Bio

DR. AGWATA JONES FAIRFAX

Dr. Jones AGWATA is a career Environmental Scientist and Policy expert with several years experience as Lecturer, Trainer, Researcher and Consultant. He currently serves, on full time basis, as Senior Lecturer in Environmental Policy at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Environmental Law and Policy (CASELAP) in the University of Nairobi. Before joining the University of Nairobi in June 2010, Dr. Agwata was a Lecturer at the Department of Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University.

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Publications


2014

Mugera, EW, Agwata JF, Anyango SO.  2014.  Sources, Accessibility and Reliability of Water for Various Uses in Ruiru District of Kiambu County, Kenya. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). Volume 14, (No 1):164-173. Abstractsources_accessibility_and_reliability_of_water_for_various_uses_in_ruiru_district_of_kiambu_county_kenya.pdfWebsite

Numerous challenges regarding the availability of water availability for various socioeconomic development
activities exist in many areas across the globe. This is particularly so in most peri-urban areas where scarcity is one
of the critical problems affecting sustainable development of these areas. In this study, sources, accessibility and
reliability of water in Ruiru District of Kiambu County in Kenya were examined. A multistage sampling design
using both stratified and random sampling techniques was used to select the required sample. A household survey
approach with the aid of questionnaires and observation record sheets were used to collect data from representative
sample of 198 households in three different clusters. The data collected was analyzed using frequencies, percentages
and ranking. The study established the main water sources to be tap water, borehole, wells, rivers and Community
Based Organization’s supply. Most of the sources were found to be inaccessible of their location at various distances
from the homesteads. It is recommended that efforts be made by water providers to improve access to water so that
people can be engaged in other productive activities instead of spending a lot of time to access water. Appropriate
water conservation measures such as protection of water and storage should also be encouraged through public
awareness.

Agwata, JF, Wamicha WN, Ondieki CM.  2014.  Modelling of Hydrological Drought Events in the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. Volume 11, (Issue 1 Ver. III):41-48. Abstractmodelling_of_hydrological_drought_events.pdfWebsite

Drought is a recurring hazard which affects many parts of Kenya. In most countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture which is predominantly rain-fed is the main stay of the economies is highly prone to the
impacts of drought which, whenever it occurs, leads to serious socioeconomic challenges at various levels. The
study of drought duration, magnitude and severity have relevance in many areas such as waste load allocations,
issuance of pollution discharge permits, location of treatment plants and sanitary landfills, determination of
allowable water transfers and withdrawals both within, between and outside the affected areas and
determination of minimum downstream release requirements for hydropower water supply, cooling plants and
other facilities. Knowledge of the frequency distribution of the drought events is useful as it contributes to the
assessment of drought risks which have implications on the long term ecological, economic and social well
being of the biological and human communities that make use of water from the various streams in a basin. In
this study five frequency distributions were fitted to drought duration and severity as determined from discharge
data from representative river gauge stations in the upper Tana Basin of Kenya. The frequency distributions
fitted to the two drought events were the Generalized Normal (GN) or 3-parameter Lognormal, Generalized
Extreme Value (GEV) or the Extreme Value Type III, Generalized Pareto (GPA), Pearson Type III (P3) and
Generalized Logistic (GL). The distributions of best fit for the drought events were identified using the Z value
obtained from the average L-moment statistics of a particular candidate distribution and the average L-moment
statistics. The Z value for each homogenous region was determined from sample estimates of Lcv , Lcs and Lck that
were determined from probability weighted moment estimators and the weighted means of Lcv, Lcs and Lck using
records from the river gauging stations representing each hydrologically homogenous region. A frequency
distribution of best fit was selected if ׀ZDis׀ ≤ 1.64 and the one with the lowest ׀ZDis׀ value selected as the distribution
of best fit. Results showed that the frequency distribution of best fit for duration and severity was the Generalized
Normal while the Pearson Type III distribution was the distribution of worst fit for both duration and severity.
Key words: hydrological drought, drought events, frequency distribution, modeling

