Publications

Found 8538 results

Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is N  [Clear All Filters]
2020
Edouard Singirankabo, Ngare P, Ogutu C. "Pricing Lookback Option Using Multinomial Lattices." Communications of Mathematical Finance, . 2020;9(1, ):1-12,.
Kiuri J, MARU S, Ndwigah SN. "Product Evaluation of Carbamazepine 200mg Controlled Release Tablets using an in vitro-in vivo Correlation Simulation Model. ." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23(2):60-66.
Okello JJ, Shiundu FM, Mwende J, Lagerkvist CJ, Nyikal RA, Muoki P, Mburu J, Low JW. "Quality and psychosocial factors influencing purchase of orange‐fleshed sweet potato bread." International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020. AbstractWebsite

This 2018 study, conducted in six Tusky's supermarkets in Nairobi, Kenya, combined the Just-About-Right, Penalty and Mean-End-Chain analyses to examine the quality and psychosocial factors influencing the purchase of a novel bread made from orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), a biofortified crop, focusing on sixty-one male and eighty female urban OFSP bread buyers recruited at point of purchase. It finds that sensory and psychosocial factors drive purchasing decisions and that some of the bread's sensory characteristics are misaligned with consumers' expectations. It also finds that women and men's evaluations of the bread's characteristics are different, as are their motivations for purchase. However, good sensory attributes and the knowledge of the bread's nutritional value were key drivers. Some misaligned characteristics reveal levers for the reformulation of the bread and present opportunities for segmenting the market. Several other implications of the findings for policy and future improvement of the bread are discussed.

Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Report of Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the Period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2020;23(3):79-86. Abstract

During the period 2011-2015, the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) analyzed 1972 drug samples. The samples consisted of 21.5% locally manufactured and 78.2% imported products while the origin of 0.3% of products was indeterminate. Samples were subjected to compendial and/or in-house analytical specifications. The overall non-compliance rate was 4.5% comprising 2.5% local products and 2.0% imports. High failure rates were recorded for uterotonics (37.5%), hemostatics (33%), anthelmintics (17%) and anticancers (10.5%) while ophthalmic, immunomodulatory, musculoskeletal and endocrine drugs all complied with the quality acceptance criteria. Erectile dysfunction drugs, received by the laboratory for the first time, all complied with specifications. The results obtained demonstrate an improvement in the quality of samples submitted to DARU when compared to previous performance.

Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during the period 2011-2015." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;23(3):79-86.
Mugo JW, Opijah F, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Rainfall variability under present and future climate scenarios using the Rossby Center Bias-corrected Regional Climate Model." American Journal of Climate Change. 2020;9(1):243-265.
Gitari HI, Nyawade SO, Kamau S, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Raza MA, Maitra S, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Revisiting intercropping indices with respect to potato-legume intercropping systems.". 2020.
C O, K KC, N MJ. "Rice Straw and Egg Shell as Partial Replacements of Cement in Concrete." Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research. 2020;Vol 10(6):6481-6487.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Nyapela MA. "The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic." The Role of Knowledge Management in Life-Saving Initiatives: Case of COVID-19 Pandemic . 2020.
Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Gikundi KS, Misiko CW, Nyonje R. "Selected Institutional Reforms and Change of Behavior of Inmates in Correctional Facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2020;8(7).
N. MJ. "A Simple Computer Model for the Prediction of Chemical Shrinkage and Heat of Hydration of Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)-Cement Paste." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):597-615.
Ndegwa R, E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Method for Parameter Determination of a Photovoltaic Module using Manufacturer’s data." Africa Journal of Physical Science. 2020;5:1-9.
Ndegwa, R., E Ayieta, Simiyu J, Odero N. "A Simplified Simulation Procedure and Analysis of a Photovoltaic Solar System Using a Single Diode Model." Journal of Power and Energy Engineering. 2020;8(9):65-93.
Mbugua M, Nzuma JM, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social Networks and Household Food Consumption Smoothing in the Presence of Idiosyncratic Shocks: Insights from Rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2020.1715344.
Mbugua M, Nzuma J, Muange E, Kunyanga C. "Social networks and household food consumption smoothing in the presence of idiosyncratic shocks: insights from rural Kenya." Development in Practice. 2020;30(3):383-393.
M.Ichami S, J.Stoorvogel KDSJ, Hoffland E, N.Karuku G, J.Stoorvogel J. "Soil spatial variation to guide the development of fertilizer use recommendations for smallholder farms in western Kenya." Geoderma Regional. 2020;22.
Kieti J, Waema TM, Ndemo EB, Omwansa TK, Baumüller H. "Sources of value creation in aggregator platforms for digital services in agriculture - insights from likely users in Kenya." https://www.journals.elsevier.com/digital-business. 2020. Abstract

A fragmented digital agriculture ecosystem has been linked to the slow scale-out of digital platforms and other digital
technology solutions for agriculture. This has undermined the prospects of digitalizing agriculture and increasing sectoral outcomes in sub-Saharan African countries. We conceptualized an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture as a special form of digital platforms that can enhance the value and usage of digital technologies at the industry
level. Little is known about how such a platform can create value as a new service ecology in agriculture. We set out to
examine the underlying structure and prioritizations of value creation sources in such a platform from the perspective
of likely users in Kenya. We used a parallel convergent mixed methods approach to the study. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from 405 respondents supported a two-factor structure, being an adaptation of the framework on value creation sources in e-Business by Amit, R., & Zott, C. (2001). We conceptualized the two factors as platform-wide efficiency
and loyalty-centeredness. User experience related search costs were most impactful on platform-wide efficiency, while
loyalty-centeredness was impacted most by providing guarantees for quality and reliability to platform users. Thematic
analysis of 369 qualitative responses obtained platform inclusivity - comprising value chain coverage and digital inclusivity,
as additional considerations for amplifying sector-wide benefits of an aggregator platform for digital services in agriculture. We discuss implications for policy and practice in the light of resource constraints and the promise to digitally
transform agriculture in SSA countries.

Wabwire EO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "The Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rainfall over the Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya in 1987-2016." Atmospheric and Climate Sciences . 2020;10(2):240-257.
Githinji EK, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Machani MG, Amito RO, Kemei BJ, Murima PN, Ombui GM, Wanjoya AK, Mbogo CM, Mathenge EM. "Species composition, phenotypic and genotypic resistance levels in major malaria vectors in Teso North and Teso South subcounties in Busia County, Western Kenya. ." Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020;2020:1-17.
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Karingithi M.G., Aosa E., K. O, Njihia J. M., and Mose J. M. "Strategy Typology, Organizational Factors and Performance of Freight Forwarding Companies in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review,. 2020;10(1):1-10.
Arunga, Nyenze. "Strengthening eye health research output in the region." JOECSA. 2020;24(1):1-3.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector).

