statistical Methods." 2nd UN/NASA Workshop on International Heliophysical Year and Basic Space Science. 2006:81. AbstractSAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

This paper investigates the inter-relationship between solar radiation intensity RD and relative humidity RH in Kenya using daily data obtained at five meteorological stations; Nairobi (1.3°S, 36.75°E), Kericho (0.37˚S, 35.72˚E), Kisumu (0.10˚S, 34.75˚E), Mombasa (4.03˚S, 39.65˚E) and Garissa (0.48˚S, 39.63˚E) during the solar minimum year 1986. Statistical methods were employed and the coefficients of correlation, r obtained range from 0.16094 to -0.6758618 between the two variables for the five stations. The linear equation relating the solar radiation intensity RD to relative humidity RH is obtained using linear regression analysis as RH = 109.1091-1.5997RD for the Nairobi station. Jandel scientific and Megastat software analyses gave fairly similar trends of results for Nairobi and other stations, and for all the seasons except for those of Garissa station. Obviously there exists a negative interdependence between solar radiation intensity and relative humidity such that the relative humidity decreases as solar radiation increases and vice versa. This observation is explicable in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric heating and advection traceable to solar activity.

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Estimation of Climatic Parameters from Solar Indices Using Ground based Data from Kenya, East Africa." Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana). 2011;31(1):131-139. Abstractestimation_of_climatic_parameters_from_solar_indices_using_ground_based_data_from_kenya_east_africa.pdfAfrican Journals Online

The daily meteorological data of relative humidity, maximum, minimum, and average temperatures obtained from five stations of the Kenya Meteorological Department over the period 1986 to 2005 were filtered and reduced to monthly means. Monthly data of solar indices: Sunspot number, F10.7 cm solar radio flux and Mg II core-to-wing ratio covering the same period were employed to model the meteorological variables using the linear multivariate model and applying least square fittings. Validity of the models was tested using Mean Bias Error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) statistical indicators. The correlations between the observed and predicted values from the models were significant at above 95% level of confidence. The models show the effect of solar forcing on the climatic parameters at different locations in Kenya. Solar forcing of climate is evident in Kenya.
Keywords: modeling, climatic parameters, solar indices, statistical indicators.

Ndege TM, Migosi JA, Onsongo J. "Determinants of Research Productivity among academics in Kenya." International Journal of Economics Education and Development. 2011;2(3):288-300.
NDEGE FREDRICK. The Environment and Resource Use In Kenya: A Socio - Cultural Perespective. Cape Town.: University of Cape Town.; 2006.
NDEGE FREDRICK. "The Forgotten Meru Mau Mau: Resurgence of a Social Movement.". In: International Oral History Association Conference. FREDRICK NDEGERome, Italy; 2004.
NDEGE FREDRICK. "We Don’t Need Food Aid In Africa.". In: Africa Universities Union Symposium . University of Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2002.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Boon for town in Murang'a." Star, June 20, 2013.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa a,id others: (1998) Dilemmas of Deciding Stakeholders: Governance and open access to common Property. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. Vol.8, Special Number.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "UNEP/UNDP/Kenya Government Project on Environment and Development, 1979. Specialist Paper on Planning for Rural Settlements in Kenya.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1979. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA DRGICHUKIFRANCIS. "Gichuki, F.N. 1987,."; 1987. Abstract
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Ndegwa R, Simiyu J, E Ayieta, Odero N. "A Fast and Accurate Analytical Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic System Based on Manufacturer’s Data." Journal of Renewable Energy. 2020;(2020):1-18.
Ndegwa EN, Mulei CM, Munyua SJM. "The Prevalence Of Subclinical Mastitis In Dairy Goats In Kenya.". 2000. Abstract

