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2021
Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Correction to: Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):57.
Theunissen F, Cleps I, Goudar S, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Owa OO, Mugerwa K, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu MA, Nakalembe M, Byamugisha J, Osoti A, Mandeep S, Poriot T, Gwako G, Vernekar S, Widmer M. "Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):18. Abstract

Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasit Vectors. 2021;14(1):6. Abstract

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) constitute a major constraint for livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa, with East Coast fever (ECF) being the most devastating TBD of cattle. However, in Burundi, detailed information is lacking on the current prevalence of TBDs and on the associated economic losses from mortality and morbidity in cattle as well as the costs associated with TBD control and treatment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in cattle across the major agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi.

Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PLoS One. 2021;16(1):e0246109. Abstract

Delayed cord clamping (DCC) is a placental to new-born transfusion strategy recommended by obstetric and gynaecological societies. Though not widely adopted, umbilical cord milking (UCM) may achieve faster transfusion when DCC cannot be performed such as when a neonate requires resuscitation.

Ngayo MO, Oluka M, Bulimo WD, Okalebo FA. Influence of Social Psychological Status On Efavirenz And Nevirapine Plasma Concentration Among HIV Patients In Kenya. Research Square; 2021. Abstract

HIV-related stigma, lack of disclosure and social support are still a hindrance to HIV testing, care, and prevention. We evaluated the influence of these socio-phycological status on nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) plasma concentrations among HIV patients in Kenya. Blood samples were obtained from 254 and 312 consenting HIV patients on NVP and EFV based first-line Antiretroviral therapy (ART) respectively and a detailed structured questionnaire was administered. The NVP and EFV plasma level was measured by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The median duration of living with HIV infection was 5 years (IQR = 1–11years) and a median duration since ART initiation was 3 years (IQR = 1–8 years). There were 68.1% and 65.4% of the patients on NVP and EFV respectively who did not feel guilty for being HIV positive. The disclosure rate was about 96.1% and 94.6% of patients on NVP and EFV respectively. About 85% and 78.2% of patients on NVP and EFV respectively who got social support as much as needed. The non-adherence to ART in the past 30 days was 64.6% and 66.3% patients on NVP and EFV respectively. The median (IQR) plasma concentration were [6237.5 ng/mL, IQR 45188–8964 ng/mL] for NVP and [2739.5 ng/mL, IQR 1878 –4891.5 ng/mL] for EFV. There were 14.2% and 4.5% patients on NVP and EFV respectively with suboptimal plasma concertation associated with poor viral suppression. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed feeling guilty for being HIV positive (adjusted β = 954 , 95% CI = 192.7 to 2156.6 ; p =0.014) or feeling worthless for being HIV positive (adjusted β = 852 , 95% CI = 64.3 to 1639.7 ; p =0.034); being certain of telling the primary sexual partner about HIV positive status (adjusted β 363, 95% CI, 97.9 to 628.1; p = 0.007); disclosing HIV status to neighbors (adjusted β = 1731 , 95% CI = 376 to 3086 ; p =0.012) and getting transportation to hospital whenever needed (adjusted β = -1143.3, 95% CI = -1914.3 to -372.4 ; p =0.004) were associated with NVP/EFV plasma levels. The NVP and EFV plasma level was highly heterogenous with a significant proportion of patients reporting levels correlated with poor viral suppression. The patient’s stigma, lack of disclosure and social support contributes significantly on the overall ART treatment outcome. Taking these factors into consideration, HIV treatment may be personalized to achieve optimal treatment success

Nyabongo L, Odongo DO, Milton G, Machuka E, Vudriko P, Pelle R, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of cattle ticks in Burundi: First report on the presence of the invasive Rhipicephalus microplus tick." PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0261218. Abstract

A recent research study on prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Burundi reported high prevalence and endemicity of Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina infections in cattle. Detailed information about tick species infesting animals, their distribution and genetic diversity in Burundi is outdated and limited. This study therefore assessed the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick species infesting cattle across agroecological zones (AEZs) in Burundi. A cross-sectional study on the occurrence of tick species was conducted in 24 districts of Burundi between October and December 2017. Differential identification and characterization of ticks collected was conducted using tick morphological keys and molecular tools (cox1 and 12S rRNA gene). Chi-square test was used to test for association between agroecological zones and the prevalence of tick species. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using bayesian and maximum likelihood algorithms. A total of 483 ticks were collected from the five AEZs sampled. Six tick species comprising of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. sanguineus, R. evertsi evertsi, R. microplus, R. decoloratus and Amblyomma variegatum were observed. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus were the most prevalent ticks (~45%). A total of 138 specimens (28%) were found to be Rhipicephalus microplus, suggesting an emerging threat for cattle farmers. Twelve R. appendiculatus cox1 haplotypes were obtained from 106 specimens that were sequenced. Two cox1 haplotypes of R. microplus which clustered into previously reported Clade A were observed. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. evertsi evertsi ticks, the vectors of numerous zoonotic pathogens, were collected from cattle, which constitute a high risk for public health. These findings reveal an overlapping distribution of tick vectors in Burundi. The design of ticks and tick-borne diseases control strategies should consider the distribution of different vectors across the AEZs particularly the presence of the highly invasive R. microplus tick in Burundi and the potential risk of introducing the pathogenic Babesia bovis.

MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CN, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, E. S-G. " Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya. ." Cogent Food & Agriculture. . 2021;7(1):1898762..
Nicholas B, Derrick S, Dorcas C, Patrick M, Joshua O, Thomas LF. "). Food Safety & Animal Welfare in the Pork Value Chain of Nairobi.". 2021:DOI: 10.17638/datacat.liverpool.ac.uk/1441.
GIKONYO NAOMI, Ndiritu A. "1. Transformational Leadership in Adopting Online Learning. Kenya policy briefs .Volume 2 No. 1.". 2021. Abstract

Key messages
Effective training is a key determinant for adopting online learning in educational institutions.
Transformational leadership characteristics are important in managing change that is required in learning
institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
Modelling the way is a necessity in university management of online teaching and learning through COVID-19 Season

Josephine Wangechi Kirui, Muthama NJ, Gachuiri CK, Ngaina JN. "Adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change by smallholder dairy farmers: A case of Nandi county in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2021;4(1):39-47.
Missiame A, Irungu P, Nyikal RA, Appiah-Kubi GD. ""Adoption of rural bank credit programs among smallholder farmers in Ghana: an average treatment effect estimation of rates of exposure and adoption and their determinants"." gricultural Finance Review. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Purpose
The study aims to estimate the rates of exposure to, and adoption of, rural bank credit programs by smallholder farmers in rural Ghana and the factors responsible for those rates.

Design/methodology/approach
The study used a random sample of 300 smallholder farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana, obtained through the multistage sampling technique. The study also employed the average treatment effects approach to estimate the average treatment effect of farmers’ exposure to rural bank credit programs, on their adoption of such programs.