Muthini, D., Nzuma, M.J., Qaim, M. "Subsistence Production, Markets, and Dietary Diversity in the Kenyan Small Farm Sector." Food Policy. 2020;DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101956.
Mugo JW, Opijah FJ, Ngaina J, Karanja F, Mburu M. "Suitability of Green Gram Production in Kenya Under Present and Future Climate Scenarios Using Bias-corrected Cordex RCA4 Models." Agricultural Sciences. 2020;11:882-896.
Nyamweya NN, Abuga KO. "A Survey of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in Nairobi: Packaging, Labelling and Regulatory Compliance." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 23 (2020). 2020;23(2):72-76. Abstract

Alcohol based hand sanitizers are currently recommended for routine use in curbing the spread of the COVID-19 global pandemic. The present survey examined hand sanitizers marketed in Nairobi County with regards to product appearance, packaging, labelling and declared composition. Seventy-six samples were collected from five sites within the Nairobi metropolis - Central Business District, Kibera, Kilimani/Karen, Ngong and Thika. A wide range of non-conformities were observed for the criteria applied. Many samples had incomplete or missing label information, ingredient lists, cautionary warnings, Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) standardization marks and permit numbers. Glycerin, fragrances and carbomers were the most common added ingredients. Poor formulation indicators such as haziness and phase separation were encountered in some products. The median price of the products was KES 250 (USD 2.36) per 100 ml although there was considerable variation in pricing of samples. None of the samples evaluated fully met all the standards for the parameters evaluated. Strict adherence to regulatory standards by producers of hand sanitizers is required to ensure that only compliant products are available on the market.

Wairimu FG, Onyambu CK, Nyabanda RA, Mwango GN. "A Survey of Clinicians’ Preference, Opinion and Satisfaction with Radiological Reports at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of Radiology and Radiation Therapy. 2020;8(1):1088 (1-5).
Owor RO, Bedane KG, Openda YI, Zühlke S, Derese S, Ong’amo G, Ong’amo G, Ndakala A, Spiteller M. "Synergistic anti-inflammatory activities of a new flavone and other flavonoids from Tephrosia hildebrandtii vatke." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
A new flavone, named hildeflavone (1) along with 7 other known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia hildebrandtii Vatke. Their characterisation was based on NMR and MS data analysis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the crude extract, isolated compounds and combination of the compounds were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of the LPS-stimulated PBMCs with the isolated flavonoids at a concentration of 100 µM significantly reduced the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It was also found that the combination of a flavone and flavanones exhibited remarkable synergistic anti-inflammatory effects on the production of the cytokines.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Midiwo JO, Byamukama R, Kamau RW, Kumarihamy M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis of a pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone and monoterpenes for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and anti-cryptococcal properties." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-8. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
Monoterpene derivatives are of great biological relevance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, pyrrolidine derivative of a carvotacetone, 3-O-benzylcarvotacetone (1), and selected monoterpenes (3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (3) and cis-piperitol (5)) were prepared to provide (R)-1-(4-(benzyloxy)-5-isopropyl-2-methylcyclohexa-1,3-dien-1-yl)-pyrrolidine (2), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-yl acetate (4), cis-3-hydroxypiperitone (6) and carvacrol (7). Structure of 2 was determined based on NMR and HRMS spectral data. Compound 4 exhibited activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of < 0.8 µg/mL. In addition, this compound 4 had an IC50 value of 14.97 µg/mL against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Previous to the current study, both compound 6 and 7 had been reported to have anti-microbial and anti …

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meye M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA-Binding Kinetics of New Pd(II) and Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, and Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry. 2020:1-17. AbstractJournal of Chemistry

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. 'e ligands (E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1), (E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2), and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 and L2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1 (C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2 (C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2), respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3 (C6H7Cl2N3PtS2), while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4 (C24H21BrClN3PPtS2). 'e structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. 'e compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1 and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020((5409)):1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractJournal Abstract

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Masila VM, Ndakala AJ, Byamukama R, Midiwo JO, Kamau RW, Wang M, Kumarihamy M, Zhao J, Heydreich M, Muhammad I. "Synthesis, structural assignments and antiinfective activities of 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone and 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone." Natural Product Research. 2020:1-9. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In an attempt to synthesize carvotacetone analogues, new 3-O-benzyl-carvotacetone (10) and previously reported 3-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-5-methyl-p-benzoquinone (11) were synthesized from piperitone (7). In this work, we describe the synthesis of 10 and other analogues from 7. Luche reduction of 7 to cis-piperitol (8), followed by benzylation yielded 3-O-benzyl-piperitol (9). Riley oxidation of 9 afforded corresponding ketone 10, 11 and 3-benzyloxy-4-isopropylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde (12). Structures of these compounds were determined based on NMR, IR and LC-MS spectral data. Compound 11, exhibited antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 0.697 and 0.653 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 11 was active against Cryptococcus neoformans with an IC50 value of 3.11 µg/mL, compared to reference …

Omare E, Imonje RK, Nyagah G. "Teacher qualification, experience, capability beliefs and professional development: Do they predict teacher adoption of 21st century pedagogies?" International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. 2020;12(2):639-670.
Irungu MN, Nyagah G, Mercy M. "Teachers’ use of class talks interaction as a predictor of learning outcomes in chemistry." Springer Nature . 2020;1(13):1-24.
Ntwiga DB. "Technical Efficiency in the Kenyan Banking Sector: Influence of Fintech and Banks Collaboration." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2020;8(1):13-20. AbstractWebsite

Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the financial landscape in Kenya, banks will leverage on Fintech to enhance efficiency. This study investigates if Fintech and bank collaboration has an influence on efficiency in the banking sector. A two step data envelopment analysis is applied with input-orientation based on three intermediation dimension models. Efficiency scores are decomposed into technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies. Financial statement data from 2009-2018 for five banks with Fintech collaborations form the analysis. The study period is segmented into Pre-Fintech, 2009-2014 and Post Fintech, 2015-2018. Descriptive statistics summarize the data with Panel regression model testing the selected financial variables influence on efficiency of banks in the Pre-Post Fintech period. In the ten year period, technical inefficiency based on the three models for the Pre-Post Fintech period is failure to operate at the most productive scale, poor input utilization and managerial inefficiencies. For the Panel regression, loan intensity in model M1, return on asset in model M2, and cost of intermediation in model M3 had a significant and positive influence on technical efficiency. Fintech and banks collaboration has had a positive influence on efficiency in the Kenyan banking sector.

