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Obadiah N'ang'a, George N, W K, Abungu NO. An experimental Prototype for Low Head Small Hydro Power Generation Using Hydram.. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology(JKUAT): JKUAT; 2012. Abstractjkuat_conference_paper.pdf

The global rise in energy demand has resulted to the over exploitation of both renewable and non renewable energy sources. Most feasible hydroelectric power (HEP) plants sites have been exploited and the current focus is on harnessing energy from small HEP plants which have low head and flow velocity rendering them unsuitable for HEP generation. Previous research work focused on improving the turbine shape and efficiency; designing better water intake, improving the generator and development of turbines suitable for low heads. The main aim of this research was to optimize the power generated by low head small hydro plants through the use of hydraulic ram pump (hydram) to boost the water pressure before it impinges on the turbine. In the current work, a smallHEP prototype system was designed fabricated and test runs conducted. The prototype comprised of; a low head water reservoir, a hydraulic ram pump which was used to increase the head of the water emanating from a low head source, a high head reservoir mounted at a the most optimal height based on the hydram flow rate and pressure considerations and a double cup pelton wheel turbine suitably designed to extract power from the water jet. A drive pipe was used to connect thehydram pump to the low head reservoir while the delivery pipe connected the pump to the high head reservoir. Water from the high head reservoir was used to turn the pelton turbine which was coupled to a generator. The flow rate in the drive pipe and the delivery pipe as well as the pressurein the hydram were optimized by adjusting the waste valve stroke length. It was observed that the hydram was able to pump water to a higher head which then increased the power produced by the turbine.

Ireri TG, Abungu NO. "An Efficient Method of Load Forecasting for Non-Working Days.". In: Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Kenya Society of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (KSEEE); 2012. Abstract

Power utility companies are required to supply customers with power within specified voltage limits. Voltage rise in networks with distributed generators therefore poses a challenge. This paper presents a coordinated network controller whose objective is to maintain an optimal voltage profile across the power network. The operations of distributed generators, on-load tap-changing transformers and reactive power sources are controlled. The controller is modelled as an optimisation problem which is solved using Particle Swarm Optimisation. The IEEE 30-bus test network is then used to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The results obtained show that this controller can greatly improve the voltage profile of a power network by varying the parameters of existing generation and voltage control equipment.

C KJ, O AN. "Effects of Distributed Generation penetration on system power losses and voltage profiles." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(12):1-8. Abstractijsrp-p24585.pdf

In present times, the use of DG systems in large amounts in different power distribution systems has become very popular and is growing on with fast speed. Although it is considered that DG reduces losses and improves system voltage profile, this paper shows that this is not always true. The paper presents a GA-IPSO based approach which utilizes combined sensitivity factor analogy to optimally locate and size a multi-type DG in IEEE 57-bus test system with the aim of reducing power losses and improving the voltage profile. The multi-type DG can operate as; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power). It further shows that though the system losses are reduced and the voltage profile improved with the location of the first DG, as the number of DGs increases this is not the case. It reaches a point where any further increase in number of DGs in the network results to an increase in power losses and a distortion in voltage profile.

Charlese JK, Abungu DNO. "Effect of Distributed Generation Penetration on System Power Losses and Voltage Profiles." IInternational Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(ISSN 2250-3153).j._kilonzi_and_dr._abungu_2.pdf

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