Findings
The actual adoption rate is approximately 41%, and the potential, conditional on the whole population being aware of rural bank credit programs, is approximately 61%. Accordingly, there is a gap of about 20% in the adoption of rural bank credit programs, and is due to the incomplete exposure of smallholder farmers to the rural bank credit programs. Age of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer-based organizations and active savings accounts with a rural bank are the major contributors to smallholder farmer exposure to and the adoption of rural bank credit programs.

Originality/value
The current study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Ghana on rural bank credit programs. It takes into account the extent to which smallholder farmers are exposed to such credit programs and how it influences their decisions to access or adopt.

Amecha SC, Njue PN. "Agile Risk Management as a Solution to the Failure of Kenyan Public Projects." American Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 2021;6(3):35-40.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N. "Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers in COVID-19 Prevention: A Multidimensional Perspective." Pharmacy. 2021;9(1):64. Abstract

The global use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) as an important means of controlling the transmission of infectious disease has increased significantly as governments and public health agencies across the world advocated hand hygiene as a preventative measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the performance of these products is most commonly defined as a function of their alcohol concentration, they are multifaceted products in which an interplay of several factors is important in determining efficacy. This paper discusses the interplay between ABHS input (formulation) factors and output (product performance) factors in the context of a multidimen-sional perspective using a novel representative paradigm. In the model, represented in the form of a three-dimensional tetrahedron, each of the faces represents inputs in the manufacturing of the ABHS product, which are the type and amount of alcohol, the inactive ingredients, the formulation and the manufacturing practices. The four corners of the tetrahedron represent the product per-formance factors which include product efficacy, sensory characteristics, usage and compliance and product safety. The multidimensional approach to the formulation and evaluation of ABHS shows that several factors contribute to the effectiveness and utility of these products. The paradigm provides a useful framework for manufacturers of ABHS and related healthcare products.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Okeyo MP, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanism and Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Construction Industry: the case of Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) . 2021;10(2):61-70 .
Hashim I, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Onyari JM, Maru SM, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V. "Antibacterial Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Crude Extracts from Kenyan Macaranga Species Towards MDR Phenotypes Expressing Effux Pumps." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021;11(2):119-126.hashim_et_al_2021_pharmacognosy_communications.pdf
Jepkoech C, Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Kenanda EO, Guefack M-GF, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M. "Antibacterial secondary metabolites from Vernonia auriculifera Hiern (Asteraceae) against MDR phenotypes." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1953024.jepkoech_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth OE, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of secondary metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and two aloe species." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-5. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
In this study, the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of secondary metabolites isolated from Tabernaemontana ventricosa Hochst. ex A. DC., Aloe tororoana Reynolds, and Aloe schweinfurthii var. labworana Reynolds were investigated. Overall, nineteen known compounds were isolated from the three plant species. The compounds were characterized based on their spectroscopic data. Voacristine and aloenin were the most active compounds against promastigotes of antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani (IC50 11 ± 5.2 μM and 26 ± 6.5 µM, respectively) with low toxicity against RAW264.7, murine monocyte/macrophage-like cells. The in silico docking evaluation and in vitro NO generation assay also substantially support the antileishmanial effects of these compounds. In a cytotoxicity assay against cancer and normal cell lines, ursolic acid highly inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, A549 …

Andima M, Ndakala A, Derese S, Biswajyoti S, Hussain A, Yang LJ, Akoth E, Coghi P, Pal C, Heydenreich M, Wong VK-W, Yenesew A. "Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites from Taberneamontana ventricosa and Two Aloe Species." Natural Product Research. 2021.
Juma M, Sankaradoss A, Ndomb R, Mwaura P, Damodar T, Nazir J, Pandit A, Khurana R, Masika M, Chirchir R, Gachie J, Krishna S, Sowdhamin R, Anzala O, Iyer MS. "Antimicrobial resistance profiling and phylogenetic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates from Kenya in resource limited setting." Frontiers in Microbiology. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background: Africa has one of the highest incidences of gonorrhea. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gaining resistance to most of the available antibiotics, compromising treatment across the world. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an efficient way of predicting AMR determinants and their spread in the population. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies like Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) have helped in the generation of longer reads of DNA in a shorter duration with lower cost. Increasing accuracy of base-calling algorithms, high throughput, error-correction strategies, and ease of using the mobile sequencer MinION in remote areas lead to its adoption for routine microbial genome sequencing. To investigate whether MinION-only sequencing is sufficient for WGS and downstream analysis in resource-limited settings, we sequenced the genomes of 14 suspected N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods: Using WGS, the isolates were confirmed to be cases of N. gonorrhoeae (n = 9), and there were three co-occurrences of N. gonorrhoeae with Moraxella osloensis and N. meningitidis (n = 2). N. meningitidis has been implicated in sexually transmitted infections in recent years. The near-complete N. gonorrhoeae genomes (n = 10) were analyzed further for mutations/factors causing AMR using an in-house database of mutations curated from the literature.

Results: We observe that ciprofloxacin resistance is associated with multiple mutations in both gyrA and parC. Mutations conferring tetracycline (rpsJ) and sulfonamide (folP) resistance and plasmids encoding beta-lactamase were seen in all the strains, and tet(M)-containing plasmids were identified in nine strains. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 10 isolates into clades containing previously sequenced genomes from Kenya and countries across the world. Based on homology modeling of AMR targets, we see that the mutations in GyrA and ParC disrupt the hydrogen bonding with quinolone drugs and mutations in FolP may affect interaction with the antibiotic.

Conclusion: Here, we demonstrate the utility of mobile DNA sequencing technology in producing a consensus genome for sequence typing and detection of genetic determinants of AMR. The workflow followed in the study, including AMR mutation dataset creation and the genome identification, assembly, and analysis, can be used for any clinical isolate. Further studies are required to determine the utility of real-time sequencing in outbreak investigations, diagnosis, and management of infections, especially in resource-limited settings.