Ouko A, Okoth S, l. N NE, Altus V, Lindy JR. "Tolerance to Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize F1 hybrids and subsequent F2 population. ." Agronomy journal. 2020;112(4):2444-2432.
Nandama S, Oduor J, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "The Tonal Patterns of Nouns in Isolation in the Lwisukha Dialect of Luyia." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. . 2020;8(2020):85-107.
Gakuya DW, Okumu MO, Kiama SG, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mathiu PM, Nguta JM. "Traditional Medicine in Kenya: Past and current status, challenges and the way forward." Scientific African . 2020:pp. 1-7. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00360.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Nchiozem-Ngnitedema V-A, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letter. 2020;36:80-85.alex_et_al_2020.pdf
Nchiozem-Ngnitedem VA, Omosa LK, Derese S, Tane P, Heydenreich M, Spiteller M, Ean-JeongSeo, Efferth T. "Two new flavonoids from Dracaena usambarensis Engl." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;36:80-85.alexe_et_al_2020_phytochemistry_letters.pdf
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Njeri GL, Zaja JO, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "Usawiri wa Familia ya Kisasa katika Fasihi ya Watoto Nchini Kenya." Jarida la Kiswahili na Lugha Nyingine za Kiafrika . 2020;Volume 5(1):185-194.
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." journal of Education and Leadership Studies. 2020;1(2):25-39.use_of_social_media_platforms_and_content_delivery_in_higher_education.pdf
Gichuhi L, Kalai J, Mutegi R, Okoth U, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media Platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies.. 2020;1(2):25-39.
Gichuhi, S, Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A, Njagi L. "Use of Social Media platforms and Content Delivery in Higher Education: A Case of School of Education, University of Nairobi." Journal of Higher Education Policy and Leadership Studies. JHEPALS . 2020;2(1).
Beinah A, Kunyanga C, Ngugi K. "Utilization and Processing of Sorghum by Small Holder Farmers in Drought Prone Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):116-121.
M T, N G, A M. "Utilization of extension services and performance of hybrid sweet potato projects IN Kenya. a case of Njoro Sub-county, Nakuru County." Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. 2020;(1144).
de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z, Okonda JJ. "Variation of elemental concentration in leather during post-tanning operation using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: principal component analysis approach." International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020:1-13.
Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
and Naomi A. “Kuwa Smart” .; 2020.
Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
n/a
Nyang'au EM, Bulimo WD, Mobegi V, Opanda S, Magiri E. "Genetic analysis of {HA1} domain of influenza {A/H3N2} viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2007-2013 seasons reveal significant divergence from {WHO-recommended} vaccine strains." Int. J. Infect. Dis.. 2020;95:413-420. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses evolve rapidly and cause regular seasonal epidemics in humans challenging effective vaccination. The virus surface HA glycoprotein is the primary target for the host immune response. Here, we investigated the vaccine efficacy and evolution patterns of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenyan in the period before and after the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic, targeting the HA1 domain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hundred and fifteen HA sequences of Kenyan virus viruses were analyzed relative to the corresponding WHO vaccine reference strains using bioinformatics approaches. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed varied amino acid substitutions at all the five antigenic sites (A-E) of the HA1 domain, with a majority the changes occurring at sites A and B. The Kenyan A/H3N2 viruses isolated during 2007/2008 seasons belonged to A/Brisbane/10/2007-like viruses lineage, while those circulating in 2009-2012 belonged to the lineage of A/Victoria/361/2011-like viruses. The 2013 viruses clustered in clade 3C.3 of the A/Samara/73/2013-like viruses. The mean evolutionary rate of the A/H3N2 viruses analyzed in the study was at 4.17$\times$10-3 (95% HPD=3.09$\times$10-3-5.31$\times$10-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year, whereas the TMRCA was estimated at 11.18 (95% HPD=9.00-14.12) years ago from 2013. The prediction of vaccine efficacy revealed modest vaccine efficaciousness during 2008, and 2010 influenza seasons, whilst sub-optimal effectiveness was registered in 2007, 2009, 2012 and 2013. Further, the overall selective pressure acting on the HA1 domain was estimated at 0.56 ($ømega$<1), suggesting that a majority of codon sites in the HA1 epitopes were evolving under purifying selection. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, our results highlight the genetic plasticity of A/H3N2 viruses and reveal considerable disparity in vaccine efficaciousness against the A/H3N2 viruses that circulated in Kenya, specifically during 2007, 2009, 2012, and 2013 influenza seasons. Our findings underscore the importance and need for consistent surveillance and molecular characterization of influenza viruses, to inform decision making and enhance early of detection of strains with epidemic/pandemic potential as well as benefit in guiding decisions regarding the appropriate annual influenza vaccine formulations.

Gyang PJ, Muge EK, Nyaboga EN. "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Kenyan Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm Using Peroxidase Gene Markers." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2020;90:293-301. Abstract
n/a
Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "International Journal of Veterinary Science.". 2020. Abstract
n/a
Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravic I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Mechanism of carrier localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals for bright emission." arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.11495. 2020. Abstract
n/a
Herren JK, Mbaisi L, Mararo E, Makhulu EE, Mobegi VA, Butungi H, Mancini MV, Oundo JW, Teal ET, Pinaud S, Lawniczak MKN, Jabara J, Nattoh G, Sinkins SP. "A microsporidian impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes." Nat. Commun.. 2020;11:2187. Abstract

A possible malaria control approach involves the dissemination in mosquitoes of inherited symbiotic microbes to block Plasmodium transmission. However, in the Anopheles gambiae complex, the primary African vectors of malaria, there are limited reports of inherited symbionts that impair transmission. We show that a vertically transmitted microsporidian symbiont (Microsporidia MB) in the An. gambiae complex can impair Plasmodium transmission. Microsporidia MB is present at moderate prevalence in geographically dispersed populations of An. arabiensis in Kenya, localized to the mosquito midgut and ovaries, and is not associated with significant reductions in adult host fecundity or survival. Field-collected Microsporidia MB infected An. arabiensis tested negative for P. falciparum gametocytes and, on experimental infection with P. falciparum, sporozoites aren't detected in Microsporidia MB infected mosquitoes. As a microbe that impairs Plasmodium transmission that is non-virulent and vertically transmitted, Microsporidia MB could be investigated as a strategy to limit malaria transmission.