Gathagu, TW, Agwata JF.  2014.  POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN MANAGING WATER RESOURCES IN KAJIADO COUNTY, KENYA. International Journal of Development Research. Vol. 4(Issue, 5):1048-1055. Abstractjournal_paper-ijdr.pdf

The important role that women play in the management of water resources has been recognized in
various parts of the world. This is because they play a significant role in accessing water for
various uses such as washing, cooking, watering of crops and livestock rearing. Their effective
participation in water management is however influenced by existing policy, institutional and
legal frameworks. In this study, the various policies that enhance women’s participation in water
resources management in Kajiado County of Kenya were evaluated from the perspective of
relevance, value and limitations. This was done with a view to suggesting practical measures to
ensure the women’s important and critical roles are properly captured in the proposed policies on
water resources management in the County and elsewhere in the country. The findings show that
although the existing policies, legal and institutional frameworks are fairly comprehensive in
addressing women’s roles in the management of water resources, the policies do not, however,
directly and adequately address women’s issues and concerns in water resources management in
the County.

Oribu, W, King’oriah PG, Agwata DJ, Gongera PGE.  2014.  Business Sustainability: A Need To Re-Look Environmental Practices And Initiatives. European Journal of Business and Management. Vol.6, No.3 Abstractbusiness_sustainability-a_need_to_relook_environmental_practices_and_initiatives.pdf

Due to the increasing degradation of the natural business enterprises’ environmental commitment has become an
important variable in most of today’s competitive business environment. This is because activities of most
enterprises are the main causes of environmental degradation which in turn impact on the sustainability of their
performance. This study looks at the specific business environmental practices and initiatives and how they
impact on their sustainability. The overall objective of the study was to establish the impact of environmental
initiatives on business sustainability around Lake Naivasha. The study design was descriptive survey in order to
pick behaviors which needed to be mitigated for purposes of business sustainability. Purposive random sampling
was used from the target population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. Discriminant
analysis was used to analyze the data and the key findings of the study show that business sustainability depends
mainly on the current environmental practices and initiatives that have been put in place. The study recommends
that business associations be at the frontline in regulating activities by their members in order to achieve
sustainability.

Oribu, WS, Agwata DJF, George GE.  2014.  Analysis of Environmental Initiatives on Business Performance Sustainability at the Lake Naivasha Ecosystem, Kenya. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. Vol.4, No.2 Abstractanalysis_of_environmental_initiatives_on_business_performance_sustainability_at_the_lake_naivasha_ecosystem.pdf

Increasing degradation of the natural environment is one of the main threats to human survival in the long term.
Business enterprises’ environmental commitment has, therefore, become an important variable in most of
today’s competitive business environment. Activities of most enterprises are the main causes of environmental
degradation which in turn impact on their performance. This study therefore looks at the specific business
environmental initiatives and how they impact on their performance. The overall objective of the study was to
establish the impact of environmental initiatives on business performance sustainability around Lake Naivasha.
In order to achieve this objective, the research was guided by various specific objectives which included
examining forms of environmental degradation, examining environmental initiatives put in place to mitigate on
degradation, and examining effects of environmental initiatives of various business operations on social capital.
Both primary and secondary data were collected for the purposes of the study. Primary data was collected
through various instruments including questionnaires administered to individual respondents, focus group
discussions, in depth interviews and observation schedules. Secondary data was obtained from previous study
reports, articles, professional journals, various businesses’ monitoring records, annual sales reports and any other
relevant literature that the researcher came across in the course of the study. The collected data was interpreted
and analysed using discriminant analysis. The Scientific Package for Social Studies (SPSS) was used for the
analysis. The study design was descriptive survey in order to pick behaviours which needed to be mitigated for
purposes of enterprise performance sustainability. Purposive random sampling was used from the target
population which comprised of farming, hospitality and fishing sectors. For purposes of establishing the views of
the stakeholders, the officials of various organisations that have interests on the Lake Naivasha ecosystem were
incorporated into a focus group and their views were sought through group discussions. The key findings of the
study were that; the main forms of environmental degradation are nutrients discharge to the lake, water
abstraction, cutting of trees, overgrazing and green house gases effects. The implication of the findings is that
unless businesses concerned address environmental issues their performance sustainability may not be assured
going forward. The study recommends that an evaluative criteria defining the impacts that are acceptable to the
society be determined, policy bundles that are currently in place be reviewed to achieve diverse societal
objectives, strategic decisions made by organisations operating in the area be assessed in light of the actors
involved and investment in better information monitoring and enforcement of rules and regulations be
undertaken. Lastly, since specific organisational sustainability outcomes seem to consistently fail to meet broad
societal expectation, the articulation of stakeholder interests need to be considered by involving all actors in the
environmental governance process.