Chepkirui C, Ochieng PJ, Sarkar B, Hussain A, Pal C, Yang LJ, Coghi P, Akala HM, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Erdélyi Máté, Yenesew A. "Antiplasmodial and antileishmanial flavonoids from Mundulea sericea." Fitoterapia. 2021;149:104796. AbstractView Website

Description
Five known compounds (1–5) were isolated from the extract of Mundulea sericea leaves. Similar investigation of the roots of this plant afforded an additional three known compounds (6–8). The structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was established using ECD spectroscopy. In an antiplasmodial activity assay, compound 1 showed good activity with an IC50 of 2.0 μM against chloroquine-resistant W2, and 6.6 μM against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Some of the compounds were also tested for antileishmanial activity. Dehydrolupinifolinol (2) and sericetin (5) were active against drug-sensitive Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) with IC50 values of 9.0 and 5.0 μM, respectively. In a cytotoxicity assay, lupinifolin (3) showed significant activity on BEAS-2B (IC50 4.9 μM) and HePG2 (IC50 10.8 μM …

A OA, N MJ, A B. "Behavior of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete in Exterior Beam-Column Joint Under Monotonic Loading." Asian Journal of Civil Engineering. 2021;Vol 22:627-636.
Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay IO, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus Pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):42-47.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I, Ali HM, Omambia VM. "Botanical description, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of Croton dichogamus pax (Euphorbiaceae). ." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1).
Grossheim L, Ruff P, Ngoma T, Vanderpuye V, Wango GM, Ochieng P, Palmer D, Kouya F, Lasebikan N, Ntekim A, Ngoma M, Bih N, Malloum A, Elzawawy A, Kerr D, Ngwa W. "Cancer and Covid-19 Experiences at African Cancer Centers: The Silver Lining." JCO Global Oncology. 2021;7:410-415.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
N NC, M WP, N MJ, Okoth S, P M. "Characterization and pathogenicity of symbiotic bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematode: Steinernema species KALRO." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2 (4):1-13.
Ngugi CN, Wachira PM, Mbaka JN, Okoth S, Haukeland S, Thuranira EG. "Characterization and Pathogenicity Test of Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema Species-Kalro ." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2021;13(3):93-101.
Edith Wairimu, Mburu J, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Ndambi A. "Characterization of dairy innovations in selected milksheds in Kenya using a categorical principal component analysis." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(2):1-12.
Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07380-9):1-14.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
O OGUMOE, N. KC, J. KIMENJU, MW O. "Comparison of the efficiency of solar-powered prototype vapour compression cooler with evaporative charcoal cooler in maintaining quality of French beans ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation,. 2021;2(Special issue).
Ipara BO, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Makokha SN. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya." Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2021;53(164).
Ipara BO, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ, Makokha NS. "The contribution of extensive chicken production systems and practices to Newcastle disease outbreaks in Kenya.". 2021. AbstractWebsite

Newcastle disease (ND) poses a challenge especially for farmers rearing indigenous chicken under the extensive system. This is due to the lack of uniformity in practices, favoring the introduction and spread of the disease. This is worsened by the lack of information on how management practices contribute to the spread of ND. The current study assessed the role of extensive chicken production systems and management practices on the frequency of ND outbreaks in Kenya using a Poisson regression model (PRM) on primary survey data from 332 farmers in Kakamega and Machakos counties. Descriptive results showed a low access to institutional support services like extension, training, credit, and vaccination services for both male and female farmers. Results from the PRM analysis show that flock size, isolated and confined housing, multi-aged flock mixture, screening of birds, access to ND vaccination, ND awareness, distance to agro-veterinary service providers, and access to animal health training and extension services had significant effects on the frequency of ND outbreaks. The findings underscore the need for innovative extension approaches that facilitate the use of information communication technologies to create more awareness on disease detection and mitigation measures. Use of farmer groups as innovation platforms for enhanced skill sharing and as key peer monitoring channels would also improve compliance with prescribed disease control methods. Further, there is a need for partnerships between local-level county governments, vaccine producers, and agro-veterinary service providers to ensure the development of low-cost vaccines and requisite storage facilities, and their timely delivery to the male and female resource-poor smallholder extensive chicken farmers.

P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "Correlation of Tensile Strength and Corrosion Initiation Period of Reinforced Concrete." Cogent Engineering. 2021;Vol 8.
Buyinza D, Derese S, Ndakala A, Heydenreich M, Yenesew A, Koch A, Oriko R. "A coumestan and a coumaronochromone from Millettia lasiantha." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021;97:104277. AbstractView Website

Description
The manuscript describes the phytochemical investigation of the roots, leaves and stem bark of Millettia lasiantha resulting in the isolation of twelve compounds including two new isomeric isoflavones lascoumestan and lascoumaronochromone. The structures of the new compounds were determined using different spectroscopic techniques.

Simon N. Mbugua, Njenga LW, ROA, Wandiga SO, Onani MO. "COVID-19 and Cancer Therapy: Interrelationships and Management of Cancer Cases in the Era of COVID-19 “.A Review." . Journal of Chemistry. 2021;2021:1-10. Abstract

The COVID-19 global epidemic poses this generation’s biggest worldwide public health challenge probably since the 1918 influenza epidemic. Recent reports on two new variants have triggered a dramatic upsurge in research to understand the pandemic, primarily focussing on the virology, triggers, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tests including the prevention and management of the novel coronavirus. Whilst such studies are important in managing the present medical emergency, there is a need for further work to include interdependencies between the epidemic and other illnesses. 'is will help in developing effective approaches to treat and manage associated diseases in both the short and the long term. In this regard, people living with cancer are a subgroup that is highly vulnerable to respiratory infections and acute pneumonitis similar to the one caused by the COVID19 virus. 'is is because the state of their immunity is compromised due to malignancy and the adverse effects of anticancer treatments. With annual cancer projections rising globally and an estimated 70 percent of all cancer-related deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries, the patient population with impaired immune systems that could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 is only anticipated to rise. In this review, we delve into the challenges and health risks facing cancer patients and cancer treatment in the COVID-19 context, with suggestions into viable measures which can be taken to minimize exposure to the risk of contracting COVID-19 for this vulnerable subgroup. New mutations and the prospects offered by vaccines development and how they relate to this class of patients are also discussed

(eds) Harle J, Lamptey RB, Mwangi A, Nzegwu F, Okere O. "Creating digital content and delivering digital learning in African universities."; 2021. Abstract

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Omosa LK, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mukavi J, Okoko BA, Nyaboke HO, Hashim I, Efferth T, Spiteller M. "Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Root of Zanthoxylum paracanthum (Mildbr) Kokwaro." Natural Products Research. 2021:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1913586.omosa_et_al_2021_natural_products_research.pdf
Buyinza D, Yang LJ, Derese S, Ndakala A, Coghi P, Heydenreich M, Wong VKW, Möller HM, Yenesew A. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones from Millettia dura." Natural Product Research. 2021;35(16):2744-2747. AbstractNatural Product Research

Description
The first phytochemical investigation of the flowers of Millettia dura resulted in the isolation of seven isoflavones, a flavonol and a chalcone. Eleven isoflavones and a flavonol isolated from various plant parts from this plant were tested for cytotoxicity against a panel of cell lines, and six of these showed good activity with IC50 values of 6-14 μM. Durmillone was the most active with IC50 values of 6.6 μM against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cancer cell line with low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell lines BEAS-2B (IC50 = 58.4 μM), LO2 hepatocytes (IC50 78.7 μM) and CCD19Lu fibroblasts (IC50 >100 μM).

Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a Raspador for Simultaneous Extraction and Brushing of Sisal Fibers by Small-scale Sisal Farmers." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2021.1975597

Demand for natural fibers is on the rise as awareness of environmental protection keeps abreast. Sisal fibers, for instance, are largely utilized not only in the manufacture of mats, ropes, carpets, and sacks but also in the reinforcement of polymer composites. With the increased demand for sisal fibers, there is a need to equally increase the exploitation of sisal by small-scale farmers. UNIDO, for instance, recommended that appropriate small-scale machines that are accessible to small-scale holders should be developed. This research examines the progress in the development of small-scale machines and designs a raspador for simultaneous extraction and brushing of sisal fibers. This is to ensure that there is value and income addition for the small-scale farmers in East Africa and perhaps the rest of the world.

Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Malembaka REB, Onwonga R, Jefwa J, Ayuke F, Nabahungu L. "Diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in maize (Zea mays) cropping fields in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2021;17(4):604-617.
and Ndeke AN1, 3 MHM1 KCK2 MJK1. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.141-143.pdf
Ndeke AN, Mutembei HM, Kaingu CK, Muthee JK. "Effect of Acetamınophen on Ovulation and Implantation in Female Mice." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):141-143.
Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0246109.
Mandeep S, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.". 2021.
D S, O OR, O OW, N MJ. "Effect of Waste Clay Brick Powder on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste." Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2021;Vol 15.
KathambiBE, N MUTHAMAJ, AnguC. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(2).
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Vincent OM, Nyak DM. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(1):56-60 .
Ali HM, Nguta JM, Mapenay IO, Musila FM, Omambia VM, Matara DN. "Ethnopharmacological uses, biological activities, chemistry and toxicological aspects of Ocimum americanum var. americanum (Lamiaceae)." Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10:56-60.
Omambia VM, Nguta JM, Mitema ES, Musila FM, Nyak DM, Ali HM, Gervason MA. "Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities, and chemistry of the Hypericum genus." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2021;10(2):105-113.
Wanjira J, Ndiwa TC, Gichuki N, Wykstra M. "Evaluating the efficacy of flashing lights in deterring livestock attacks by predators: a case study of Meibae Community Conservancy, Northern Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(3).
Namungu L, Mburu C, Were FH. "Evaluation of Occupational Lead Exposure in Informal Work Environment in Kenya." Chemical Science International Journal, . 2021;30(11):45-54.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
Ngetich D, Bett R, Charles Gachuiri, Kibegwa F. "Factors influencing Euryarchaeal gut methanogens distribution in dairy cattle in smallholding farms." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
Ngetich D, Bett R, Charles Gachuiri, Kibegwa F. "Factors influencing Euryarchaeal gut methanogens distribution in dairy cattle in smallholding farms." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
Ngetich D, Bett R, Charles Gachuiri, Kibegwa F. "Factors influencing Euryarchaeal gut methanogens distribution in dairy cattle in smallholding farms ." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(4).
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma MJ, Ritho, N.C. "Farmer Empowerment in Agriculture and its Association with Smallholder Farm Incomes in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(4):355-369.
Okello, J.J., Nzuma, M.J., Otieno DJ, Kidoido, M., Tanga, C.M. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Commercial Insect-Based Feed for Sustainable Livestock Production in Kenya." Sustainability. 2021;13:53-59.
NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Abstract
Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact

NM M, GO O. "Fibromyalgia: Reviewing the epidemiology and gender-based differences in Africa." African Journal of Rheumatology. 2021;7(1):3-7. Abstractfibromyalgia.pdf

Objectives: Fibromyalgia is a
complex disorder which presents with
chronic widespread musculoskeletal
pain, together with other symptoms
like fatigue, sleep disturbances and
cognitive disturbance. The cause remains
unclear but it is postulated that there
are abnormalities in neurohormonal
profile and central sensitization to pain
as the main mechanism. It is known to
occur more commonly in females than
males. This study set out to look at these
differences in terms of epidemiology and
gender differences.
Data source: We conducted online and
public library searches using the English
language.
Data extraction: We reviewed several
papers and research work focusing on
epidemiology and differences in gender
presentation. The period of the search was
between the years 1990 up to 2020.
Conclusion: Fibromyalgia is a commonly
occurring rheumatologic condition.
Gender differences exist with regard to
epidemiology, clinical presentation and
health seeking behaviors. Population
based studies would be of use to establish
the prevalence in Africa. More studies
would be necessary to explain the gender
differences noted in the many aspects
of the disease including response to
treatment.
Key words: Fibromyalgia, Fibromyalgia
in women, Gender differences and impact
of fibromyalgia

Ayieyo P, Rambo C, Ndiritu A. "Financial Effect of Labour Related Risks on Completion of PPP Projects. Advances in social sciences research journal.volume 7(10):122-130.". 2021. Abstract

Efficient management of construction works should focus its attention on utilizing labour, equipment, and raw materials in the right way. Besides, they claim that responsible parties should evaluate labour productivity continuously and that cost control measures should be developed. Low productivity witnessed in construction is linked to internal challenges including disputes, abandonment of projects, excess budget, and time overlaps. The objective of the study was to determine the financial effect of labour related risks on completion of PPP projects. A descriptive survey design was used with simple random sampling targeting 85 members of the management team at the completed Sondu-Miriu Power project. The participants were administered with questionnaire which were sent by mail (in some cases) and selected participants encouraged to respond. Data obtained was analysed through SPSS platform using descriptive statistics and Pearson Moment correlation as inferential statistics. The study found that labour related risks in construction PPP projects included failure by employees and experts to complete assigned tasks, injuries and deaths, changing labour demands during the project as well as cases of go slow. Construction labour related risks affected the financial cost, time and quality of work performed in the construction project. The study concludes that labour related risks have a financial effect on completion of PPP projects such that as the risks increase, the financial cost increases. The study recommends that more focus should be placed on the identification and recruitment of project staff as well task allocation.

SS G, G A, P A, K B, R B, G C, KJ C, ACR C, T C, YO C, D D, ML F, MO F, A G, HH H, V J, A K, SC L, P L, VP M, T M, Y M, N P, A T-M, ECM L, CH C. "Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control. Front Oral Health." Front Oral Health. 2021;2021; 2:685557(2021; 2:685557):2021; 2:685557.
Cheserek JJ, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Omondi CO, Ezekiel NK. "Green bean biochemical attributes of Arabusta coffee hybrids from Kenya using HPLC and soxhlet extraction methods." Australian Journal of Crop Science . 2021;15(2):201-208 .
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and Histopathology of Goats Feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;Volume 2021(Article ID 8831996, 12 pages).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and histopathology of goats feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8831996).
Ncebere JM, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK. "Gross and histopathology of goats feeding on Opuntia stricta in Laikipia County, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International . 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 8831996(https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8831996).
S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

S Gachau, E Njeru Njagi, N Owuor, P Mwaniki, M Quartagno, Sarguta R, English M, Ayieko P. "Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data." Journal of Applied Statistics. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Gachau, S; Njeru Njagi, E; Owuor, N; Mwaniki, P; Quartagno, M; Sarguta, R; English, M; Ayieko, P; - view fewer (2021) Handling missing data in a composite outcome with partially observed components: Simulation study based on clustered paediatric routine data. Journal of Applied Statistics (In press) … This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.