California mastitis test (CMT), direct leukocytes counts and bacteriological examination were performed on 630 milk samples from apparently healthy mammary glands of dairy goats comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenberg, Saanen and Galla crosses to find the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 9.8% according to CMT, 9.7% according to direct leukocyte counts and 28.7% by bacterial isolation during a 3-month period. The proportion of the bacteriologically positive milk samples was significantly (P <0.01) higher than that positive for CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was a significant (P < 0.01) correlation between CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was no significant direct relationship between bacterial isolation and CMT Bacterial organisms were isolated in 22.5% of the 568 CMT-negative milk samples. The results suggest that bacterial organisms isolated from the CMT-negative milksamples were either latent infections or did not stimulate any significant increase in somatic cell counts that could be detected by either the CMT or direct leukocyte counts. The observations of this study indicate that the mere presence of bacteria in goat's milk does not mean that the udder is infected and so does not warrant antibiotic therapy.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E.N. (2000) Political Processes, District Develdpmeht Planning and Programmes Implementation. A paper Presented at the Training Workshop on District Development Planning and Plan Preparation in Kenya held at Nyalniruru Lodge. Kenya.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Human Settlements and Rural Development in Nyeri District. Draft report \ritten for the National Council for Science and Technology. 1986.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1986. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA DRGICHUKIFRANCIS. "Gichuki, F.N. 1988. ."; 1988. Abstract
n/a
Ndegwa L, Karimurio J, Okelo R, Adala H. "Barriers to utilization of eye care services among slum dwellers of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya East Afr. Med." East Afr Med J. 2005;82:506-508. Abstract

Objectives: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya.
Design: Community based survey
Setting: Kibera Slums, Nairobi City, Kenya
Subjects: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over 2 years.
Results: Majority of subjects 83.3% do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance, and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008).
Conclusions: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care.
Recommendation: There is need to establish a comprehensive Primary Eye Care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Application of Participatory Appraisal Methods in Regional Planning. A paper prepared with Mr. Z. Maleche for a Workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal Methods. Nairobi, July 30-31. 1992.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1992. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Ndegwa PN, Mihok S. "Development of odour-baited traps for Glossina swynnertoni Austen." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1999;89:255-261.Website
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder. East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Jan;74(1):12-3. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Results of recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder are reported. The procedures used were mainly Putti-Plat in 35 patients; Eden-Hybinette in five patients and Webers derotation osteotomy of the humerus in five patients. Recurrence rates in the 45 patients reviewed and followed up at three years post-operatively were: six in Putti-Plat and two in Eden-Hybinette and none in Webers osteotomy patients. Clinically, the functional post-operative results were "excellent" in 32 patients (71%), "satisfactory" in eight patients (18%); while they were "unsatisfactory" in three patients and "poor" in two patients. There were no appreciable differences depending on the operative method used. Radiologically, the Hill-Sachs defect on the posterolateral aspect of the humeral head was seen in 30 patients (67%) while Bankarts lesion of the glenoid rim osteoarthritis was seen in five patients (11%), while rotator cuff calcification was seen in nine patients (20%).
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Grassroots Participation and Development in Kenya: Empowering Local Communities. A paper presented at n conference organised by The Swiss Society ol African Studies. Hern. Switzerland. 5 -13 May. 1994.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1994. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Gakuu LN. Post-operative pyrexia in an orthopaedic unit. East Afr Med J. 1997 Aug;74(8):530-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Aug;74(8):530-2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi. The causes of post operative pyrexia in an orthopaedic unit was studied prospectively in 520 patients who underwent surgery. Two hundred patients (38.4%) developed postoperative pyrexia as defined by having recorded high temperatures of over 38 degrees C on two occasions within 24 hours (excluding the first 24 hours post-operatively). The commonest causes of post-operative pyrexia were wound infection in 70 (13.4%), respiratory tract infections in 40 (7.6%) and malaria in 30 (5.7%) patients, while other causes were urinary tract infection in 20 (3.8%), thrombophlebitis in 15 (2.8%) and deep vein thrombosis in 15 (2.8%) of the patients; while ten (1.9%) patients had pyrexia of undetermined cause despite exhaustive clinical and laboratory workup. The other associated conditions in patients who developed pyrexia were diabetes mellitus in 20 (3.8%), HIV seropositivity and malignancy in 30 (5.7%) and six (1.1%) patients, respectively.
Ndegwa SK. The effects of share splits on long run stock returns for companies listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Share splits are a common corporate event among listed companies. Though it is
commonly practiced it has been described as a mere accounting change that increases
the number of shares outstanding without any benefit to the shareholders. This study
sought to determine the effects of share splits on long run stock returns among listed
companies at the Nairobi securities Exchange. The study covered returns for twenty
four months after the company had undergone a share split. The study therefore
sampled firms that had been in operation for at least twenty four months after they
had undergone a share split. There were eleven firms listed at the NSE that fulfilled
this condition and were therefore sampled for this study.
The study used the long run study methodology and applied the buy and hold
benchmark approach. The method required the identification of the event firm and its
benchmark firm and comparing the returns achieved by each of these firms
correspondingly for the same month. Secondary data obtained from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange was used in this study. The data consisted of monthly opening
and closing share prices of each of the sampled firms together with those of its
identified benchmark firm for the entire twenty four months of the study. The study
method required the determination of each of the sampled event firm’s monthly buy
and hold returns and comparing these returns with those of its benchmark firm, which
acted as a proxy for the market. The benchmark firm was identified as another firm
which had not undergone a share split and was within 70% to 130% of the share
capital of the event firm at the time of the event firm’s share split, and has a book to
market equity (BE/ME) ratio that is closest to that of the event firm. The monthly
returns of the event firm are then compared with those of its benchmark firm. The
difference in the monthly returns achieved by the paired firms constitutes the buy and
hold abnormal return (BHAR) for the event firm. The buy and hold abnormal returns
for each firm were then tested for difference from zero at 5% significance level in
order to determine whether there is any difference between the returns of the event
firm and the returns of its benchmark firm.
The study found that among all the eleven firms sampled; only two firms achieved a
positive mean buy and hold abnormal return of 1.89% and 3.72% respectively. The
other nine firms representing 82% of the sampled firms achieved a mean negative buy
and hold abnormal returns ranging from -4.94 % to -0.14 %. These returns were
however found to be insignificant at 95% confidence level. This implies that there
was no significant difference between the returns achieved by the event firm and the
returns achieved by its benchmark firm for the period under study. The study
therefore concluded that share splits at the Nairobi securities exchange have
insignificant effects on stock returns for the first two years following a share split.
However further studies on its effects on periods longer than two years would be
recommended in order to develop a hypothesis. The criteria for the choice of the
benchmark firm would also need to include a consideration of the industry in which
the event firm is operating in order to allow for proper benchmarking of the paired
firms returns. Firms from the same industry would be affected by market conditions in
the same way.