Kanduma EG, Emery D, Githaka NW, Nguu EK, Bishop RP, Šlapeta J. "Molecular evidence confirms occurrence of Rhipicephalus microplus Clade A in Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa." Parasites & vectors. 2020;13:1-15. Abstract
n/a
Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract
n/a
Maina ENM, Njau VN, Gavamukulya Y. "Phytochemical analysis and antileishmanial activity of Clerodendrum myricoides and Salvadora persica plant extracts against leishmania major." Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2020;9:29-44. Abstract
n/a
Nyongesa BS, Mwirigi K, Edalia LG, Kisumbi B, Dienya T, others. "Posttreatment endodontic disease among patients seeking treatment at a referral dental hospital in Kenya." Endodontology. 2020;32:8. Abstract
n/a
Abuga KO, Ndwigah SN, Amugune BK, Ongarora DB, Njogu PM, Okaru AO, Kibwage IO. "Quality control report of drugs analyzed in the drug analysis and research unit during the period 2011-2015." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23:79-86. Abstract
n/a
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi L, Tripathi JN, Ntui VO, Obiero G, Muge E, Dale J. "RNAi technology for management of banana bunchy top disease." Food and Energy Security. 2020;9:e247. Abstract
n/a
2019
Ntwiga DB. "Fintech and Banks Collaboration: Does it Influence Efficiency inthe Banking Sector?". In: Kenya Bankers Association 8th Banking Research Conference. Radisson Blu Hotel Nairobi Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The efficiency of the banking sector in Sub-Saharan Africa is low compared to rest of the world and Fintech is taunted to alter this scenario. Efficient banks increase financial stability, intermediation and value to the shareholders. As Fintech innovations continue to alter the landscape in the banking sector, banks in Kenya are forming collaborations that are envisioned to shape the evolution of credit allocation and delivery of services. The study investigates the influence of Fintech on a bank’s efficiency in credit allocation using thedata envelopment model with input-orientation based on the intermediationdimension. Efficiency scores are decomposed as technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency.Secondary data for the period 2009-2018 is extracted from thirteen banks sampled from the top fifteen banks in Kenya based on their market share. The banks are either locally owned or listed in Nairobi Securities Exchange, of which five have Fintech collaborationswith a Pre-Fintech and Post Fintechperiod. Panel regression model tested the effect of financial ratios on technical efficiency of the banks. Fintech collaborating banks are more technically efficient based on models M1, M2 and M3 in Pre-Fintech. In Post Fintech, the Fintech banks are more efficient based on models M2, M3 and M4 but with decreasing returns to scale which is due to the banks being overly large, thus non-optimal in their operations. The positive effect on technical efficiency is observed from the ratios, liquidity, loan intensity, return on assets and cost of income. Cost of intermediation and credit risk had a negative effect on technical efficiency. Therefore, Fintech and banks collaborations did not significantly influence efficiency in the banking sector.

Ondiba IM, Oyieke FA, Athinya DK, Nyamongo IK, Estambale BBA. "Larval species diversity, seasonal occurrence and larval habitat preference of mosquitoestransmitting Rift Valley fever and malariain Baringo County, Kenya.". In: C.B.P.S. Annual conference.; 2019.
Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Institutional Pressures and Cloud Computing Adoption.". In: IST-Africa 2019 . Nairobi; 2019.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

N NB, O OT, O KD, N MJ. "Exploring the Possible Use of EN 197 CEM II/B-P and CEM IV/B-P in the Production of High-Performance Concrete.". In: IEK-EBK Conference. Diani, Kenya; 2019.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S, Nyamori J, Gachago M, Rono H, Gichangi M, Mwangi A, Kefa R. "Is task-shifting of screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from eye specialists to technicians accurate?". In: East African Community East African Health Research Commission 7th East African Health and Scientific Conference. Dar es Salaam; 2019.invitation_letter_7th_eahsc_pg1_jefitha_karimurio1.pdfuse_of_technology_to_taskshift__prof_jefitha_karimurio.pdf
Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Nancy M, Birech Z, Kaduki K. "Application of butterfly wing iridescence, reflection spectroscopy, and chemometric tools in adulteration sensing in gasoline.". In: FiO/Laser Science (pp. JTu4A-13). Washington DC; 2019.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Ayebazibwe B, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Risk Factors of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Case Control Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-7. AbstractWebsite

Purpose: Microbial keratitis (MK), is a frequent cause of sight loss worldwide, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of MK in Uganda.
Methods: Using a nested case control, we recruited healthy community controls for patients presenting with MK at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. Controls were individually matched for age, gender and village of the cases on a 1:1 ratio. We collected information on demographics, occupation, HIV and Diabetes Mellitus status. In STATA version 14.1, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for risk factors of MK and a likelihood ratio test used to assess statistical significance of associations.
Results: Two hundred and fifteen case-control pairs were enrolled. The HIV positive patients among the cases was 9% versus 1% among the controls, = .0003. Diabetes 7% among the cases versus 1.4% among the controls, = .012. Eye trauma was 29% versus 0% among the cases and controls. In the multivariable model adjusted for age, sex and village, HIV (OR 83.5, 95%CI 2.01-3456, = .020), Diabetes (OR 9.38, 95% CI 1.48-59.3, = .017) and a farming occupation (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.21-5.57, = .014) were associated with MK. Compared to a low socio-economic status, a middle status was less likely to be associated with MK (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.89, < .0001).
Conclusion: MK was associated with HIV, Diabetes, being poor and farming as the main occupation. More studies are needed to explore how these factors predispose to MK.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Gichuhi S, Onyango J, Newton R, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Delay Along the Care Seeking Journey of Patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2019:1-10. AbstractWebsite