Peter M. F. Mbithi, Judith S. Mbau, Nzioka J. Muthama, Hellen Inyega JKM, Kala JM. "Higher education and skills development in Africa: An analytical paper on the role of higher learning Institutions on sustainable development." Journal of Sustainability, Environment & Peace. 2021;4(2):58-73.
P.M.F. M, Mbau SJ, N.J. Muthama, Inyega H, Kalai JM. "Higher Education and Skills Development in Africa: An Analytical Paper on the Role of Higher Learning Institutions on Sustainable Development. ." Journal of Sustainable Environment and Peace, . 2021;2:55-70.
Wanja ND, Agnèse J-F, Ford AGP, Day JJ, Ndiwa TC, Turner GF, Getahun A. Identifying and conserving Tilapiine cichlid species in the twenty-first century. Springer; 2021.
Otiang E, Thumbi SM, Campbell ZA, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Palmer GH. "Impact of routine Newcastle disease vaccination on chicken flock size in smallholder farms in western Kenya." PLoS. 2021;16(3).
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Njoroge A, Augusto O, Page ST, Kigondu C, Oluka M, Puttkammer N, Farquhar C. "Increased risk of prediabetes among virally suppressed adults with HIV in Central Kenya detected using glycated haemoglobin and fasting blood glucose." Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2021;4:00292.njoroge_et_al_2021.pdf
Nyandega IA, Gurong T, Okello P, Ongoma V. "Influence of Convective Coupled Equatorial Kelvin Waves on March-May Precipitation over East Africa." Geogrophica Pannonica. 2021;25(1):24-34.
Ndung'u M, Ngatia LW, Onwonga RN, Mucheru-Muna MW, Fu R, Moriasi DN, Ngetich KF. "The influence of organic and inorganic nutrient inputs on soil organic carbon functional groups content and maize yields." Heliyon. 2021;7(8):e07881.
Barasa NW, Njoroge KD, MBUYA TO. "An investigation of the effects of extraction and brushing variables on the properties of hedge sisal fibers using a raspador." Journal of Natural Fibers. 2021:In Press. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1080/15440478.2020.1870641

Natural fibers have emerged as an important component in the development of composite materials because of their mechanical properties. The properties are highly influenced by environmental conditions and processing techniques. This variability makes their usability in reinforcement unpredictable. There are satisfactory attempts to quantify the variation of the properties with environmental conditions. However, the quantification of how the properties vary with processing methods is unsatisfactory. This study, therefore, investigated and quantified the effects of processing variables on the properties of sisal fibers using a raspador. The raspador was designed, fabricated, and utilized in processing sisal fibers. Processing variables such as gap size, number of extraction and brushing elements, and drum speed were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined based on ASTM C1557 standard. High correlation coefficients were found between fiber properties and the processing variables. The brushing process, mostly ignored in many cases, improved the properties of the sisal fibers.

Mokaya TK, Omosa LK, Ogunah J, Nyamato GS. "Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Cola minor Stem Extracts." Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021;5(4):621-625.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø&. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya ." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021;2021(Article ID 8896604).
Mulei, I., Mbuthia, P.G., Waruiru, R.M., Nyaga, P. N., Mutoloki, Evensen. "Management practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in fish farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." Hindawi Veterinary Medicine International. 2021.
Mulei IR, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, Nyaga PN, Mutoloki S, Evensen O. "Management Practices, farmers’ knowledge of diseased fish and their occurrence in Nyeri County, Kenya." Veterinary Medicine International . 2021;Volume 2021, Article ID 8896604(https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8896604).
Munyoki, J.M., Owino, J., Ndambuki VM. Marketing in Developing Economies: Theory, Practice, and Cases with Special Focus on Africa.. Exceller Books Press, India; 2021.
Chebet ON, Omosa LK, Subramanian S, Nchiozem-Ngnitedem V-A, Mmari JO, Akutse KS. "Mechanism of Action of Endophytic Fungi Hypocrea lixii and Beauveria bassiana in Phaseolus vulgaris as Biopesticides against Pea Leafminer and Fall Armyworm." Molecules. 2021;26(26):htts://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185694.
Mwangi AN, Njogu PM, Maru SM, Njuguna NM, Njaria PM, Mathenge AW. "Meloxicam emulgels for topical management of rheumatic diseases: Formulation development, in vitro and in vivo characterization." Saudi Pharmaceut. Jour. 2021;29(4):351-360.
Weboko FI, Nyongesa BS, Makhanu MN, Luna KDG, Dey GES, Viloria IL. "A Minimally Invasive Treatment Option For Restoring Esthetics." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):952-957.
Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Moderating Influence of Contextual Determinants on Relationship between Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. Public Administration Research journal Vol. 10, No. 2 (2021).". 2021. Abstract

Effective monitoring and evaluation practices is widely known to help improve performance, the quality and effectiveness of planning and decision making and achievement of results. This is because monitoring focuses on the implementation process and progress towards the achievement of project objectives. Despite the Kenya Government’s effort to promote County Maternal Health programmes through legal frameworks such as the county integrated monitoring and evaluation practices tool, and while there is empirical evidence that monitoring and evaluation practices contributes to enhanced performance, actual performance of county health sector across Kenya remains poor. The purpose of the study was to establish moderating influence of contextual determinants on the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The paradigm that is suitable for this study is pragmatism. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 8 regional blocks in Kenya (Central,, Western Coast, Eastern, Rift Valley, North Eastern, Nyanza, Nairobi) where one county from each block was selected. From these counties the target population was 1165 respondents including Medical officers, Clinical Officers, Trained Community health workers, Nurses, County Health Management Team and County Delivery Unit officers from level 4 and 5 hospitals. Sampling procedure for this study was guided by the research design which is descriptive survey design. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain 282 respondents from which information was obtained for this study. The research instruments that were used for data collection are: a self-administered structured questionnaire and interview guides. Descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques were used in this study. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypothesis. The research established that there was a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and contextual determinants (r=0.638, p=0.000<0.05). The study found that after introduction of contextual determinants into the relationship, and the interaction term in model 2 increased the R square by 0.08. This implies that the interaction between contextual determinants and monitoring and evaluation practices explains 8.0% variations in performance of county maternal health programmes. The study concluded that contextual determinants significantly moderate the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study recommends investing in robust and dynamic technical coordination platforms that can sustain the agenda for change. and at all levels is necessary to ensure the sustainability of M&E reforms in the health sector.