Balew, S, Agwata J, Anyango S.  2014.  Determinants of Adoption Choices of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Crop Production by Small Scale Farmers in Some Regions of Central Ethiopia. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. Vol.4, No.4 Abstract

In Sub-Saharan Africa, climate change is set to hit the agricultural sector the most and cause untold suffering
particularly for smallholder farmers. Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies aims to minimize adverse
effects of climate change on crop yields. However, the capacity of smallholder farmers to choose from
appropriate climate change adaptation strategies in SSA is limited. It is therefore imperative to identify and
analyze factors that determine the capacity of these farmers to choose appropriate climate change adaptation
strategies. Such effort will help policy makers and development practitioners design policies that would help to
tackle the problem of food insecurity and poverty afflicting majority of the local people in various regions in the
continent. In this study, household data on crop farming systems in central Ethiopia was used and binary and
multinomial logit models developed to analyze the data. The binary logit model was used to identify
determinants of farmers’ decision to adapt to climate change at all. The multinomial logit model was employed
to analyse factors that affect farmers’ adoption choices. Results indicate that farmers´ decisions to choose from
several climate change adaptation strategies are influenced by various factors such as access to information on
climate change, input and output market, credit facility, extension services and social capital. The implication is
that policy makers and development practitioners should focus on improving information flow, access to input
and output market, the education level of the household head, and informal social networks that can speed up the
adoption of adaptation strategies. The multinomial logit model also shows that farmers´ decision to choose
among climate change adaptation strategies is influenced by the type of risk factor they faced and the occurrence
of drought or flood. Accordingly, policy makers and development practitioners should play a significant role by
promoting adaptation methods appropriate for particular climate change risk factor such as drought or flood.

Gichira, PS, Agwata JF, Muigua KD.  2014.  Climate Finance: Fears and Hopes for Developing Countries. Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization. Vol.22 Abstract

This article looks at the current climate finance architecture and its impact on developing countries climate
change responses. The primary aim is to capture the contradictions that exist in the climate finance architecture
particularly between those recommended by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) and those advanced by developed countries otherwise known as non-UNFCCC climate financing
mechanisms. The overall observation is that once non-UNFCCC climate financing mechanisms emerged and the
more they were justified using the UNFCCC, the global response to the climate change problem was fatally
wounded through a procedural derailment of UNFCCC objectives. This article calls for a review of nonUNFCCC
with the aim of divesting them of the profit factor which in this case is the problematic.

Agwata, JF.  2014.  A Review of Some Indices used for Drought Studies. Civil and Environmental Research. Vol.6, No.2 Abstract10842-13144-1-pb.pdf

Droughts are serious extreme events that have adverse effects on the physical environment and water resource
systems in both developed and developing countries. Consequently, there is need for adequate measures for
responding to and mitigating various impacts arising from drought occurrence. The design and implementation
of drought mitigation and response strategies requires an understanding of the various indices that are used to
examine drought both at single site and in an area. In the case of water resources management during critical
drought periods for instance, a means of objectively identifying drought events in terms time and duration of
occurrence, magnitude and severity is required. This is possible only using various indices to characterize
drought. In this paper, some of the key drought indices are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses
identified.