PURPOSE:To describe the care seeking journey and causes of delay among patients with Microbial Keratitis in Uganda.
METHODS:A prospective cohort of patients presenting with microbial keratitis at the two main eye units in Southern Uganda (2016-2018). We collected information on demographics, home address, clinical history, and presentation pathway including, order of facilities where patients went to seek care, treatment advice, cost of care, and use of Traditional Eye Medicine. Presentation time was noted. We compared "direct" presenters versus "indirect" presenters and analysed predictors of delay.
RESULTS: About 313 patients were enrolled. All were self-referred. Only 19% of the patients presented directly to the eye hospital. Majority (52%) visited one facility before presenting, 19% visited two facilities, 9% visited three facilities, and 2% visited four facilities. The cost of care increased with increase in the number of facilities visited. People in a large household, further distance from the eye hospital and those who used Traditional Eye Medicine were less likely to come directly to the eye hospital. Visiting another facility prior to the eye hospital and use of Traditional Eye Medicine aOR 1.58 (95%CI 1.03-2.43), p = .038 were associated with delayed presentation to the eye hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study provided information on patient journeys to seek care. Delay was largely attributable to having visited another health facility: a referral mechanism for microbial keratitis was non-existent. There is need to explore how these health system gaps can be strengthened.

Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Amzati GS, Djikeng A, Odongo DO, Nimpaye H, Sibeko KP, Muhigwa J-BB, Madder M, Kirschvink N, Marcotty T. "Genetic and antigenic variation of the bovine tick-borne pathogen Theileria parva in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa." Parasit Vectors. 2019;12(1):588. Abstract

Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. A live immunisation approach using the infection and treatment method (ITM) provides a strong long-term strain-restricted immunity. However, it typically induces a tick-transmissible carrier state in cattle and may lead to spread of antigenically distinct parasites. Thus, understanding the genetic composition of T. parva is needed prior to the use of the ITM vaccine in new areas. This study examined the sequence diversity and the evolutionary and biogeographical dynamics of T. parva within the African Great Lakes region to better understand the epidemiology of ECF and to assure vaccine safety. Genetic analyses were performed using sequences of two antigen-coding genes, Tp1 and Tp2, generated among 119 T. parva samples collected from cattle in four agro-ecological zones of DRC and Burundi.

Cheng C-Y, Wang N, Wong TY, Congdon N, He M, Wang YX, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2019. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment (VI) in East Asia in 2015 and to forecast the trend to 2020.
METHODS: Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we estimated prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate-to-severe vision impairment (MSVI; 3/60≤presenting visual acuity <6/18), mild vision impairment (mild VI: 6/18≤presenting visual acuity <6/12) and uncorrected presbyopia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. A total of 44 population-based studies were included.
RESULTS: In 2015, age-standardised prevalence of blindness, MSVI, mild VI and uncorrected presbyopia was 0.37% (80% uncertainty interval (UI) 0.12%-0.68%), 3.06% (80% UI 1.35%-5.16%) and 2.65% (80% UI 0.92%-4.91%), 32.91% (80% UI 18.72%-48.47%), respectively, in East Asia. Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (43.6%), followed by uncorrected refractive error (12.9%), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal diseases, trachoma and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The leading cause for MSVI was uncorrected refractive error, followed by cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, corneal disease, trachoma and DR. The burden of VI due to uncorrected refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma and DR has continued to rise over the decades reported.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the public healthcare barriers for cataract and uncorrected refractive error can help eliminate almost 57% of all blindness cases in this region. Therefore, public healthcare efforts should be focused on effective screening and effective patient education, with access to high-quality healthcare.

Nthiwa D, Alonso S, Odongo D, Kenya E, Bett B. "Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Kenya." Ecohealth. 2019;16(4):712-725. Abstract

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife-livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock-wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife-livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies against Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo using ELISA kits. Data on putative risk factors for seropositivity of these pathogens in cattle were collected using a questionnaire. The overall apparent animal-level seroprevalence of brucellosis and leptospirosis was, respectively, 36.9% (95% CI 34.1-39.8) and 23.5% (95% CI 21.1-26.0). Brucella spp. seroprevalence was higher in zone 1 than in zones 2 and 3 (χ = 25.1, df = 2, P < 0.001). Zones 1 and 2 had significantly higher Leptospira spp. seroprevalence than zone 3 (χ = 7.0, df = 2, P = 0.029). Results of multivariable analyses identified animal sex (female) and zones (high interface area) as significant predictors (P < 0.05) of animal-level seropositivity of Brucella spp. For Leptospira spp., important predictors of animal-level seropositivity were animal sex (female), zones (moderate interface area) and herds utilizing a communal grazing reserve. The seroprevalences of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in cattle were higher in areas with moderate to high wildlife-livestock interactions than those with rare interactions.

Ntwiga DB. "Can FinTech Shape the Dynamics ofConsumer Credit Usage among theUn(der)banked?". In: Kenya Bankers Association Working Paper Series.; 2019. Abstract

We use the 2016 FinAccess Household survey data of 2015 from 8665 households and desktop reviews to examine how perceptions, behaviour, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics of un(der) banked consumers can shape their dynamics towards credit usage. The challenges and opportunities for the market players are examined using desktop reviews and their role towards an increase in financial inclusion and credit usage through FinTech. The disruptive innovations have provided new possibilities, challenges and opportunities to boost financial and credit usage in the market. Consumer perceptions on cost, trust, source of financial advice, financial literacy and socio-economic characteristics influences credit usage. The business models being developed by the FinTech providers are taunted to change the landscape of lending to the un(der) banked

Chege BM, Waweru MP, Frederick B, Nyaga NM. "The freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hypoinsulinemic on type 2 diabetes rat model.". 2019;244:112077. AbstractWebsite