Gatimu J, Gakuu C, Ndiritu A. "Monitoring and Evaluation Practices and Performance of County Maternal Health Programmes October 2021European Scientific Journal 17(37):39 DOI:10.19044/esj.2021.v17n37p39.". 2021. Abstract

The study sought to establish the relationship between monitoring and evaluation practices and performance of County Maternal Health programmes in Kenya. The combined monitoring and evaluation practices included planning for M&E, stakeholder engagement, capacity building for M&E, and M&E data use. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. To obtain 282 respondents, stratified random sampling was used. A self-administered structured questionnaire was the study's research instrument. Using descriptive narratives, qualitative data was analyzed within specific themes. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. Regression was conducted for testing the study hypotheses. Data was presented using frequency tables. The study found that stakeholders’ engagement in M&E and capacity building for M&E influenced the performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya. The study also found that the respondents agreed that planning for M&E and the data management for M&E. This implied that the combined monitoring and evaluation practices influence performance of County Maternal Health Programmes in Kenya.The study found a strong correlation between the performance of county maternal health programmes and combined monitoring and evaluation practices. The study concluded that combined planning for M&E monitoring and evaluation practices influenced the performance of county maternal health programmes. The study suggests that management develop an effective methodology as well as raise awareness of M&E activities for the success of the project. The study also suggests that human resources issues such as workers charged with monitoring and evaluation ought to have technical capabilities, and roles and duties of monitoring and evaluation personnel should be outlined at the start of projects. To ensure M&E sustainability health sector reforms, investments in strong and vibrant technical harmonization platforms that can sustain the change agenda at all times and every required level.

Wakhungu CN, Okoth S, Wachira P, N.A O. "Mycotoxins contaminating herbs and spices in Africa: A review." African Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;3(3):10-28.
Ochora DO, Kakudidi E, Namukobe J, Heydenreich M, Coghi P, Yang LJ, Mwakio EW, Andagalu B, Roth A, Akala HM, Wong VKW, Yenesew A. "A new benzophenone, and the antiplasmodial activities of the constituents of Securidaca longipedunculata fresen (Polygalaceae)." Natural Product Research. 2021:1-9. AbstractView Website

Description
Extracts from Securidaca longipedunculata showed antiplasmodial activities against reference clones and clinical isolates using SYBR Green I method. A new benzophenone, 2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzophenone (1) was isolated and characterized along with seven known compounds: 4-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzophenone (2); 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (4), benzyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoate (5), 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzophenone (7) and 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (8). Compounds 1 and 2 showed ex vivo antiplasmodial activities (IC50 28.8 μM and 18.6 μM, respectively); while 5 and 8 showed in vivo activities (IC50 19.7 μM and 14.5 μM, respectively) against D6 strain. In a cytotoxicity assay, all the extracts (with an exception of the MeOH extract of the leaves) and pure compounds were not toxic to the …

Nyiranzeyimana G, Mutua JM, Mose BR, MBUYA TO. "Optimization of process parameters in fused deposition modelling of thermoplastics: A review." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(6):682-694. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000193

Among the several techniques for additive manufacturing (AM), fused deposition modelling (FDM) is widely used. Fused deposition modelling process uses a thermoplastic material, which is melted and then extruded layer by layer through a nozzle, in order to create a three-dimensional object. As a result of the default setting of process parameters provided by the manufacturers, produced parts normally have a poor surface finish, low mechanical properties, low dimensional accuracy, and increased residual stresses compared to the parts produced using conventional manufacturing processes like molding (casting). Qualities of fused deposition modelled (FDMed) parts are generally affected by process parameters including the layer thickness, extrusion temperature, build orientation, printing speed, raster angle, infill density, raster width, nozzle diameter, and air gap. Increasing infill density, printing temperature, and decreasing print speed and layer thickness lead to increase mechanical strength and improve the surface finish of the printed parts. The optimal process parameters are preferred to achieve superior properties of the parts. This paper reviews the optimal fused deposition modelling process parameters on part qualities for making the stability of used deposition modelled parts for use. Various process parameters are identified in order to obtain desirable qualities in the manufactured parts. Areas for future research are proposed.

O M, Ayah R, Muriuki R, Nyangaya J. Oxygen Access and Affordability in Health Facilities in Kenya.; 2021.
A R, N MJ, K RE. "Performance Evaluation of Compressed Laterite Blocks Stabilised with Cement and Gum Arabic." International Journal of Advanced Technology and Engineering Exploration (IJATEE). 2021;Vol 8(83).
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, I M. "Phytochemical analysis and investigation of the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Croton dichogamus Pax crude root extracts." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021;2021:9.
Matara DN, Nguta JM, Musila FM, Mapenay I. "Phytochemical Analysis and Investigation of the Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Croton dichogamus Pax Crude Root Extracts." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2021;2021:9.
Inyega JO, Arshad-Ayaz A, Naseem MA, Mahaya EW, Elsayed D. "Post-independence basic education in Kenya: an historical analysis of curriculum reforms." FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education. 2021;7(1):1-24.
Igizeneza A, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Preliminary Study on Disinfectant Susceptibility/Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Slaughtered Village Free-Range Chickens in Nairobi, Kenya." Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology. 2021;2021(Article ID 8877675):7.abstract2.pdf
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. "Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels. Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo County, Kenya." Lap Lambert Academic Publishing a trademark of Omni scriptum S.R.L Publishing group. 2021;(ISBN- 978-620-3-93087-0.).
Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of repeat breeding syndrome in dairy cattle in selected regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Njoroge EN, Mutembei HM, Kipyegon AN, Kimeli P, Olum MO. "Prevalence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(2):114-118.
Mande JD, Mbugua SW, Kimani WK, Nguhiu-Mwangi J. "Prevalence of Urinary Tract Conditions and Factors Associated with Urolythiasis in Domestic Cats in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2021;10(3):196-201.
Nankaya, J. GLBNCH. "Prioritization of Loita Maasai medicinal plants for conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation . 2021;30:761-780.
Akah NP, Kunyanga CN, Okoth MW, Njue1 LG. "Pulse Production, Consumption and Utilization in Nigeria within Regional and Global Context." Sustainable Agriculture Research. 2021;10(2).60b6dcf18a312.pdf
Ngwili N, Johnson N, Wahome R, Githigia S, Roesel K, Thomas L. "A qualitative Assessment of the Context and Enabling Environment for the Control of Taenia solium Infections in Endemic Settings." PLOS Negl Trop Diseases. 2021;15(6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009470).
Abuga KO, Kigera ST, Wanyama M, Nandama WM, Kibwage IO. "Quality Control Results of Pharmaceuticals Analyzed in the Mission for Essential Drugs and Supplies (MEDS) Laboratory During the Period 2013-2017." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(2):57-66. Abstract