Agwata, JF.  2014.  Spatial Characteristics of Drought Duration and Severity in the Upper Tana Basin, Kenya. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. Vol. 3(4), 18-26 Abstract4.isca-irjevs-2014-37-spatial_characteristics_of_drought_duration_and_severity_in_the_upper_tana_basin_kenya.pdf

Drought is a recurring hazard in many countries of Africa, and Kenya is thus no exception. In the majority of the countries
in the continent, drought affects agriculture, since it is predominantly rain-fed and is the mainstay of the economies in
these countries. Various socioeconomic activities are highly prone to the impacts of drought. Since drought will always
occur, there is and will always be need for understanding its various manifestations to ensure that the effects associated
with its occurrence are managed in a sustainable manner. This study examined the spatial characteristics of drought
duration and severity in the Upper Tana Basin (UTB) of Kenya using discharge records from twenty two river gauge
stations (RGSs) in the basin. Drought duration and severity data were extracted from the discharge records using the runs
analysis technique and the data series subjected to principal components analysis (PCA) from which common factors for
the two drought events were examined. Results showed that drought duration and severity had distinct spatial patterns in
the basin. The two drought events were explained using four significant principal factors that cumulatively explained
nearly 59 percent variance for drought duration and 56 percent of variance for drought severity in the basin. The spatial
patterns of the factor loadings for drought duration showed large meridional patterns with anomalies confined to the
eastern and southeast parts of the basin. For drought severity, the spatial patterns of the factor loadings portrayed a zonal
pattern reflecting differences in the relief features between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The spatial
characteristics of the drought events may be used to plan for different land use activities in the basin.

2012

2007

Agwata, JF.  2007.  Potential implications of climate change on the attainment of the millennium development goals in Kenya.. : Proceedings of the 8th Kenya Meteorological Society Workshop, Mombasa Beach Hotel, 11-14 September, 2007 Abstract
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Agwata, JF, Nyaoro W.  2007.  Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.. : The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007 Abstract
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Agwata, J. F., WWN, Ondieki CM.  2007.  Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya using Stream flow Records.. : Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice, Vol 4, No 2 (www.ajol.info/journals/jcerp) Abstract
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Agwata, JF, Abwao P.  2007.  Socioeconomic and Environmental Concerns of Water Resources Management in Kenya with Particular focus on the Tana Basin.. : Waswa, F., Otor, S., Olukoye, G. & Mugendi, D. (Editors), Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya, Volume II, School of Environmental Studies and Human Sciences, Kenyatta University. PP 209-223, ISBN 9966-776-34-6 Abstract
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Agwata, JF.  2007.  Implications of Climate Change on Water Resources in Kenya and Adaptation Options.. : Boga, H. I., Obudho, P. A., Agwata, J. F., et al., (Editors), The Principle of Sustainability: An Interdisciplinary View, Kenya DAAD Scholars Association, Nairobi. PP 196-201, ISBN 9966-923-41-1 Abstract
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2006

Agwata, JF.  2006.  Causes of Forest loss and Suggestions on Forest Conservation and Protection in Kenya. : First Joint Environmental Research Seminar, Stanley Hotel, Nairobi, 12th June 2006 Abstract
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2005

Agwata, JF.  2005.  Water Management in the Tana Basin of Kenya: Potential Conflicts and Interventions.. : Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol., 2(2): 69-74. ISSN 0972-9860 Abstract
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Agwata, JF.  2005.  Water Resources Utilization, Conflicts and Interventions in the Tana Basin of Kenya.. : Forsch, G., Thiemann, S. & Winnege, R. (Editors), Abstract
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