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb is a plant species used in traditional medicine for the management of diabetes in the lower eastern part of Kenya (Kitui, Machakos and Makueni Counties, Kenya) that is mainly inhabited by the Kamba community.
Aim
This study investigated the antihyperglycaemic, antidyslipidemic and antihyperinsulinemic activity of the freeze-dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb (RME) in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced by dietary manipulation for 56 days via (high fat- high fructose diet) and intraperitoneal administration of streptozocin (30 mg/kg). Forty freshly-weaned Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the negative control (high fat/high fructose diet), low dose test (50mg/kg RME, high dose test (100mg/kg RME and positive control (Pioglitazone, 20mg/kg) groups. Fasting blood glucose and body weight were measured at weekly intervals. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 28 and 56. Lipid profile, hepatic triglycerides, fasting serum insulin levels and serum uric acid were determined on day 56.
Results
The RME possessed significant antihyperglycemic [FBG: 6.5 ± 0.11 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 4.62 ± 0.13 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 5.25 ± 0.15 mmol/l in (high dose test) vs. 4.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001] and antihyperinsulinemic effects [1.84 ± 0.19 (negative control) vs. (0.69 ± 0.13 (low dose test) vs. (0.83 ± 0.17 (high dose test) vs. (0.69 ± 0.10 (positive control): F (3, 36) = 0.6421: p < 0.0001. The extracts also possessed significant antidyslipidemic effects [LDL levels: 3.52 ± 0.19 mmol/l (negative control) vs. 0.33 ± 0.14 mmol/l (low dose test) vs. 0.34 ± 0.20 mmol/l (high dose test) vs. 0.33 ± 0.01 mmol/l (positive control): p < 0.0001].RME significantly lowered plasma uric acid levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weights. Network pharmacology analysis indicated that the observed pharmacological effects are mediated via the modulation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma receptor.
Conclusions
The freeze dried extracts of Rotheca myricoides possessed significant antihyperglycemic and antidyslidemic effects. In addition it lowered serum uric levels, as well as hepatic triglycerides and hepatic weight. These results appear to validate the traditional use of this plant species in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Mwangi PM, Dalton Wamalwa, Marangu D, Obimbo EM, Ng'ang'a M. "Implementation of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Among HIV-Infected Children at Health Facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study." East Afr Health Res J. 2019;3(2):141-150. Abstract

HIV is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB) among people with latent or new infection. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of active TB among people living with HIV by up to 62%. Despite evidence that IPT is safe and efficacious, its provision remains low globally. The current study aimed at documenting IPT uptake, adherence, and completion rates, as well as the correlates of IPT uptake among HIV-infected children in Kenya. The study also assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health-care workers (HCWs) with regard to IPT.

Ngaruiya N, Orwa D, Waiganjo P. "Situation Analysis and Technology Value Proposition for Geriatric Care for Philanthropic Social Homes in Kenya.". In: IST-Africa Week Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2019. Abstract

The growth of the graying population all over the world is showing a great need of incorporating ICT to ensure healthy living. Geriatric persons in philanthropic social homes (PSH) in developing countries are not favored in terms of infrastructure, housing, caregiving as well as privacy since they are in a controlled communal environment. These philanthropic homes, commonly known as `Nyumba za Wazee' in Kenya are slowly gaining reputation as more of the elderly are ostracized because of inheritance or even abandonment. The aim of this paper is to bring fourth the status quo of the geriatric persons living in PSH, the challenges they face, which have tremendous ramifications that leads to strong incentives to usage of low cost technology to alleviate the lives of the elderly towards healthy living in their higher ages. The researchers, through the social department and Board of management of these social homes, carried a research for a period of 3 months in two PSHs, in Nairobi County and Kiambu County. Interviews and storytelling were the two data collection techniques used. The findings from these two PSHs, categorized the challenges as; physical, and psychological challenges. This research argues that low affordable technology solutions will curb these challenges to ensure adequate care and provide decent standards of living for the elderly in PSH.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of chicken production systems and management practices on Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya .". In: Tropentag Conference at Universities of Kassel & Goettingen. Germany; 2019.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "2. Mary T. Simiyu, Francis W. NyongesaApplication of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania,; 2019.
Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
Mbuge DO, Negrini R, Nyakundi LO, Kuate SP, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Muiru WM, Baldwyn Torto RM. "Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.". In: 2nd International Conference of the Pan African Society of Agricultural Engineers (PASAE), . Rabat, Morocco; 2019.
and Mwangi, I. K., Mugo FW, Ndegwa E. "Land Fragmentation and Its Potential Effects on Maize Production in Kenya. Paper Presented at Maize for Kenya Consultative Workshop.". In: Maize for Kenya Consultative Workshop. ICRAF, Nairobi; 2019.
Mbembe EA, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Odendo M. "Determinants of market participation by smallholder soybean farmers in Kakamega County, Kenya”.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Ojwang SO, Otieno DJ, Okello JJ, Muoki P, Nyikal RA. "Does nutrition education influence retention of vitamin A biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato in farms? Evidence from Kenya.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA, Makokha SN. "The role of unregulated chicken marketing practices on the frequency of Newcastle Disease outbreaks in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2019;12(24):2093-2100. AbstractWebsite

In developing countries, chicken trade is characterized by complex chains comprising of many actors with limited biosecurity. This increases the spread of chicken diseases like Newcastle disease (ND). In Kenya, there is lack of uniformity in practices used in live bird markets, leading to increased disease outbreaks. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the chicken marketing practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks. A Poisson regression (PRM) was used on data collected from 336 traders selected using multi-stage sampling in Kakamega, Machakos, and Nairobi. Results highlight the low access of trainings and credit by traders. From the PRM results, breed composition, market channel, transportation, origin of birds, mixing of birds, slaughter of birds, disposal of waste, and housing as well as trader attributes like ND awareness, licensing, gender, and age had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The study recommends that County governments collaborate with development partners to develop innovative ways of disseminating information on ND. The County governments should invest in market infrastructure such as slaughter facilities, special shelters and waste disposal equipment. There is also need for enforcement of biosecurity and hygiene measures through regular market inspections.

Keywords: biosecurity; live bird market; marketing channel; unregulated practice.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

DN Kareithi, Salifu D, N Owuor, Subramanian S, Tonnang EZH. "An algorithm for data reconstruction from published articles–Application on insect life tables." Cogent Mathematics & Statistics. 2019;6(1):1701377. AbstractWebsite

Data collection in life table experiments is generally time-consuming and costly such that data reconstruction of published information provides an avenue to access the original data for purposes of further investigation. In this paper, we present an algorithm that reconstructs life table raw data using a summary of results from published articles. We present the steps of the development and implementation (in the R computer language) of the algorithm, its scope of application, assumptions, and limitations. Statistical background of the algorithm is also presented. The developed algorithm was then applied to reconstruction of life table data of two insect species, Chilo partellus and Busseola fusca, from published information. Welch’s two-sample t-test was applied to test the difference between the original and reconstructed data of the insect life stages. C. Partellus results were not significantly different, but, for B. fusca, pupa development time, and larva and pupa development rate were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. It is concluded that the algorithm could be used to reconstruct original data sets from cohort life table data sets of insects, given published information and sample sizes.