During the 2013-2017 period, the MEDS laboratory received and processed 6853 samples. Samples were sourced from Kenya and other sub-Saharan Africa countries. The samples submitted comprised Kenyan manufactured (31.9%) and internationally manufactured products (67.9%) while nine samples were of unknown origin. Analysis was carried out according to compendial and/or in-house specifications. The non-compliance rate was 5.1% consisting of 1.2 % local and 3.8% imports. The top ten drug classes with high failure rates were antimyasthenics (50.0%), antiseptics/disinfectants (24.7%), anthelminthics (22.0%), thyroid/antithyroid drugs (20.0%), nutrient mixtures (18.5%), uricosurics (12.5%), waters (11.6%), mixed anti-infectives (11.1%), hemostatics (10.0%) and nootropics (10.0%). Full compliance was however, recorded with laxatives, antidiarrheals, antihemorrhoidals, prokinetics, antithrombotics, antithrombocytopenia agents, vasopressors, anti-arrhythmic drugs, anti-anginal drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, antimigraine drugs, vertigolytics, muscle relaxants, bisphosphonates, joint lubricants, hormones, anticholinergics, osmotic diuretics, hypophosphatemics, lubricants, minerals, amino acids/peptides, immunomodulatory agents, choleretics, antidotes, lozenges, ear drops, proteins/glycoproteins, herbal products, X-ray contrast media, vaccines, environmental monitoring, medical devices/equipment and cleaning validation swabs. A total of 23 substandard and falsified medicines devoid of active ingredients were encountered over the five-year period. The results obtained demonstrate the need to strengthen regulatory stringency in order to curb incidences of substandard and falsified medicines.

Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolis." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021;24(Vol. 24 No. 1 (2021)):29-37.
Abuga K, Nyamweya N, King’ondu O. "Quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi metropolitan area." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2021;24(1):29-37. Abstract

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has propelled the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers to the fore as a SARS-CoV-2 control measure. To be effective these products must comply with relevant quality parameters such as alcohol concentration, methanol limits and purity. The current study was designed to determine the quality of alcohol-based hand sanitizer products in the Nairobi metropolitan area. For this purpose, 74 commercially marketed samples were collected and subjected to analysis by gas chromatography. Only three samples (4.1%) complied with the regulatory specifications for alcohol content, methanol limits and pH. Five samples (6.8%) complied with the specification for alcohol content but did not meet methanol or pH limits. A total of 44 (59.5%) samples had methanol levels that exceeded threshold limits. Eleven samples (14.9%) were found with methanol substitution (i.e., methanol, instead of ethanol or isopropanol, was the main alcohol component). The results show that users of alcohol-based hand sanitizers are being exposed to substandard and falsified products which in addition to being non-efficacious pose harm due to unacceptable levels of toxic impurities. Regular, routine post-market surveillance is needed to prevent such products from reaching the market.

P MO, N MJ, O AS, N MG. "The Relationship Between Bond Strength and Critical Penetration Depth of Rust in Reinforced Concrete Structures." Journal of Materials Science Research. 2021;Vol 10(2).
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Maina, ndugu. "RELATIVITY OF INDIGENOUS EAST AFRICAN DESIGN CHAMPIONS: JACQUE NJERI, MARC VAN RAMPELBERG." Design For All Journal of India. 2021;16(1):75-111.
Mugo, N, Nancy N. Karanja, Gachene CS, Klaus Dittert, Harun I. Gitari, Schulte-Geldermann E. "Response of potato crop to selected nutrients in central and eastern highlands of Kenya." Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2021;7(1):1898762.
Nalyanya KM, Rop RK, Onyuka AS, Birech Z. "A Review of Natural Plants as Sources of Substances for Cleaner Leather Tanning Technologies. ." Textile & Leather Review. 2021;4(3):137-148.
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
Kibet S, Nyangito, Moses M, MacOpiyo L, Kenfack D. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock–wildlife landscape." Ecological Solutions and Evidence. 2021;2(3):e12083.
SO Pambo, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "A study of eta-Ricci soliton on W_5-semi symmetric LP sasakian manifolfds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2021;5(5):25-29. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study ƞ-Ricci solitons on Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold satisfying
R(ξ,X)•W_5(Y,Z)U=0 and W_5(ξ,X)•R(Y,Z)U=0 conditions.
We prove that on a Lorentzian para-Sasakian manifold (M,ξ,ƞ,g), the Ricci curvature tensor satisfying
any one of the given conditions, the existence of ƞ-Ricci soliton then implies that (M,g) is Einstein
manifold. We also conclude that in these cases, there is no Ricci soliton on M, with the potential vector
field ξ (the killing vector)

Mulinge E, Zeyhle E, Mpario J, Mugo M, Nungari L, Ngugi B, Gathura P, Sankale B. "A survey of intestinal helminths in domestic dogs in a human–animal–environmental interface: the Oloisukut Conservancy, Narok County, Kenya." Journal of Helminthology . 2021;95.
Rogito DO, Maitho T, Nderitu A. "Sustainability of Food Security Irrigation Projects by Taking Corrective Action after Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation in Kitui County, Kenya. International journal of Innovative Research and Development. ISSN 2278-0211 (Online).". 2021. Abstract

Abstract:
Food supply is less than food demand in Kitui County as population keeps increasing. This lack of food leads to
malnutrition, poor health and even death to human beings and animals both domestic and wild. Agriculture is the key
food source in Kitui County in the republic of Kenya. Occasionally residents buy food quantities from neighboring Arid
and semi-arid areas counties which is not a reliable source because they face similar challenge. Many interventions to
improve food security has been put in place and one such is irrigation by the local county and National government
initiated through National irrigation Board but sustainability of these projects is a great concern in Kitui County.
Despite the irrigation projects setup still biting is food insufficiency which persists. One approach to improve
sustainability of irrigation projects is carrying out participatory monitoring and evaluation and then taking
corrective action which could also lead to ownership and then improved sustainability. This was the objective of the
study which was to assess if taking corrective action after Participatory Monitoring and evaluation (PME)influence
project sustainability. The study used descriptive survey and correlation designs in order to collect data from 316
respondents who were selected using stratification, judgmental and purposeful with strict randomization methods.
Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected respondents on appointed dates. Data
was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social scientist (SPSS) version 25.0in order to get descriptive statistics also
correlation coefficients were got in order to get association and degree of strength. Testing of hypothesis was done
using linear regression. The study findings show thata big percentage (56.3%) of the respondents were aged between
31 to 40years.Majority of the respondents were females and their highest-level of education was up to primary school.
The respondents agreed that PME data collection and taking corrective action were not done. Taking corrective
action had a weak influence on sustainability with a correlation coefficient (r)of 0.33 which only explains 10.9% of
project sustainability. It’s recommended that farmers should be trained more through seminars and vocational
institutions in order to empower them with skills. Also, farmers should be encouraged to participate in irrigation
projects as they can have a sense of ownership. Infrastructure should be improved in order to access markets and a PM
& Eunit should be set up in irrigation projects in order to spear data collection and analysis and guide projects
towards sustainability. This is significant because it will improve sustainability and thus more food supply reducing
malnutrition rates and death among people and animals.
Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation, Food security, taking corrective action, irrigation,
Sustainability, Projects, management

