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KD Jones, A L.  2014.  Inflammatory bowel disease in Africa: hiding in plain sight? Immunology. 143:123.



Macharia G, Kungu A, LA.  2012.  Spectrum of endoscopic findings at Kenyatta National Hospital. . Kenya Pediatrics Association Annual Scientific Conference, Mombasa 2012.


Opwora AS, Laving AM, Nyabola LO OJM.  2011.   Who is to blame? Perspectives of caregivers on barriers to accessing healthcare for the under-fives in Butere District, Western Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2011 May 3;11:272. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-272. 1.. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival.
Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs).
Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers.

Caregivers' actions were thought to influence children's progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality.


D, M, A L.  2010.  Caring for children with acute, treatable and preventable medical conditions . African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 4 (1):33-37.
Makworo, D, Laving AM.  2010.  Acute medical conditions in under five year old children at a public hospital in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

To determine the prevalence of childhood preventable and treatable medical conditions and the parent's/guardian's knowledge about the conditions and their management.
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
Paediatric medical wards at Kenyatta National hospital
All children aged 0-60 months with preventable conditions (that included pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea/dehydration, meningitis and malnutrition) in paediatric wards who had stayed in the ward for 24 to 48 hours.
Two hundred and fifty six parents/guardians staying with their children were recruited into the study. The vast majority (85.5%) of the children were aged less than two years. The prevalence of the acute treatable and preventable medical conditions was 88.6% over a one month period. The leading cause of admission for most children was pneumonia (31.6%) followed by malnutrition (16.8%) and gastro-enteritis (16%). Other conditions included neonatal sepsis (9.1%), measles (6%) and malaria (4.8%). The parents'/guardians' mean and median age was 26 years and the majority (89.8%) were mothers. A great proportion (46.5%) of the parents/guardians had attained at least some primary education. More than 70% of the parents/guardians were found to lack knowledge about their children's health problems and the drugs they were using. This was regardless of the parent's/guardians level of education and the frequency of admission of the child.
Acute preventable and treatable medical conditions at KNH are highly prevalent, and the leading conditions include pneumonia, malnutrition and gastroenteritis. Most parents/guardians did not understand their children's health problems regardless of their level of education.



MUSSA, DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, MUSSA DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK.  2005.  Successful liver transplantation in a child with severe portopulmonary hypertension treated with epoprostenol. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005 Oct;41(4):466-8. Laving A, Khanna A, Rubin L, Ing F, Dohil R, Lavine JE.. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.. : The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences Abstractliver_transpant.docx

No abstract available.


MUSSA, DRLAVINGAHMEDMOHAMEDRAFIK, O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFMUSOKERACHEL.  2003.  Neonatal bacterial meningitis at the newborn unit of Kenyatta National Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62. Laving AM, Musoke RN, Wasunna AO, Revathi G.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):456-62.. : The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Meningitis occurs in up to one third of neonates with septicaemia. Diagnosis is difficult due to its non-specificity of signs and symptoms. While neonatal septicaemia is a common problem at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), there are no recent data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of neonatal meningitis at the hospital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the bacterial aetiology of meningitis in neonates at the Newborn Unit (NBU) of KNH. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Newborn Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lumbar punctures were performed on eighty-four neonates with suspected sepsis based on specified clinical criteria. Cases were defined as meningitis if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for bacteria by Gram stain, aerobic bacterial culture or latex particle agglutination assay. RESULTS: The prevalence of meningitis amongst cases of suspected sepsis was 17.9%. The male:female ratio was 1.5:1 mean birth weight 2116.7 grams (1682.2-2551.2) mean gestational age 35.7 weeks (32.6-38.8) and the mean postnatal age was 4.1 days (2.7-5.4) with none of the parameters being significantly different from those without meningitis. Feed intolerance and lethargy were the most common clinical features, present in 73.3% and 60% of patients with meningitis respectively. Neonates with meningitis had a higher mean CSF protein value (2.67 g/L vs 1.97 g/L

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