Susan Gachau, Nelson Owuor, NJAGI EDMUNDNJERU, Ayieko P, English M. "Analysis of Hierarchical Routine Data With Covariate Missingness: Effects of Audit & Feedback on Clinicians' Prescribed Pediatric Pneumonia Care in Kenyan Hospitals." Frontiers in public health. 2019;7( ):198. AbstractWebsite

Background:
Routine clinical data are widely used in many countries to monitor quality of care. A limitation of routine data is missing information which occur due to lack of documentation of care processes by health care providers, poor record keeping or limited health care technology at facility level. Our objective was to address missing covariates while properly accounting for hierarchical structure in routine paediatric pneumonia care.
Methods:
We analysed routine data collected during a cluster randomized trial to investigating the effect of audit and feedback (A&F) over time on inpatient pneumonia care among children admitted in 12 Kenyan hospitals between March and November 2016. Six hospitals in the intervention arm received enhance A&F on classification and treatment of pneumonia cases in addition to a standard A&F report on general inpatient paediatric care. The remaining six in control arm received standard A&F alone. We derived and analysed a composite outcome known as Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score. In our analysis, we adjusted for patients, clinician and hospital level factors. Missing data occurred in patient and clinician level variables. We did multiple imputation of missing covariates within the joint model imputation framework. We fitted proportion odds random effects model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to the data before and after multilevel multiple imputation.

Momanyi L, Opanga S, Nyamu D, Oluka M, Kurdi A, Godman B. "Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at a Leading Referral Hospital in Kenya: A Point Prevalence Survey." Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice. 2019;8(3):149-154.momanyi_et_al-jrpp-8-149.pdf
Nyaga SN, Mathiu PM, Onyango CM, Areba GO. "Antidiabetic properties of Solanum villosum and Solanum nigrum var.sarrachoides in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2019;8(11):2396-2402.
Ngaywa C, O.Aboge G, Obiero G, Omwenga I, Ngwili N, Wamwere G, Wainaina M, Bett B. "Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates detected in raw milk of livestock in pastoral areas of northern Kenya." Food Control. 2019;102:173-178.
Mwaniki JM, TIMAMMY RAYYA, Ndung'u MN. "Athari za Mtagusano Kati ya Jamii na Ekolojia Katika Ushairi wa Mberia: BaraJingine na Rangi ya Anga." East African Journal of Swahili Studies. 2019;Volume 4(1):23-34.
Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and Prices of Antimalarials and Staffing Levels in Health Facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2019;22(1):26-34. Abstract

Effective treatment of malaria relies on the availability of quality medicines while pricing is a major determinant of affordability. In addition, adequate numbers of competent staff of different cadres is essential for a well-functioning health system and effective health service delivery. The aim of the study was to determine the availability and prices of antimalarial medicines as well as staffing levels in healthcare facilities located in Embu County, Kenya. Antimalarials were sampled from 11 public (government owned) facilities, 29 private pharmacies, 5 private-for-profit and 3 not-for-profit mission health facilities in May-June 2014. The majority of public facilities (91%) had artemether-lumefantrine (AL) tablets in stock. Government and mission facilities did not stock second line antimalarials or sulfonamide-pyrimethamine (SP). All public facilities provided antimalarials free-of-charge to patients. Private pharmacies stocked a wider variety of antimalarials. The facilities studied were stocked with recommended antimalarials both in the private and public domains. No oral artemisinin monotherapies were encountered during the study. Only 45% percent of public facilities employed pharmacists. Of the remaining facilities, 27% employed pharmaceutical technologists while in the rest of the facilities pharmaceuticals were in the custody of nurses. Notably, none of the private-for-profit or mission facilities had pharmacists employed in their establishments; one facility employed a pharmaceutical technologist, while the rest were staffed by nurses. The number of private pharmacies superintended by pharmacists and pharmaceutical technologists were 7 (24%) and 22 (76%), respectively.

Ndwigah S, Stergachis A, Abuga K, Mugo H, Kibwage I. "Availability and prices of antimalarials and staffing levels in health facilities in Embu County, Kenya." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. . 2019;22:26-34.
Bebora LC, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga P, Wanja DW, Mwadime JM, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.abstract.pdf
Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Mwadime JM, Wanja DW, Ngowi HA. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." International Journal of Fisheries and Aquactic Studies. 2019;7(2):295-301.
D.W. W, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Mwandime JM, Nyaga PN, Ngowi HA, Bebora LC. "Bacterial pathogens isolated from farmed fish and source pond water in Kirinyaga County, Kenya." international Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic studies . 2019;7(2):295-301.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
N MJ, Bukachi PR. "Building Information Modelling Adoption in Structural Design in Kenya – A Case Study of Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):272-285.
NamayiMurichoa D, JakindaOtienoa D, WillisOluoch-Kosuraa, MagnusJirströmb. "Building pastoralists’ resilience to shocks for sustainable disaster risk mitigation: Lessons from West Pokot County, Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2019;Volume 34(ISSN):429-435.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Oredo J, Njihia J, Iraki XN. "Cloud Computing Adoption by Firms in Kenya: The Role of Institutional Forces." African Journal of Information Systems. 2019;11(3).
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Ogacho A. "Comparison Of The Effectiveness Of Various Designs Of Ceramic Filter Membranes In Domestic Water Purification." International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS). 2019;6(Issue 1):70-73. Abstract

n/a

Nyamai DK, Mugambi M, R.K I. "Competence-Based Education: New Wine in Old Wine Skins?" Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research . 2019;3(4):60-74.
O O, M SS, N MJ, A AA, C K. "Compressive Strength and Slump Prediction of Two Blended Agro Waste Materials Concretes." The Open Civil Engneering Journal. 2019;Vol 13:118-128.
Nyawade SO, Gachene CKK, Karanja NN, Gitari HI, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Controlling soil erosion in smallholder potato farming systems using legume intercrops.". 2019.
Sewe S, Ngare P, Weke P. "Credit Scoring with Ego-Network Data." Journal of Mathematical Finance. 2019;9(3):522-534. AbstractWebsite

This article investigates a stochastic filtering problem whereby the bor-rower’s hidden credit quality is estimated using ego-network signals. The hidden credit quality process is modeled as a mean reverting Ornstein-Ulehnbeck process. The lender observes the borrower’s behavior modeled as a continuous time diffusion process. The drift of the diffusion process is driven by the hidden credit quality. At discrete fixed times, the lender gets ego-network signals from the borrower and the borrower’s direct friends. The observation filtration thus contains continuous time borrower data augmented with discrete time ego-network signals. Combining the continuous time observation data and ego-network information, we derive filter equations for the hidden process and the properties of the conditional variance. Further, we study the asymptotic properties of the conditional variance when the frequency of arrival of ego-network signals is increased.