Ayuyo IO, KRHODA GO, Mukhovi SM, Nyandega IA. "Temporal Variations in Rainfall and Temperature and their Effects on the River Discharge in the Mara River Basi." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):1-23.
Mungai GN, Njenga HN, MATHU ELIUDM, Madadi VO. "Trace Elements in Carbonated Cold Springs of Eastern Mt. Kenya, Meru County." Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society. 2021;14(1):9-16.
Nzuma MJ, Kirui P. "Transmission of Global Wheat Prices to Domestic Markets in Kenya: A Cointegration Approach." African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 2021;16(1):80-93.
Muita R, Dougill A, Mutemi J, Aura S, Graham R, Awolala D, Nkiaka E, Hirons L, Opijah F. "Understanding the Role of User Needs and Perceptions Related to Sub-Seasonal and Seasonal Forecasts on Farmers’ Decisions in Kenya: A Systematic Review." Frontiers in Climate. 2021;3(1).
Makhanu MN, Alsadig MAM, Nyongesa BS, Weboko FI, Alcorta PP. "Unsuccessful Closed Surgical Exposure of an Impacted Maxillary Canine Managed by Open Surgical Exposure." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):946-953.2021_kda_journal_volume_12_no_2.pdf
Okeyo MP;, Rambo CM, NYONJE RO. "Use of Civil Litigation Process and Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms in Resolution of Contractual Disputes in Road Construction Projects in Kenya. ." International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing. 2021:596-612.
Rebecca Lynne C, Rikesh Panchal, Emmanuel, Michael G, Moses N, Nyangaya J, O M, J M, P K, A A, A R, M P, V J. "Volatile Organic Compound Composition of Urban Air in Nairobi Kenya and Lagos Nigeria.". 2021.
Missiame A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P. "What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis." Heliyon . 2021;7(5). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

Nyawade SO, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Parker ML. "Yield and evapotranspiration characteristics of potato-legume intercropping simulated using a dual coefficient approach in a tropical highland." Field Crops Research . 2021;274 :108327.
Nyumba TO, Sang CC, Olago DO, Marchant R, Waruingi L, Githiora Y, Kago F, Mwangi M, Owira G, Barasa R, others. "Assessing the ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure development: A reconnaissance study of the Standard Gauge Railway in Kenya." PLoS one. 2021;16:e0246248. Abstract
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Nelson K, Muge E, Wamalwa B. "Cellulolytic Bacillus species isolated from the gut of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria." Scientific African. 2021;11:e00665. Abstract
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Odera S, Julius Oyugi, Kirui A, Aballa A, Noel Onyango, others. "Challenges Faced by House-Hold Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in an Urban Setting in Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Infectious Diseases & Case Reports. SRC/JIDSCR-165. DOI: doi. org/10.47363/JIDSCR/2021 (2). 2021;146:2-4. Abstract
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Feldmann S, Gangishetty MK, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Charge Carrier Localization in Doped Perovskite Nanocrystals Enhances Radiative Recombination." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2021;143:8647-8653. Abstract
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Feldmann S, Gangishetty M, Bravić I, Neumann T, Peng B, Winkler T, Friend RH, Monserrat B, Congreve DN, Deschler F. "Exciton localization in doped perovskite nanocrystals enhances intrinsic radiative recombination.". In: Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Interfaces XX. Vol. 11799. International Society for Optics and Photonics; 2021:. Abstract
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Wu Y, Hua J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Liu S, Peng B, Fang Y, Ning X, Nie Z, Li F, others. "High-throughput injection–acceleration of electron bunches from a linear accelerator to a laser wakefield accelerator." Nature Physics. 2021;17:801-806. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Agro-Ecological Factors on Fruit Mineral Content and Occurrence of Jelly Seed Disorder in ‘Tommy Atkins’ and ‘Van Dyke’Mangoes in Kenya." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:135-145. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "The Influence of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash Application on Fruit Mineral Content and Jelly Seed Disorder Incidence of Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." Cutting-edge Research in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8. 2021:125-134. Abstract
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Mwangi HN’u, Muge EK, Wagacha PW, Ndakala A, Mulaa FJ. "Methods for Identifying Microbial Natural Product Compounds that Target Kinetoplastid RNA Structural Motifs by Homology and De Novo Modeled 18S rRNA." International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021;22:4493. Abstract
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Parzefall P, Holler J, Scheuck M, Beer A, Lin K-Q, Peng B, Monserrat B, Nagler P, Kempf M, Korn T, others. "Moiré phonons in twisted MoSe2–WSe2 heterobilayers and their correlation with interlayer excitons." 2D Materials. 2021;8:035030. Abstract
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Nyabongo L, Odongo DO, Milton G, Machuka E, Vudriko P, Pelle R, Kanduma EG. "Molecular survey of cattle ticks in Burundi: First report on the presence of the invasive Rhipicephalus microplus tick." Plos one. 2021;16:e0261218. Abstract
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Niu Y-T, Lu X, Shi Z-T, Peng B. "Observation of magnetoresistance in CrI3/graphene van derWaals heterostructures." Chinese Physics B. 2021;30:117506. Abstract
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MalariaGEN, Ahouidi A, Ali M, et al. "An open dataset of Plasmodium falciparum genome variation in 7,000 worldwide samples." Wellcome Open Res.. 2021;6:42. Abstract

MalariaGEN is a data-sharing network that enables groups around the world to work together on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. Here we describe a new release of curated genome variation data on 7,000 Plasmodium falciparum samples from MalariaGEN partner studies in 28 malaria-endemic countries. High-quality genotype calls on 3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short indels were produced using a standardised analysis pipeline. Copy number variants associated with drug resistance and structural variants that cause failure of rapid diagnostic tests were also analysed. Almost all samples showed genetic evidence of resistance to at least one antimalarial drug, and some samples from Southeast Asia carried markers of resistance to six commonly-used drugs. Genes expressed during the mosquito stage of the parasite life-cycle are prominent among loci that show strong geographic differentiation. By continuing to enlarge this open data resource we aim to facilitate research into the evolutionary processes affecting malaria control and to accelerate development of the surveillance toolkit required for malaria elimination.

Mutwiri KD, Dimba E, Nzioka BM. "Orofacial Infections in Kenya: A Retrospective Study." Annals of African Surgery. 2021;18:45-51. Abstract
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Bor H, Maina EN, Nyambega B, Patel KT, Ochieng’Olwal C, Nalyanya W, Gavamukulya Y. "The Potential of Differentiation-Related Gene-1 (DRG1) as a Biomarker for Metastasis of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.". 2021. Abstract
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Nyabongo L, Kanduma EG, Bishop RP, Machuka E, Njeri A, Bimenyimana AV, Nkundwanayo C, Odongo DO, Pelle R. "Prevalence of tick-transmitted pathogens in cattle reveals that Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale are endemic in Burundi." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;14:1-15. Abstract
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