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Actors and Land Use Planning in the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin (1996) in B. Soltas (Id) Actor Orientation in Resource Management. A Reader. Contributions to the ASP Bern Workshop, February29-March 2 1996.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa and others (1998) Stakeholders in the Limelight: Principles of Actor-Centred Resource Management. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. Vol.8. Special Number.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Environmental aspects of Industrial Development. Nairobi. 1978. Paper presented at a "Land Use.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1978. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
Ndegwa EN. Kiharu Constituency Strategic Plan. Nairobi; 2012.
NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Management of Future Cities (2000) A paper presented ;it he AAK 2000 Convention. Safari Park I Intel. 21-29 June 2000.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Service Centres and Rural Development in Kenya: Paper written lor the Overseas Development Agency. 1985.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1985. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E.N. (2001) Framework for Human Settlements Data Analysis. A paper Presented at the Training Workshop on District Planning and Plan Preparation in Kenya held at Nyahururu Lodge. Kenya from 26 February-2 March 2001.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Ndegwa E. (1989) Institutional Arrangements for Regional (Sub-national) Development Planning: Case study from Kenya. United Nations Centre for I Ionian Settlements (Habitat) Nairobi.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1989. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Ndegwa PN. Studies on ecology and epidemiological significance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Masai Mara, Kenya. Mihok S, Oyieke F, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1997.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "GAKUU L.N. Unstable Fracture dislocations of the Acetabulum due to free intra articular fragments. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73: 625 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1996; 73: 625 . F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1996. Abstract
The elderly are predisposed to injuries due to consequences of ageing and presence of disease process commonly seen in the old people. Age-related deterioration of senses such as decrease in hearing capacity, presbyopia, changes in co-ordination, balance, motor strength and postural stability render the elderly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Diseases such as dementia, congestive cardiac failure, postural hypotension, osteoporosis and arthritis further contribute to compound problems of the elderly. Age and chronic factors further blunt the reserves to enable an elderly individual meet the demands of trauma. The challenge to the clinician is to be aware of the subtle changes and deviation from the norm that may suggest development of complications. With careful attention and appropriate physiological support the elderly patient has a good chance of survival. The primary condition must be assessed, necrotic tissues must be debrided by thorough surgical toileting, pus must be drained, wounds sutured and fractures must be set while cardiopulmonary activity must be monitored accurately. The patient should be re-assured, kept warm and adequate analgesia given to relieve pain. Intravascular volume and composition of extracellular fluid must be maintained. Nutritional support should be provided in amounts needed to meet the higher demands of trauma and preferably by oral feeding. Above all multidisciplinary approach to the traumatised elderly is mandatory involving surgeons, physicians, physiotherapists and other paramedical staff and relatives.

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