Adem FA, Kuete V, Mbaveng AT, Heydenreich M, Koch A, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species." Natural product research. 2019;33(18):2609-2617. AbstractNatural product research

Description
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152853. AbstractPhytomedicine

Description
Background
While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of isoflavones: osajin (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4ˈ-methoxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (2) and biflavonoids: chamaejasmin (3), 7,7″-di-O-methylchamaejasmin (4) and campylospermone A (5), a dimeric chromene [diphysin(6)] and an ester of ferullic acid with long alkyl chain [erythrinasinate (7)] isolated from the stem bark and roots of the Kenyan medicinal plant, Ormocarpum kirkii. The mode of action of compounds 2 and 4 was further investigated.
Methods
The cytotoxicity of compounds was determined based on the resazurin reduction assay. Caspases activation was evaluated using the caspase-Glo assay. Flow …

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Abstract

The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).
Keywords: Millettia dura, Leguminosae, isoflavone, cytotoxicity.

Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2019:1-4. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Ngera E, Davies S. "Deep Machine Learning For Brain MRI Classification." ICTACT JOURNAL ON DATA SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING. 2019;1(1):26-31.
N MJ, K LC. "Detection of Voids on Concrete Surface Using Deep Learning Model." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(6):401-421.
Ritho CN, Nzuma JM, Mwololo HM, Ogutu SO, Kabunga N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya,." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Ogutu, S.O., Kabunga, N. "Determinants of actual and potential adoption of improved indigenous chicken under asymmetrical exposure conditions in rural Kenya." African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/20421338.2019.1636489.
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
Kwanya T, Kiplanga't J, Wamukoya J, Njiraine D. Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: The Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C. "Do farmers’ socio-economic characteristics influence their preference for agricultural extension methods?, ." Development in Practice. 2019;DOI: 10.1080/09614524.2019.1638344.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Koome SG, Wafula CM, Nyonje RO. "Educational Programmes as Key Variable Towards Change of Behavior Among Inmates in Correctional Facilities in Kenya." public Policy and Administration Research. 2019;9(11).
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
A. MEWAE, W. OM, N. KC, MN R. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DESORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR BEEF." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. 2019;5(1):1-7.
Ndono PW, Nzioka JM, Muigua K. "Effectiveness of the Nyumba Kumi community policing initiative in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):63-67.
Dambolachepa HB, Muthomi JW, Mutitu EW, Njoroge SM. "Effects of postharvest handling practices on quality of groundnuts and aflatoxin Contamination." Novel Research in Microbiology Journal. 2019;3(3):396-414.
Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tian Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;3007:792-798. AbstractJournal Publication

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tia Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;30(07):792-798. AbstractSynlett

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Njiraine D. "Enabling Knowledge Sharing Practices for Academic and Research in Higher Education Institutions." Information and Knowledge Management. 2019;9(3):82-89.
Nyberg, Gert, Stephen M. Mureithi, Deborah N. Muricho, Ostwald M. "Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands." Journal of Land Use Science. 2019:1-12.
N MJ, Aduda VO. "End Users’ Perspective on Green Buildings: A Study in Nairobi." International Journal of Research and Publications. 2019;Vol 9(4):649-669.
Omale JM, Mutai P, Njogu P, Mukungu N, Mwangi J, Odongo E. "Ethnobotanical survey of antimicrobial medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in western Kenya." Appl. Med. Res. 2019;7(1):6-25.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Description
Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control …

O OD, N MJ, C K. "Experimental Investigation of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Starch Modified Concrete." The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal. 2019;Vol 13:331-343.
Opiyo RO, Nyasulu PS, Olenja J, Zunza M, Nguyen KA, Bukania Z, Nabakwe E, Mbogo A, Were AO. "Factors associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis in national referral hospitals in Kenya: a mixed-methods survey." Renal Replacement Therapy Journal. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Introduction: Adherence to dietary prescriptions among patients with chronic kidney disease is known to prevent
deterioration of kidney functions and slow down the risk for morbidity and mortality. This study determined factors
associated with adherence to dietary prescription among adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
Methods: A mixed-methods study, using parallel mixed design, was conducted at the renal clinics and dialysis units at
the national teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya from September 2018 to January 2019. The study followed a
QUAN + qual paradigm, with quantitative survey as the primary method. Adult patients with chronic kidney disease on
hemodialysis without kidney transplant were purposively sampled for the quantitative survey. A sub-sample of
adult patients and their caregivers were purposively sampled for the qualitative survey. Numeric data were collected
using a structured, self-reported questionnaire using Open Data Kit “Collect software” while qualitative data were
collected using in-depth interview guides and voice recording. Analysis on STATA software for quantitative and
NVIV0 12 for qualitative data was conducted. The dependent variable, “adherence to diet prescription” was analyzed as a
binary variable. P values < 0.1 and < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant in univariate and multivariate logistic
regression models respectively. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed.
Results: Only 36.3% of the study population adhered to their dietary prescriptions. Factors that were independently
associated with adherence to diet prescriptions were “flexibility in the diets” (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11–6.30, P
0.028), “difficulties in following diet recommendations” (AOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.13–0.46, P < 001), and “adherence
to limiting fluid intake” (AOR 9.74, 95% CI 4.90–19.38, P < 0.001).
Conclusions: For patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis, diet prescriptions with less restrictions
and requiring minimal extra efforts and resources are more likely to be adhered to than the restrictive ones.
Patients who adhere to their fluid intake restrictions easily follow their diet prescriptions. Prescribed diets should be based
on the individual patient’s usual dietary habits and assessed levels of challenges in using such diets. Additionally, diet
adherence messages should be integrated with fluid limitation messages. Further research on understanding patients’
adherence to fluid restriction is also suggested.

Orono S, Gitao C, Mpatswenumugambo J, Chepkwony M, Mutisya C, Okoth E, Bronsvoort M, Russell C, Nene V, Cook A. "Field validation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis of wildebeest associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle." BMC Veterinary research . 2019;(doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1818-8).orono_et_al-2019-bmc_veterinary_research.pdf

UoN Websites Search